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Watson A D - - 1997
Entry of monocytes into the vessel wall is an important event in atherogenesis. Previous studies from our laboratory suggest that oxidized arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids present in mildly oxidized low density lipoproteins (MM-LDL) can activate endothelial cells to bind monocytes. In this study, biologically active oxidized arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids were produced ...
Lohse P - - 1997
Human lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolase (HLAL), human gastric lipase (HGL), and rat lingual lipase (RLL) constitute a family of mammalian lipases characterized by an acidic pH optimum. HGL and RLL are secreted by the chief cells of the stomach and by the serous von Ebner's glands of the tongue, ...
Carvajal O - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. ...
Schaefer E J - - 1997
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States and other countries. To reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, dietary saturated fat and cholesterol should be reduced. This section of the workshop included a discussion of pragmatic issues associated with translating complex scientific information on ...
Aro A - - 1997
To compare the effects on serum lipoproteins of stearic acid, trans fatty acids, and dairy fat, 80 healthy subjects consumed a dairy fat-based (baseline) diet for 5 wk, then an experimental diet high in either trans fatty acids (8.7% of energy; n = 40) or stearic acid (9.3% of energy; ...
Mallampalli R K - - 1997
Surfactant synthesis is critically dependent on the availability of fatty acids. One fatty acid source may be circulating triglycerides that are transported in VLDL, and hydrolyzed to free fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). To evaluate this hypothesis, we incubated immortalized or primary rat alveolar pre-type II epithelial cells with ...
Rodríguez-Malaver A J - - 1997
The amplification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation in vitro by copper and myoglobin are well-studied biochemical approaches for investigating the oxidative modification of LDL and its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Since the acidity of the environment is increased in inflammatory sites, the aim of this study was to ...
Massey J B - - 1997
The kinetics of transfer of natural and fluorescent nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lysolecithins (lysoPC) from phospholipid and protein surfaces were measured. The kinetics of transfer of 12-(1-pyrenyl)dodecanoic acid, from liquid crystalline and gel phase single unilamellar phospholipid vesicles, very low, low, and high density lipoproteins, human serum albumin, and ...
Zechner R - - 1997
The dual function of lipoprotein lipase as a triglyceride hydrolase and a ligand/bridging factor for receptor-mediated lipoprotein uptake implies an important role of the enzyme in the distribution of fatty acids and lipoproteins among extrahepatic tissues. Observations in humans and, more recently, in several induced mutant mouse strains have provided ...
Yamanaka N - - 1997
The effects of caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CHA), an ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid, were studied on isolated human Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in initiation and propagation phases by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), detecting conjugated diene and investigating the ...
Pannala A S - - 1997
Peroxynitrite is a cytotoxic species generated by the reaction between superoxide and nitric oxide. The ability of catechins and their gallate esters to decrease peroxynitrite-induced nitration of tyrosine and to limit surface charge alteration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was investigated. All compounds tested were found to be potent peroxynitrite ...
Sundram K - - 1997
Although dietary trans fatty acids can affect plasma lipoproteins negatively in humans, no direct comparison with specific saturated fatty acids has been reported, even though trans fatty acids were designed to replace saturates in foods and food processing. In this study, dietary trans 18:1 [elaidic acid at 5.5% energy (en)] ...
Zock P L - - 1997
Most dietary fatty acids contain at least one double bond, which is usually in the cis configuration. However, biohydrogenation in the rumen of cows and sheep, or catalytic hydrogenation of vegetable oils in the food industries, will convert some of the cis double bonds to the trans configuration. Trans fatty ...
Sevanian A - - 1997
A subclass of LDL described on the basis of its greater electronegativity and oxidative status is further characterized using a new, highly sensitive single photon counting technique to measure lipid hydroperoxides. We describe in this report that these particles, which we refer to as LDL-, are enriched in lipid peroxides ...
Yan L J - - 1997
To determine whether lipid peroxidation is required for apolipoprotein B (apoB) carbonyl formation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) during copper-mediated oxidation, we investigated oxidation of native and probucol-preloaded LDL by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and apoB carbonyls. Probucol was used because it is known to inhibit lipid peroxidation, but ...
Corso G - - 1997
Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated in atherogenesis. An increased content of oleic acid in LDL and the substitution of monounsaturated for polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet reduce LDL oxidation. With 1H-NMR analysis, all LDL modifications, including the production of copper-induced aldehyde products, can be evaluated ...
Stahmann K P - - 1997
Ashbya gossypii can grow on triacyglycerol as carbon source. A degradation rate of 0.05 g x g-1 mycelial dry mass x h-1 was detected for soybean oil. Although this rate was within the sensitivity range of lipase assays no activity was detectable. On the other hand, extracellular lipase activity could ...
Pai T - - 1997
Stearic acid as compared to myristate, palmitate, or oleate is poorly incorporated into triacylglycerol, a major lipid component of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). The present study investigated the effects of these fatty acids on VLDL metabolism in cultured rat hepatocytes. All fatty acids stimulated [2-3H] glycerol incorporation into VLDL ...
Hurt-Camejo E - - 1997
Secretory nonpancreatic type II phospholipase A2 (snpPLA2) hydrolyzes fatty acids at the sn-2 position in phospholipids releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) and lysophospholipids. These products may act as intracellular second messengers or can be further metabolized into proinflammatory lipid mediators. The presence of snpPLA2 in extracellular fluids and serum during ...
Fults K A - - 1997
These studies assess the quantity and morphology of the emitted aerosolized dose of irregularly shaped disodium cromoglycate particles in the fine particle fraction using in vitro methods. Disodium cromoglycate was treated with a homologous series of saturated fatty acids, between C8 and C18, in a range of concentrations. The products ...
Kveder M - - 1997
The LDL and VLDL were spin labeled with Tempo which partitions both in the aqueous and lipid phase. The ESR spectra were measured in the equilibrium state as well as during the reduction of the spin label with ascorbic acid. The kinetics of the concentration decay curves was parametrized with ...
Tronel H - - 1997
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are recognized to be involved in atherosclerosis development. Since the plasma oxidized LDL assay is inadequate because of the short half-lives of LDLs, measurement of the in vitro ability of LDLs to generate lipoperoxides (LDL-GLs) has been preferred. The present study displays a profile of LDL-GLs ...
Holland J A - - 1997
The effects of arachidonic acid metabolism and NADPH oxidase inhibitor on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and endocytotic activity of cultured human endothelial cells (EC) exposed to atherogenic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels have been investigated. EC were incubated with 240 mg/dl LDL cholesterol and cellular H2O2 production and endocytotic activity ...
Moers A - - 1997
Several studies showed a diminished production of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO) in the early stage of atherosclerosis. The inhibition of NO-production seems to be mediated by lipoproteins, especially oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL). There is some evidence, that the interactions of lipoproteins and NO are associated with the ...
Jira W - - 1996
The content of hydroxy fatty acids in low density lipoprotein (LDL) of healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 87 years without any signs of atherosclerosis or other age-dependent diseases was investigated. The level of hydroxy fatty acids obtained from LDL increases during life time: clinically healthy persons between 56 and ...
Seppänen-Laakso T - - 1996
Octadecenoic (18:1) trans-fatty acid fractions from margarine, butter and plasma phospholipids (PL) were isolated by silver ion TLC, and nine positional isomers (n-11-n-3) were identified by GC-MS based on their ozonolysis products. The GC analysis of the isolated fractions gave similar peak profiles and separated seven trans-isomers (n-11-n-6 and n-3). ...
Kreuzer J - - 1996
Monocyte migration into the vessel wall is an early step in atherogenesis. Even though a number of chemotactic factors have been identified, the regulation of the chemotactic response is not clearly understood. As the release of arachidonic acid has been implicated in monocyte chemotaxis, we studied the influence of LDL, ...
Tang W H - - 1996
The aim of the present study was to investigate predisposing factors that lead to the formation of gallstones. In a group of 70 patients (51 with gallstones and 19 without, 20 possible risk factors were studied: percent of ideal body weight, the presence of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and in ...
Sattler W - - 1996
A simple, accurate, and fast procedure for quantitative analysis of fatty acids (FA) in simple lipid subclasses from different biological specimens is presented. Lipid extracts of isolated plasma lipoproteins (very low, low, and high density lipoproteins; VLDL, LDL, and HDL, respectively) and permanent J774 mouse macrophages were fractionated into lipid ...
Ramsay T G - - 1996
The adipocyte is a metabolically active cell that functions to store energy for times of energy deprivation or enhanced need. Obesity is characterized by increased lipid accumulation and turnover compared with the nonobese state. Both triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis are regulated metabolic processes in the adipocyte. Current research on the ...
Byrne C D - - 1996
To investigate whether there were associations between the free fatty acid (FFA) response during a fat tolerance test and changes in concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins 57 healthy Caucasian men between 57 and 70 years of age underwent a fat tolerance test lasting 8 h. FFA concentrations initially decreased from 0.75 ...
Toborek M - - 1996
Injury or dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is one of the first events in the development of atherosclerosis. Individual lipids, e.g. fatty acids or lipoproteins, are among the most critical factors which may induce injury to the endothelium. Selected fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, can disrupt endothelial barrier function ...
Groener J E - - 1996
Low density lipoprotein cholesteryl [14C]oleate (LDL-[14C]CO) was used as a tool to label lysosomes with cholesteryl [14C]oleate (CO) and to follow subsequently the metabolic processing of oleic acid released by acid lipase. Liberated [14C]oleate was incorporated into glycerolipids, mainly into phosphatidylcholine. Incubations in the presence of various concentrations of exogenously ...
Abu-Amsha R - - 1996
1. An antioxidant effect of phenolic substances in red wine to reduce oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein has been proposed as the basis for a relatively lower incidence of coronary disease in populations with high red wine intake. We have now investigated the possible antioxidant effects of various beverages, including red ...
Tertov V V - - 1996
The sialic acid content of electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL) and LDL isolated from human aortic intima was measured. Sialic acid level in electronegative LDL of healthy subjects was 1.7-fold lower than in native LDL. Sialic acid content in electronegative LDL of coronary atherosclerosis patients was 3-fold lower than in ...
Berlin E - - 1996
Dietary saturated fatty acids, especially lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and palmitic (16:0) acids, which are hypercholesterolemic, influence cell membrane fatty acid composition and affect LDL receptor function. When membrane phospholipid fatty acids in Chinese hamster ovary cells, containing the human LDL receptor, were modified (Hannah J. S. et al., 1995 ...
Mukherjee M - - 1996
The effect of incubation of plasma with lipoprotein lipase on factor VII coagulant (FVII:C) activity was examined in 40 patients, 22 male and 18 female, aged 28 to 77 years, with history of venographically proven deep venous thrombosis (DVT). While the mean (+/-SEM) FVII:C activity of the 40 patients was ...
Viens L - - 1996
Low density lipoproteins (LDL) were modified in vitro in the presence of lipid transfer activity and lipolysis, which induced alterations in the size and lipid composition of LDL particles but not in their antioxidant content. Subsequently, modified LDL were oxidized with copper sulfate and the extent of LDL oxidation was ...
Hughes T A - - 1996
This project was designed to test the hypothesis that long-chain saturated fatty acids (myristate, palmitate, and stearate) are metabolized differently in human subjects, and that these differences may therefore account for the changes in plasma lipoprotein composition when these fatty acids are altered in the diet. Ethyl esters of each ...
Lavallée B - - 1996
In addition to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate (S), the human plasma also contains a second form of DHEA ester: DHEA-fatty acid esters (DHEA-FA). In the human adult, the plasma concentrations of DHEA-FA, DHEA and DHEAS are in the range of 6, 12 and 2000 nM respectively. Although the adrenal is responsible ...
Arranz M I - - 1996
Liver damage and alterations in the exocrine function of the gland lead to a profound alteration of the plasma lipoprotein profile. To determine whether hepatic disease results in changes in the lipoprotein fatty acid composition, i.e. to determine whether liver function influences the homeostasis of complex lipids in plasma, we ...
Suzukawa M - - 1996
We have investigated possible mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acid-enriched macrophages enhance the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the ability of antioxidant vitamins to prevent this. Macrophages were enriched with n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) following incubation with fish oil. These macrophages produced ...
Khosla P - - 1996
Trans fatty acids (t-FA) are geometrical isomers of unsaturated fatty acids that assume a saturated fatty acid-like configuration. Human diets contain t-FA derived from animal sources (e.g., dairy products and ruminant meats), but most are supplied by products containing industrially hydrogenated vegetable oils (e.g., margarines, shortenings and baked goods). Typical ...
Bell J D - - 1996
The effects of fish oil supplementation (14.5 g n-3 fatty acids/day) on plasma lipoprotein particles in healthy volunteers were assessed by high resolution 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Resonances not previously observed in the 13C and 1H spectra of plasma and isolated lipoproteins were detected after fish ...
Nishimura M - - 1996
We examined the mesenteric lymphatic and portal venous transport of triglyceride (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), apolipoproteins (apo)A-IV and B in response to a bolus duodenal infusion of a TG-free control solution, and long-chain (18:1) and medium-chain (8:0) TG (LCT and MCT, respectively) emulsions in the rat. Additionally, intestinal and ...
Gonzalez-Vallina R - - 1996
The aim of these studies was to characterize the synthesis and secretion of lipoproteins and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and apo A-I by a newborn swine intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). Differentiated cells exhibited enterocytic features, including microvilli. [3H] oleic acid was taken up and incorporated into cellular lipids and ...
Bird D A - - 1996
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), esterification products of ethanol and fatty acids, have been implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage. After ethanol ingestion in humans, FAEE circulate in blood, bound to lipoproteins and albumin. We have analyzed the binding of ethyl (1-13C, 99%) oleate (EO) to small unilamellar phospholipid ...
Castelluccio C - - 1996
The hydroxycinnamates, intermediates in the phenylpropanoid synthetic pathway, are effective in enhancing the resistance of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation in the order caffeic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. It is unclear whether the mode of action of ferulic acid as an antioxidant is based on its activities ...
Mowri H O - - 1996
Hepatic lipase has a demonstrated dual role in plasma lipid transport in that it participates in the removal of remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the circulation and in the metabolism of plasma HDL. The study presented here investigated the substrate properties for hepatic lipase of HDL differing in density and ...
Aarsland A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of propranolol on peripheral lipolysis in massively burned children during treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), and to ascertain whether decreased free fatty acid availability for re-esterification would alter the hepatic rate of secretion of triglycerides (TGs) bound ...
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