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Harris William S - - 2008
The extent to which higher intakes of linoleic acid (LA) affect risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is examined by reviewing a wide variety of study types, mostly in humans. In experimental studies, LA has been shown to lower serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), especially when substituted for ...
Kassab Asma - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We aimed to establish the relationship between glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), hypertension and microalbuminuria onset in type 2 diabetes. We also intended to ascertain the metabolic action of homocysteine on LDL fatty acids and on renal function. METHODS: The study was carried out on 200 patients with type 2 diabetes ...
Masuda Daisaku - - 2009
The clustering of risk factors including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension is highly atherogenic along with the excess of remnants from triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. CD36 is involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in muscles and small intestines. Patients with CD36 deficiency (CD36-D) have postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and ...
Barter Philip - - 2008
Combination therapy for the treatment of dyslipidemia and reduction of cardiovascular risk has been demonstrated to beneficially modify the lipid profile in multiple randomized clinical trials. As reported in the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol remains the primary treatment target, although ...
Devlin Cecilia M - - 2008
The key initial step in atherogenesis is the subendothelial retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Acid sphingomyelinase (acid SMase), an enzyme present extracellularly within the arterial wall, strongly enhances lipoprotein retention in model systems in vitro, and retained lipoproteins in human plaques are enriched in ceramide, a product of SMase. We ...
Annangudi Suresh P - - 2008
( E)-4-Hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE), an electrophilic bifunctional cytotoxic lipid peroxidation product, forms covalent adducts with nucleophilic side chains of amino acid residues. HNE-derived adducts have been implicated in many pathophysiological processes including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Tritium- and deuterium-labeled HNE ( d 4-HNE) were used orthogonally to study adduction with ...
Reis Pedro - - 2008
Tensiometry (the pendant drop technique), interfacial shear rheology, and ellipsometry have been used to study the effect of polar lipids that are generated during fat digestion on the behavior of lipases at the oil-water interface. Both Sn-1,3 regiospecific and nonregiospecific lipases have been used, and a noncatalytically active protein, beta-lacloglobulin, ...
Nguyen P - - 2008
The liver plays a key role in lipid metabolism. Depending on species it is, more or less, the hub of fatty acid synthesis and lipid circulation through lipoprotein synthesis. Eventually the accumulation of lipid droplets into the hepatocytes results in hepatic steatosis, which may develop as a consequence of multiple ...
Vega Gloria Lena - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Because dietary N-3 fatty acids reduce plasma triglycerides, they may also decrease hepatic triglyceride content. If so, N-3 fatty acids might constitute a therapy for fatty liver. METHODS: Twenty-two subjects were recruited into a study designed to test the effects of N-3 fatty acids on liver fat content. Seventeen ...
López Diego - - 2008
In spite of their high oxidisability, long-chain n-3 PUFA protect against CVD. Dietary fatty acids modulate the fatty acid composition of lipoproteins involved in atherosclerosis. We thought that if long-chain n-3 PUFA were able to increase NO production by the aorta, then by its antioxidant activity the NO will prevent ...
Bays Harold - - 2008
Very high triglyceride (TG) levels may cause pancreatitis. Elevated TG levels are also often, but not always, a risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the oil of fish and other seafood that, when consumed, lower TG levels and reduce the ...
Garrido-Sánchez L - - 2008
Oxidative modification of LDL is thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Susceptibility of LDL to peroxidation may partly depend on the compositional characteristics of the antioxidant and fatty acid content. The aim of this study was to examine the association between levels of antibodies to ...
Aronis Anna - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Triacylglycerols (TGs) are being considered as an independent risk factor in atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome, acting by dysregulation of the TG/high-density lipoprotein axis. Accumulation of lipids in subendothelial space attracts macrophages, leading to atherosclerotic plaque formation and increased plaque instability due to formation of foam cells and macrophage death. ...
Adiels Martin - - 2008
After recently being recognized as a feature of the metabolic syndrome, fatty liver has evolved as a key player in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia. Development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease comes from an imbalance between the influx and production of fatty acids and the use of fatty acids for oxidation ...
Rosenson Robert S - - 2008
PURPOSE: Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is an emerging cardiovascular risk marker. After low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, Lp-PLA(2) generates oxidized nonesterified fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine, both of which have demonstrated proinflammatory and proapoptotic activities. Through the use of a selective inhibitor of Lp-PLA(2) (SB-677116), we investigated whether Lp-PLA(2) participates in ...
Seidah Nabil G - - 2008
The mammalian secretory proprotein convertases are part of a family of nine serine proteinases of the subtilisin-type. Seven of them cleave after basic amino acids and are called PC1/3, PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, PACE4 and PC7. The two other convertases SKI-1/S1P and PCSK9 are implicated in cholesterol and/or fatty acid ...
Kolovou Genovefa D - - 2008
Hypertriglyceridemia is observed in many metabolic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, or mixed dyslipidemia frequently leading to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Additionally, several studies have shown that postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is pronounced in patients with CHD, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other pathologic conditions. The triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnants ...
Dullens Stefan P J - - 2008
Policosanol is a mixture of long-chain primary aliphatic saturated alcohols. Previous studies in humans and animals have shown that these compounds improved lipoprotein profiles. However, more-recent placebo-controlled studies could not confirm these promising effects. Octacosanol (C28), the main component of sugarcane-derived policosanol, is assumed to be the bioactive component. This ...
Sabin Matthew A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the major constituent of nonesterified fatty acids in children with respect to auxologic parameters, insulin sensitivity, and lipid levels, because nonesterified fatty acid levels are elevated in obesity and are important in the development of comorbidities. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were ...
Lee Jee - - 2007
Under normal circumstances, most energy substrate used for heart contraction derives from fatty acids in the form of nonesterified fatty acids bound to albumin or fatty acids derived from lipolysis of lipoprotein-bound triglyceride by lipoprotein lipase (LpL). By creating LpL knockout mice (hLpL0), we learned that loss of cardiac LpL ...
Spiller David A - - 2008
We investigated how temporal variation in rainfall influences the impact of lizards on spiders inhabiting small islands in Abaco, Bahamas. Annual censuses of web spiders were conducted on nine lizard islands and on eight no-lizard islands 1994-2003. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that annual variation in spider density (time) and in the ...
Fuentes Gloria - - 2007
Transesterification of sucrose with fatty acids catalyzed by subtilisin Carlsberg occurs with regioselectivity that is different from that in lipases. Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL) and Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) catalyze synthesis at positions 6 and 6', with differing abilities, while subtilisin catalysis leads to the 1'-acylated sucrose. The catalytic ...
Shariff Fairolniza Mohd - - 2007
A thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain L2 was isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. An extracellular lipase activity was detected through plate and broth assays at 70 degrees C after 28 h of incubation. The L2 lipase production was growth dependent as revealed by a number of factors ...
Maiyoh Geoffrey K - - 2007
The cardioprotective effect of consuming cruciferous vegetables may be attributed to a number of unique indole-based compounds. We investigated the potential role and mechanism of action of an indole-based compound, indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C), on apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) production using HepG2 cells. I-3-C reduced apoB secretion into the media dose dependently by ...
Chen Wei - - 2007
The catalytic activities of FexPt100-x alloy nanoparticles at different compositions (x=10, 15, 42, 54, 58, and 63) in the electro-oxidation of formic acid have been investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was observed that the electrocatalytic performance was strongly dependent on the FePt ...
Nelson Robert H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, primarily chylomicrons, can contribute to plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations via spillover of fatty acids during intravascular hydrolysis into the venous effluent of some tissues. The present study was undertaken to determine whether spillover occurs in the splanchnic bed of humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Arterial ...
Natella Fausta - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and intervention studies indicate that both diet as a whole and single dietary components are involved in the risk of atherosclerosis. The resistance of LDL to oxidative modification is an ex vivo indicator of risk, which is modulated by dietary components. Coffee contains phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. ...
Polozova Alla - - 2007
We conducted a study aimed at a direct comparison of the plasma dynamics and uptake of docosahexaenoic (DHA) and oleic (OA) fatty acids by various organs. 14C-DHA and 3H-OA were intravenously co-injected into mice. At 5 min after injection, more than 40% of the 14C-DHA, but less than 20% of ...
McMullen Roger L - - 2007
The conformational and dynamical properties of Langmuir monolayers of 18-methyleicosanoic acid (18-MEA) and the parent material, eicosanoic acid (EA), are compared using molecular dynamics simulations. The effects on various properties, including film thickness, tilt angle, and order parameter, of the methyl group at the 18 position in 18-MEA were investigated ...
Zák Ales - - 2007
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined by the clustering of several components (MSC), which include abdominal fat accumulation, impaired glucose homeostasis, hypertriglyceridemia, lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased blood pressure, and hyperuricemia. Metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by increased oxidative stress and inflammation as well as by altered composition of esterified fatty ...
Kovár J - - 2008
The apolipoprotein A-V (apo A-V) plays an important role in regulation of triglyceride (TG) concentration in serum. To better understand how apo A-V affects triglyceridemia and glucoregulation, the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was determined using intravenous fat tolerance test (IVFTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed in carriers ...
Das Undurti N - - 2008
Lowering plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), blood pressure, homocysteine, and preventing platelet aggregation using a combination of a statin, three blood pressure lowering drugs such as a thiazide, a beta blocker, and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor each at half standard dose; folic acid; and aspirin - called as ...
Malinowski Jennifer M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in a patient taking fish oil supplements for hypertriglyceridemia. CASE SUMMARY: A 63-year-old white woman had been taking 2.7 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily in 9 g of over-the-counter (OTC) fish oil capsules ...
Hodson Leanne - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine differences in the postprandial contributions of different fatty acid sources to VLDL triglycerides (TGs) in healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Insulin-resistant (n = 11) and insulin-sensitive (n = 11) men and women (n = 6) were ...
Slaveykova Vera I - - 2007
In order to better understand the relationship between lead speciation and its bioavailability in natural waters, the interactions between Pb(II), fulvic acid and the freshwater alga, Chlorella kesslerii were studied at various algal cell densities. An increase in cellular lead or fulvic acid adsorbed to algae was observed with decrease ...
Sezer Ebru Demirel - - 2007
Although there is a large body of evidence on the main role of red wine in protection of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation, there are few data on the role of pomegranate juice, which has high phenolic content. We conducted this study considering the possible importance of pomegranate wine as ...
Rosenson Robert S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fenofibrate (160 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipoproteins, oxidized fatty acids, and inflammatory mediators in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia and the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifty-nine subjects with fasting hypertriglyceridemia (> or = 1.7 and < 6.9 ...
Neff Laurence - - 2007
Macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) was originally reported to be a chlamydial lipoprotein from experiments showing incorporation of radiolabeled palmitic acid into native and recombinant MIP; inhibition of posttranslational processing of recombinant MIP by globomycin, known to inhibit signal peptidase II; and solubility of native MIP in Triton X-114. However, the ...
Mensink R P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that trans fatty acids have unfavorable effects on the serum lipoprotein profile. In general, however, fats were compared with different functional characteristics, which lower the practical applications of the results. OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this study was to compare the effects of a high-palmitic ...
Nelson Robert H - - 2007
The action of lipoprotein lipase on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins generates fatty acids that are either transported into tissues or mix with circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) via a process known as spillover. In the present study, arterial, portal vein, and hepatic vein sampling catheters were surgically placed in nine mongrel dogs. ...
Rodríguez M - - 2007
Coating a silica surface with the isolated lipoprotein receptor proteoheparan sulfate (HS-PG) from arterial endothelium and vascular matrices and adding both the atherogenic VLDL/IDL/LDL lipid fraction in its native composition and Ca(2+) ions, we could observe in vitro the earliest stages of atherosclerotic plaque development by ellipsometric techniques (patent EP ...
Hsieh Chiu-Lan - - 2007
Using the low-density lipoprotein (LDL), collagen, and thrombin models, we report here that the rosemary extracts (REs), either the aqueous (REw) or the acetonic (REA), all possessed many antiglycation-related features, and the effective concentrations required were as follows: 0.1 mg/mL for suppressing the relative electrophoretic mobility, 1.3 microg/mL for anticonjugated ...
Yu Jun - - 2007
Dietary model of steatohepatitis was established by feeding mice a methionine choline deficient (MCD) diet. Mice on MCD or control diet for 3 weeks were treated with or without NO-1886, a newly synthetic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activator. In a separate experiment, NO-1886 was given after pre-treatment with 3 weeks of ...
Huusko Tuija J - - 2007
Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an aberrant phospholipid formed in vivo only in the presence of ethanol. In circulation PEth is associated with lipoproteins and is transferred from one lipoprotein to another. Lipoprotein-associated PEth affects endothelial and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, but its effects on other cell types have not ...
Armand Martine - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review evaluates current knowledge of the different lipases catalyzing triglyceride lipolysis in the human digestive tract, focusing on their mode of action - information useful for developing strategies to regulate the bioavailability of fatty acid. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal levels of digestive lipases promote efficient triglyceride lipolysis ...
Rashid Imran - - 2007
Glycation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by reactive aldehydes, such as glycolaldehyde, can result in the cellular accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages. In this study, it is shown that carnosine, or its constituent amino acids beta-alanine and l-histidine, can inhibit the modification of LDL by glycolaldehyde when present at equimolar concentrations ...
Nelson Robert H - - 2007
Animal studies indicate that oversupply of fatty acids derived from the action of cardiac lipoprotein lipase (LPL) on plasma lipoproteins may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. However, the contribution of circulating triglycerides to myocardial fatty acid supply in humans is not known. Six postabsorptive nondiabetic subjects who were scheduled for diagnostic ...
Socha Piotr - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Infants with chronic cholestasis may require parenteral nutrition with lipid emulsions to provide energy and essential fatty acids but the optimal strategy is controversial. METHODS: We studied the effects of parenteral lipid emulsions with long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs) or a mixture of LCTs and medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs/LCTs) on serum bilirubin ...
Crnolatac Ivo - - 2007
Previous studies have shown that hypericin is an excellent diagnostic tool for the fluorescence detection of carcinoma in situ in the human bladder. The present work was performed to get a better insight into the mechanism of cellular uptake of hypericin (HYP) using RT-112 human papillary TCC cells of the ...
McEneny Jane - - 2007
Raised total homocysteine (tHcy) levels may be involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease and can lead to damage of vascular endothelial cells and arterial wall matrix. Folic acid supplementation can help negate these detrimental effects by reducing tHcy. Recent evidence has suggested an additional anti-atherogenic property of folate in ...
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