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Results 401 - 450 of 1326
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Shkel Irina A - - 2010
An accurate analytical expression for the Coulombic free energy of DNA as a function of salt concentration ([salt]) is essential in applications to nucleic acid (NA) processes. The cylindrical model of DNA and the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann (NLPB) equation for ions in solution are among the simplest approaches capable of describing ...
Carvalho S A - - 2010
The use of fungal and yeast biomass in foodstuff, either as supplements or as major ingredients in formulations is an area of growing interest for the modern food industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of biomasses obtained from filamentous fungi Penicillium sclerotiorum, Penicillium janthinellum, ...
Neubig Richard R - - 2010
Many pharmacological agents include "inactive" constituents that are used to alter the solubility, stability, or pharmaceutical properties of a drug. These "salts" are often ignored, and the "active ingredient" gets all of the attention. Pamoic acid (4-[(3-carboxy-2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methyl]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid) has been used in formulations of several drugs as pamoate salts. This ...
Yin Yong-Gen - - 2010
Salt stress improves the quality of tomato fruits. To clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, we investigated metabolic alterations in tomato fruits exposed to 160 mM salt, focusing on metabolism of organic acids related to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Quantitative analyses revealed that most amino ...
Becker Lillian C - - 2010
This report addresses the safety of the inorganic salts and esters of various fatty alcohols of myristic acid. Most of the esters are used as skin conditioning agents in many types of cosmetics in a range of concentrations. Myristate esters are readily hydrolyzed to the corresponding alcohols and acids, which ...
Tomillero A - - 2010
A-3309, Abobotulinumtoxin A, Adalimumab, AIDSVAX gp120 B/E, ALVAC E120TMG, Atorvastatin calcium; Bepridil, Bevacizumab; Candesartan cilexetil, Capecitabine, Cetuximab, Clopidogrel; Dapagliflozin, Dasatinib, Denosumab, Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride, Diacetylmorphine, Diannexin, Docetaxel, Dutasteride; Entecavir, Eplerenone, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Fesoterodine fumarate, Flagellin.HuM2e, Fluzone; Glimepiride/rosiglitazone maleate; Hyaluronic acid-paclitaxel bioconjugate; IDX-184, Imatinib mesylate, Infliximab, Insulin glargine, ...
Elder David P - - 2010
The issue of controlling genotoxic impurities in novel active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is a significant challenge. Much of the current regulatory concern, has been focused on the formation and control of genotoxic sulfonate esters. This is linked with the withdrawal of Viracept (Nefinavir mesilate) from European markets in mid-2007, over ...
Tomillero A - - 2010
[¹¹C]RAC; (18)F-Fluoromisonidazole; 89-12; 9-[¹⁸F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine; Adalimumab, Adecatumumab, ADMVA, ADXS-11-001, Aflibercept, Agatolimod sodium, AGS-004, Alglucosidase alfa, Aliskiren fumarate, Alvocidib hydrochloride, AMG-108, AMG-853, Apixaban, Aripiprazole, Armodafinil, Atazanavir sulfate, Atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BioMatrix Flex drug eluting stent, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Caspofungin acetate, Cediranib, Cetuximab, ChimeriVax-Dengue, Choriogonadotropin alfa, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cizolirtine citrate, Clofarabine, ...
Das Bhaskar C - - 2010
Organocatalytic domino oxa-Michael/aldol reactions between salicylaldehyde with electron deficient olefins are presented. We screened guanidine, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and L-pipecolinic acid as organocatalysts for this transformation. 3-Substituted 2-phenyl-2H-chromene derivatives are synthesized with high yields and with poor enantioselectivity (5-17% ee) using L-pipecolinic acid while TMG works well with cinnamaldehyde without using ...
Tomillero A - - 2010
O(6)-Benzylguanine; (-)-Gossypol; Abatacept, AC-2592, Adalimumab, AIDSVAX gp120 B/E, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, ALVAC E120TMG, Ambrisentan, Amlodipine, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, Armodafinil, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Avotermin; Bevacizumab, BIBW-2992, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B; Canakinumab, CAT-354, Ciclesonide, CMV gB vaccine, Corifollitropin alfa, Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Denosumab; EndoTAG-1, Eplerenone, Esomeprazole sodium, Eszopiclone, Etoricoxib, Everolimus, Exenatide, ...
Turner David C - - 2010
We have applied a molecular dynamics (MD) method to investigate the aggregation behavior and physicochemical properties of bile salt as well as bile salt/fatty acid mixed micelles. Local atomic density profiles from the center of the micelles confirm that the self-assembly of the trihydroxy bile salt, glycocholate, is largely driven ...
Matsumura Fumiko - - 2010
Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid salts of tertiary amines were employed as extremely mild acidic activators for rapid glycosylations. Glycosyl phosphite triesters bearing an acid-labile 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMTr) group for transient protection worked as glycosyl donors effectively in the presence of the activators to afford the corresponding disaccharides in good yields without loss of ...
Diskin Charles J - - 2010
Although it was first described over a quarter of a century ago, the mechanisms behind the antimicrobial activity of fresh peritoneal dialysate have been poorly understood. Recent insight into the biochemistry appears to suggest that at least part of the effect resides in the salts of the carboxylic acids. An ...
Wang Qi-Fang - - 2010
An efficient synthetic procedure for the preparation of the unusual charge-separated pyridinium-Meldrum acid and N,N-dimethylbarbiturate acid zwitterionic salts was developed though a unique one-pot four-component reaction involving pyridine, aromatic aldehyde, Meldrum acid or N,N-dimethylbarbituric acid, and p-nitrobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. By varying combinations of four components involving nitrogen-containing heterocycles, we ...
She Dong-Mei - - 2010
The focus of this paper was to identify a cheaper solvent from among diesel fuel, kerosene, sulfolane or a mixture of sulfolane and cyclohexanol for the preparation of cyanuric acid heterocyclization of urea. To obtain a higher yield, the effects of catalyst (sodium, ammonium, calcium and zinc salts) and temperature ...
Milillo S R - - 2010
Salmonella-contaminated poultry products are considered major contributors to foodborne illness. The anti-Salmonella activity of organic acid salts has been studied in food products and poultry feed but rarely in combination with nonchemical treatments. Here, we investigated the combination of acidified organic acid salt solutions with thermal treatment as an effective ...
Roszol L - - 2010
The paper describes a new phenomenon discovered in the electrolytic analog of a semiconductor diode. As an example, the phenomenon is studied in the 0.1M KOH-0.1M HCl diode where the alkaline and the acidic reservoirs are connected by a hydrogel cylinder. First the traditional, so-called positive salt effect is discussed. ...
Sikorska Celina - - 2010
The explanation of the hypothetical HAlCl(4) acid instability is provided on the basis of theoretical considerations supported by ab initio calculations. The equilibrium structures of LiAlCl(4), NaAlCl(4), and KAlCl(4) salts were examined and compared to that of their corresponding parent acid. The process of formation of the representative NaAlCl(4) salt ...
Cao Xiaohong - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to achieve rapid improvement of the flavour of soy sauce by increasing the salt stress resistance of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Here, we describe genome shuffling to improve the salt tolerance of Z. rouxii while simultaneously enhancing and accelerating flavour formation of soy sauce. RESULTS: ...
Li Xiao-Juan - - 2010
Enhanced salt tolerance of rice seedlings by abscisic acid (ABA) pretreatment was observed from phenotypic and physiological analyses. Total proteins from rice roots treated with ABA plus subsequent salt stress were analyzed by using proteomics method. Results showed that, 40 protein spots were uniquely upregulated in the seedlings under the ...
Ebrecht Ana C - - 2010
The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of diverse chemical and thermal treatments usually used in dairy industries to control the number of virulent and temperate Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages. Two temperate (Cb1/204 and Cb1/342) and three virulent (BYM, YAB and Ib3) phages were studied. The thermal treatments ...
Yoshida Kohzo - - 2010
Organoammonium salts composed of a Brønsted acid and an anilinothiourea promoted the Michael addition of ß-keto esters and α,ß-unsaturated aldehydes in the presence of primary amines to give functionalized 1,4-dihydropyridines enantioselectively. With the use of the different Brønsted acids such as DFA and HBF(4) with the same bifunctional thiourea, both ...
Fukaya Fuminori - - 2010
Hitherto, the roles of specific amino acid residues of ChaA, one of three Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in Escherichia coli, in exchange activity have not been reported. Here we examined the role of acidic amino acid residues, Glu-85 and Glu-325, on the hydrophobic transmembrane domains. It was found that ChaA is involved ...
Kawase Tokuzo - - 2010
N-Acyl amino acids have been prepared from fatty acid chlorides and amino acids, but it may not be easy to vary the hydrophobic groups on the view point of availability. In this work, instead of acid halides, long alkyl chloroformates were prepared by the facile reaction of alcohols and triphosgene ...
Zhu Zhen - - 2010
The title compound, C(10)H(8)N(2)·2C(7)H(5)NO(4),was obtained unintentionally as the harvested product of the hydro-thermal reaction between Co(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O and 4,4'-bipyridine in the presence of 3-nitro-phthalic acid. In the reaction, 3-nitro-phthalic acid is transformed into 3-nitro-benzoic acid by an in situ deca-rboxylation reaction, in which the carboxyl-ate group is not deprotonated and is ...
Mukherjee S - - 2010
Alcohol appears to affect brain function, primarily by interfering with the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurotransmitters. As alcohol is mainly metabolized in the liver, therefore we undertook this pilot study to monitor the patterns of changes in plasma amino-acid concentrations due to alcoholic and nonalcohol fatty liver ...
Lin Yu-Chen - - 2009
A series of acridinium salt-based probes capable of detecting fluoride and acetate anions via a nucleophilic attack at the C9 position of the acridinium moiety is reported. The formation of corresponding acridane displays drastic changes, in both UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission. The sensing mechanism is a reversible process upon ...
Becker Lillian C - - 2009
Sodium picramate is the sodium salt of picramic acid, a substituted phenolic compound. Sodium picramate and picramic acid function as hair colorants; they are reportedly used in 31 and 3 hair-dye products, respectively. No concentration-of-use data were available for sodium picramate, but picramic acid was reported to be used at ...
Cornella Josep - - 2009
Catalytic amounts of Ag(I) salts in DMSO have been found to promote the protodecarboxylation of a wide variety of ortho-substituted benzoic acids under mild conditions and in excellent yields, highlighting a possible role for silver in decarboxylative cross-couplings.
Tripathi Bhumika - - 2010
Millets, being less expensive compared to cereals and the staple for the poorer sections of population, could be the choice for fortification with micronutrients such as zinc. In view of this, finger millet, widely grown and commonly consumed in southern India, was explored as a vehicle for fortification with zinc ...
Ozturk Sahlan - - 2010
BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: Polysaccharides are renewable resources representing an important class of polymeric materials of biotechnological interest, offering a wide variety of potentially useful products to mankind. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of microbial origin with a novel functionality, reproducible physico-chemical properties, stable cost and supply, became a better alternative to polysaccharides ...
Bonferoni Maria Cristina - - 2009
This review considers the application of chitosan and its salts in the delivery of drugs intended to act locally towards diseases of the mucosa itself (mucosal delivery), and to undergo systemic absorption by means of transmucosal routes (transmucosal delivery). Those chitosan properties that are particularly useful in mucosal and transmucosal ...
Gelfert C-C - - 2010
Eleven mature, non-lactating, non-pregnant, Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows were given, via a ruminal cannula, 2000mEq of one of three chloride salts, four sulfate salts, two combinations of anionic salts (AS), sodium chloride (as neutral salt), or water as control. The salts and controls were assigned in an 11x11 Latin square and ...
Wang Miao-Fen - - 2009
Coding of the complex tastes of ionic stimuli in humans was studied by combining taste confusion matrix (TCM) methodology and treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate. The TCM evaluates discrimination of multiple stimuli simultaneously. Chlorhexidine, a bis-biguanide antiseptic, reversibly inhibits salty taste and tastes of a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine ...
Li Pingfan - - 2009
The silica gel absorbed amino acid salt catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular Robinson annulation reaction has been developed; up to 97% ee was obtained with this readily recoverable organocatalyst.
V??lgyi Gergely - - 2010
A potentiometric titration study of organic base hydrohalides and quaternary ammonium salts using perchloric acid as the titrant and a mixture of acetic anhydride and acetic acid as the solvent was carried out and the titration mixture was analysed by NMR in order to clarify the chemistry of the reactions ...
Formaker Bradley K - - 2009
Studies of taste receptor cells, chorda tympani (CT) neurons, and brainstem neurons show stimulus interactions in the form of inhibition or enhancement of the effectiveness of sucrose when mixed with acids or citrate salts, respectively. To investigate further the effects of acids and the trivalent citrate anion on sucrose responses ...
Zhao Ligang - - 2009
To enhance the transdermal delivery of diclofenac acid (DA) by using O-acylmenthol as a penetration enhancer and complexing with amines, or by a combination of the two methods. The skin permeability of diclofenac was tested in vitro across rat skin with each of the evaluated permeants in a saturated isopropyl ...
Tomillero A - - 2009
[90Y-DOTA-Tyr3]octreotate, Abatacept, ABT-888, ACE-011, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alosetron hydrochloride, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Apaziquone, Aripiprazole, AS-101, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Atrasentan, Azacitidine; Bevacizumab, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Brivanib alaninate; CERE-120, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Combretastatin A-1 phosphate, Conatumumab, CT-322; Dabigatran etexilate, Darunavir, Deforolimus, Desloratadine, Doripenem, Doxorubicin eluting beads, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; ...
Kasthuri J - - 2009
The vital bioactivities of bile salts are physiologically important molecules. The concept of using bile acids and their conjugates in nanoscience is a novel idea, which opens up fascinating prospects and gives way for various versatile properties. Here in, we report novel strategy for the synthesis of aqueous stable, silver ...
Posternak Anna G - - 2009
N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives of N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-[N'-(trifluoromethylsufonyl)-trifluoromethylsulfoximidoyl] imides 2a,b were prepared by alkylation of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimino)trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 1 or its silver salt 1a. It turns out that these imides are strong alkylating agents in spite of the fact that Me (Et) groups are attached to nitrogen atom. The alkylating activity of n-PrI, ...
Riedel Charlotte Tandrup - - 2009
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168, which were not significantly ...
Silva Alessandra C - - 2009
Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L(-1), NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at ...
Katritzky Alan R - - 2009
2H-Chromene-based conjugates of N-acyl-1,omega-amino acids (5, 9a-f, 14a-f) of natural amino acids (10a,b) and of dipeptide (10c) are prepared (60-97%) by N-acylbenzotriazole methodology in aqueous media at 20 degrees C. Gelation properties of the corresponding sodium salts in DMF and DMSO are generalized with respect to an increase or decrease ...
Chlebda Ewa - - 2010
Water-soluble quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaQSA) and morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMSA) could exert an antagonistic effect on cadmium intoxication. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of these substances on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the mouse liver in the subacute cadmium intoxication ...
Ding W K - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for applying an extra coating of palm oil and poly-L-lysine (POPL) to alginate (ALG) microcapsules to enhance the survival of probiotic bacteria. Eight strains of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, ...
Tokumoto Yuta - - 2009
Succinoyl trehalose lipids (STLs) are promising glycolipid biosurfactants produced from n-alkanes by Rhodococcus sp. These compounds show not only unique interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In this study, we determined for the first time the complete structure of the main component, namely STL-1, based on NMR, MALDI-TOF/MS and ...
Avelar Amy A Center for S and P Block Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403, - - 2009
Acid remarks: The anhydrous diprotic boron acids H(2)(B(12)X(12)) (X = Cl, Br; see picture, B orange, X green) are the first examples of diprotic superacids and may be the strongest acids yet isolated. Both protons protonate benzene to give benzenium ion salts that are stable at room temperature. These acids ...
Madibela O R - - 2009
Effects of site and degutting on chemical composition of mopane worm were investigated. Samples were cooked for 30 min in either brine or in plain water. Samples from Moreomabele were high in acid detergent fibre (ADF) (P < 0.05) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) (P < 0.01) while samples ...
Palacio Lorena - - 2008
An efficient protocol for the in vitro germination and propagation of Larrea divaricata CAV. (Jarilla) was established. To determine the effect of different growth regulators on the growth rates and phenol production, apical-node microshoots from in vitro germinated plantlets were incubated on the following media: 1) full-strength MS (Murashige and ...
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