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Results 351 - 400 of 1326
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Inabe Fumiyo - - 2012
Objective: The diagnosis of fatty liver is done mainly by ultrasonography, which it is not included in the usual health checkup examinations. The aim of this study was to develop an index to predict the existence of fatty liver using tests that are part of specific health examinations. Methods: A ...
Yamazaki Tohru - - 2012
The effect of fibrates (clofibric acid, bezafibrate and fenofibrate) on the gene expression and activity of 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) was investigated. The administration of 0.1% (w/w) clofibric acid, bezafibrate or fenofibrate in diet for 14 d to rats induced LPCAT activity in hepatic microsomes in the following order: fenofibrate>bezafibrate>clofibric acid. The ...
Saito Hiroaki - - 2012
The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the ...
Videla Luis A - - 2012
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in human obesity is characterized by the multifactorial nature of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms, which include misregulation of PPARs signaling. Liver PPAR-α downregulation with parallel PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c up-regulation may trigger major metabolic disturbances between de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation favouring the former, in ...
Cortie Colin H - - 2012
Cardiolipin is a signature phospholipid of major functional significance in mitochondria. In heart mitochondria the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin is commonly viewed as highly regulated due to its high levels of linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) and the dominant presence of a 4×18:2 molecular species. However, analysis of data ...
Ishii Rie - - 2012
A method using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of clomeprop and its metabolite clomeprop acid in livestock and seafood products. Clomeprop and clomeprop acid were extracted with acetone-n-hexane mixture under acidic conditions, and were defatted by liquid-liquid separation using acetonitrile and n-hexane, followed ...
Li Donghong - - 2012
Novel microparticles based on chitosan and sodium alginate were prepared using emulsification and cross-linking technologies. The spherical microparticles had a porous surface and a diameter of 2 ~ 40 μm. In simulated body fluid, these microparticles quickly swelled but gradually degraded. The results of the MTT assay revealed that a ...
Lanaspa Miguel A - - 2012
Fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) is associated with nucleotide turnover, loss of ATP and generation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP). It is well known that in fatty liver, activity of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is reduced and that its stimulation can prevent hepatic steatosis by both enhancing fat oxidation and reducing lipogenesis. ...
Fainberg Hernan P - - 2012
The Meishan pig breed exhibits increased prolificacy and reduced neonatal mortality compared to commercial breeds, such as the Large White, prompting breeders to introduce the Meishan genotype into commercial herds. Commercial piglets are highly susceptible to hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and death, potentially due to limited lipid stores and/or delayed hepatic metabolic ...
Ramayo-Caldas Yuliaxis - - 2012
New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study ...
Lanaspa Miguel A - - 2012
Excessive dietary fructose intake may have an important role in the current epidemics of fatty liver, obesity and diabetes as its intake parallels the development of these syndromes and because it can induce features of metabolic syndrome. The effects of fructose to induce fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, however, ...
Recknagel Peter P Integrated Research and Treatment Center, Center for Sepsis Control and Care, Jena University Hospital, Jena, - - 2012
Hepatic dysfunction and jaundice are traditionally viewed as late features of sepsis and portend poor outcomes. We hypothesized that changes in liver function occur early in the onset of sepsis, yet pass undetected by standard laboratory tests. In a long-term rat model of faecal peritonitis, biotransformation and hepatobiliary transport were ...
Chambers Kari T KT Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of - - 2012
PGC-1β plays pleiotropic roles in regulating intermediary metabolism and has been shown to regulate both catabolic and anabolic processes in liver. We sought to evaluate the effects of PGC-1β on liver energy metabolism by generating mice with postnatal, liver-specific deletion of PGC-1β (LS-PGC-1β(-/-) mice). LS-PGC-1β(-/-) mice were outwardly normal, but ...
Lamaziere Antonin A INSERM U1057, Faculte de Medicine, "P. et M. Curie" 27 rue Chaligny, Paris 75012, France. - - 2012
The lipidome of the liver and the secreted circulating lipoproteins can now be interrogated conveniently by automated mass spectrometric methods. Multivariate analysis of the liver and serum lipid composition in various animal modes or in human patients has pointed to specific molecular species markers. The perturbations of lipid metabolism can ...
Bae Jong-Sup - - 2011
Convenient enzymatic transformation of the phenylpropanoid caffeic acid (1) with polyphenol oxidase originating from pear afforded three new oxidized metabolites, caffeoxynic acid (2), caffeicinic acid (3), and isocaffeicinic acid (4), along with, 7,8-erythro-caffeicin (5) and phellinsin A (6). The structures of the three new caffeic acid oxidation products were elucidated ...
Anitha Prabukumar - - 2011
PURPOSE: Constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and its downstream effectors plays a key role in neoplastic transformation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ellagic acid, a plant-derived polyphenol on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its downstream circuits- NF-κB and mitochondrial apoptosis in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced ...
Choi You-Jin YJ College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, - - 2011
Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on ...
Das Deepankar - - 2011
α-Amino acids react with aldehydes in the presence of a cyanide source to form α-amino nitriles in what can be considered a decarboxylative variant of the classical Strecker reaction. This unprecedented transformation does not require the use of a metal catalyst and provides facile access to valuable α-amino nitriles that ...
Crosignani Stefano S Merck Serono S.A. , 9 chemin des Mines, CH-1202 Geneva, - - 2011
Antagonism of the CRTH2 receptor represents a very attractive target for a variety of allergic diseases. Most CRTH2 antagonists known to date possess a carboxylic acid moiety, which is essential for binding. However, potential acid metabolites O-acyl glucuronides might be linked to idiosynchratic toxicity in humans. In this communication, we ...
De Chandra Kanta - - 2011
A dual-catalysis approach, namely the combination of an achiral nucleophilic catalyst and a chiral anion-binding catalyst, was applied to the Steglich rearrangement to provide α,α-disubstituted amino acid derivatives in a highly enantioselective fashion. Replacement of the nucleophilic co-catalyst for isoquinoline resulted in a divergent reaction pathway and an unprecedented transformation ...
Li Angzhen - - 2011
In this study, degradation of humic acid (HA) via photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) process and corresponding disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) were investigated. Particularly, structure variation and subsequent DBPFP of HA during PEC treatment were correlated. The PEC process was found to be effective in reducing dissolved organic carbon concentration by 75.0% ...
Genna Douglas T - - 2011
Carboxylic acids were converted directly in 56-99% yields into methyl, n-butyl, and isopropyl ketones using excess cyanocuprates R(2)CuLi·LiCN. A substrate with a stereocenter α to the carboxylic acid was converted into ketones with very little loss of enantiomeric purity. A variety of functional groups were tolerated including aryl bromides. This ...
Cui Sunliang - - 2011
A Pd-catalyzed C4-olefination of oxazoles via C-H bond activation under mild conditions was achieved. The reaction was shown to be general over a range of substrates. New protocols for the divergent transformation of these products to provide functionalized amino alcohol and amino acid derivatives have also been established.
Lundy Brian J - - 2011
An enantioselective addition of alkenylboronic acids and alkynylboronic esters to unprotected indole-appended enones is reported. This transformation proceeds with high enantioselectivity and high product yields via the use of catalytic amounts of 3,3'-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-BINOL and Mg(Ot-Bu)(2). A range of α-branched indole derivatives are available from the transformation.
He Zhi - - 2011
A new class of stable molecules, alpha-boryl aldehydes, has been prepared from oxiranyl MIDA boronates by a 1,2-boryl migration and concomitant epoxide scission. A range of boryl imines, alkenes, alcohols, acids, enol ethers, ena-mides, and other functionalized boronic acid derivatives, difficult or impossible to prepare using established protocols, can be ...
Zhao Xiaodan - - 2011
An efficient enantioselective approach to form trans-γ-lactams in up to 99% yield, 93% ee, and >20/1 dr using unactivated imines has been developed. The cyclohexyl-substituted azolium and the weak base sodium o-chlorobenzoate are most suitable for this transformation. Notably, the process involves cooperative catalysis by an N-heterocyclic carbene and a ...
Stivala Craig E - - 2011
A direct, highly enantioselective alkylation of arylacetic acids via enediolates using a readily available chiral lithium amide as a stereodirecting reagent has been developed. This approach circumvents the traditional attachment and removal of chiral auxiliaries used currently for this type of transformation. The protocol is operationally simple, and the chiral ...
Silvestrini-Biavati Armando - - 2011
The aim of this study was to analyse, in vitro, the chemical and mechanical properties of a new fibre retainer, Everstick, comparing its characteristics with the requirements for an orthodontic retainer. Chemical analysis was used to examine seven fibre bundles exposed to a photocuring lamp and then to different acids ...
Afzal Mohammad - - 2011
We performed a series of experiments with Geobacillus stearothermophilus, a thermophile isolated from oil-contaminated soil in the Kuwaiti desert. The organism has a good potential for the transformation of a broad spectrum of organic molecules such as steroids, amino acids, and aromatic hydrocarbons. In the present study, we tested its ...
Xue Zhi-Yong - - 2011
A novel catalytic asymmetric Michael addition of azomethine ylide with beta-substituted alkylidene bisphosphates was realized in the presence of a chiral Copper(I)/TF-BiphamPhos complex. The present system provides a unique and facile access to enantioenriched alpha-unnatural amino acid derivatives containing gem-bisphos-phonates (BP) in high yields and excellent diastereoselectivities and enantioselectivities. Subsequent ...
Liu Jianmin - - 2011
The open reading frame of the Δ(6)-desaturase gene was isolated from Mortierella alpina W15 and the gene was cloned into a pPIC3.5K vector. The vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 and expression was induced with methanol. The Δ(6)-desaturase expressed in P. pastoris GS115 catalyzed the conversion of linoleic acid ...
Rueping Magnus - - 2011
Recently, chiral highly acidic Brønsted acids have emerged as powerful catalysts for enantioselective CC and CX bond-forming reactions. Their strong acidity renders them valuable tools for the activation of imines, carbonyl compounds, and other weakly basic substrates. As a result, new perspectives are opened and highly stereoselective transformations based on ...
Lu Jinrong - - 2011
A novel functional tweezer based on uracil-appended glycyrrhetinic acid with excellent gelation ability was synthesized, and the gel could transform to sol by F(-) and Hg(2+).
White Robert H - - 2011
Recent work has demonstrated that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is the in vivo precursor to the 1-(4-aminophenyl)-1-deoxy-D-ribitol (APDR) moiety present in the C1 carrier coenzyme methanopterin present in the methanogenic archaea. For this transformation to occur the hydroxyl group of the 4-hydroxybenzoic acid must be replaced by an amino group at some ...
Rueping Magnus - - 2011
Chiral phosphoric acids and derivatives have attracted considerable attention as a powerful tool in asymmetric catalysis. Various enantioselective reactions have been developed by using these efficient Brønsted acid organocatalysts. Although initially the activation was restricted to reactive Brønsted basic substrates, recent reports are demonstrating the versatility of phosphoric acid catalysts ...
Rempt M - - 2011
We addressed the role of the unusual acetylenic fatty acid dicranin as a precursor for volatile oxylipins in the moss Dicranum scoparium. Dicranin is transformed immediately after mechanical wounding of moss tissue to volatile C5- and C6-oxylipins. The transformation of synthetic deuterium labeled dicranin was monitored using LC/MS analysis and ...
De Marco Rosaria - - 2011
The acid-catalyzed dehydration is one of the most important processes that transforms 3-hydroxy steroids into their corresponding unsaturated derivatives. This reaction is of great importance because it can produce molecules that play a key role in the understanding of the natural metabolism of steroids. Sterol dehydration is generally performed with ...
Belloni Benedetta - - 2011
A 60-year-old woman with advanced Huntington's disease and a recent episode of aspiration pneumonia presented with erythema, edema, and blistering of the right forearm. An 18-gauge peripheral intravenous catheter had been partially displaced from the same site 10 hours earlier, resulting in infusion of an unknown quantity of parenteral-nutrition solution ...
Cao Shougen - - 2011
We investigated the therapeutic effects of parenteral fish oil on survival, fatty acids profile in plasma and erythrocytes membranes, T lymphocyte subsets, and plasma cytokines in a rat model of sepsis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. For recovery, central venous catheterization was performed ...
Palkó Márta - - 2011
all-endo-3-amino-5-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (13) and all-endo-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ol (10) were prepared via dihydro-1,3-oxazine or g-lactone intermediates by the stereoselective functionalization of an N-protected derivative of endo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (2). Ring closure of b-amino ester 4 resulted in tricyclic pyrimidinones 15 and 16. The structures, stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined ...
Dichi Emma - - 2011
This work deals with the preparation and characterization of high-purity nanoparticles of γ-amino n-butyric acid (GABA) in order to enhance the efficiency of this drug. A sublimation procedure at low pressure was applied to GABA after improving the experimental parameters of this physical transformation. The elaboration of the molecule is ...
Yarandi Shadi S - - 2011
Complete parenteral nutrition solutions contain mixed amino acid products providing all nine essential amino acids and a varying composition of nonessential amino acids. Relatively little rigorous comparative efficacy research on altered parenteral nutrition amino acid composition has been published in recent years. Limited data from randomized, double-blind, adequately powered clinical ...
Rueping Magnus - - 2010
Recently, 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL)-based N-triflylphosphoramides emerged as a new class of potent Brønsted acid catalysts. In this paper we describe the efficient synthesis of various BINOL-based N-triflylphosphoramides and their calcium salts. Furthermore, X-ray crystal structure analysis combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements confirmed that the synthesised chiral N-triflylphosphoramides are highly ...
Tomé Luciana I N - - 2010
Ion-specific effects on the aqueous solubilities of biomolecules are relevant in many areas of biochemistry and life sciences. However, a general and well-supported molecular picture of the phenomena has not yet been established. In order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular-level interactions governing the behavior of biocompounds in ...
Nagy Peter I - - 2010
Salt-bridge formation between Asp/Glu···Lys and Asp/Glu···Arg side chains has been studied by model systems including formic and acetic acids as proton donors and methylamine, guanidine, and methylguanidine as proton acceptors. Calculations have been performed up to the CCSD(T)(CBS)//MP2/aug-cc-pvtz level with formic acid proton donors. Complexes formed with acetic acid were ...
Rembacz Krzysztof P KP Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The - - 2010
Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) conjugates bile salts to glycine or taurine, which is the final step in bile salt biosynthesis. In addition, BAAT is required for reconjugation of bile salts in the enterohepatic circulation. Recently, we showed that BAAT is a peroxisomal protein, implying shuttling of bile salts through ...
Kumar Sandeep - - 2010
Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric ...
Yadav Vivek R - - 2010
Traditional medicine and diet has served mankind through the ages for prevention and treatment of most chronic diseases. Mounting evidence suggests that chronic inflammation mediates most chronic diseases, including cancer. More than other transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and STAT3 have emerged as major regulators of inflammation, cellular transformation, and ...
Ishibashi Matsujiro - - 2011
We have succeeded in the cloning of alkaline phosphatase gene, haalp, from moderate halophile Halomonas sp. 593. A deduced amino acid sequence showed a high ratio of acidic to basic amino acids, characteristic of halophilic proteins. The gene product was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3) pLysS, but ...
Li Miaosheng - - 2010
A general approach to the synthesis of a new series of unique sulfate anionic acid-labile surfactants (AALS) was developed. In this approach, the ketal was derived from methyl pyruvate, and the sulfate motif was introduced via sulfitylation of the alcohol, oxidation, and finally conversion of the sulfate diester to the ...
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