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Go Gwang-Woong - - 2013
In mice, supplementation of t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) increases liver mass and hepatic steatosis via increasing uptake of fatty acids released from adipose tissues. However, the effects of t10,c12 CLA on hepatic lipid synthesis and the associated mechanisms are largely unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that gut microbiota-producing ...
Eler Gabrielle Jacklin - - 2013
n-Propyl gallate and its analogs are used in foods and other products to prevent oxidation. In the liver the compound exerts several harmfull effects, especially gluconeogenesis inhibition. The mode of transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and its kinetics of biotransformation have not yet been investigated. To fill this gap ...
Koo Seung-Hoi - - 2013
Liver plays a central role in the biogenesis of major metabolites including glucose, fatty acids, and cholesterol. Increased incidence of obesity in the modern society promotes insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues in humans, and could cause severe metabolic disorders by inducing accumulation of lipid in the liver, resulting in ...
Schleicher J - - 2013
A hallmark of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the accumulation of lipids. We developed a mathematical model of the hepatic lipid dynamics to simulate the fate of fatty acids in hepatocytes. Our model involves fatty acid uptake, lipid oxidation, and lipid export. It takes into account that storage of ...
Li Yuanyuan Y Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeast Ohio Medical University, 4209 State Route 44, Rootstown, OH 44272, United - - 2013
Accumulating data have shown that bile acids are important cell signaling molecules, which may activate several signaling pathways to regulate biological processes. Bile acids are endogenous ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5, a G-protein coupled receptor. Gain- and loss-of-function studies have demonstrated that both FXR and TGR5 ...
Wong Chi Chun - - 2013
Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids are dietary phenolic antioxidants that are abundant in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids are highly sulfated in vivo, and sulfotransferases (SULTs), in particular SULT1A1, play a major role in their metabolism. Flavonoids are potent inhibitors of human SULTs. In this study, the potential metabolic interaction between dietary ...
Shan Guoqiang - - 2013
Chlorinated phenols and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are two kinds of pollutants which are widely present in the environment. Considering liver is the primary toxic target organ for these two groups of chemicals, it is interesting to evaluate the possible joint effects of them on liver. In this work, the combined ...
Zhang Xiaoyan - - 2013
Liver X receptors (LXRs) including LXRα and LXRβ are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand activated transcription factors, which serve as lipid sensors to regulate expression of genes controlling many aspects of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Liver is the central organ in controlling lipid metabolism. In ...
Osaki Ken - - 2013
Inappropriate activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system induces generation of reactive oxygen species and tubulointerstitial inflammation, which contribute to salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT). Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein is expressed in proximal tubules in humans, but not in rodents, and may play an endogenous antioxidative role. The objective of the present study ...
Garcia-Ruiz Carmen - - 2013
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and refers to a spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, a disease state characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, cell death and insulin resistance (IR). Due to its association with obesity and IR the impact ...
Persson Sara - - 2013
This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink ...
Sheiner Lilach - - 2013
The apicoplast and the mitochondrion of Apicomplexa cooperate in providing essential metabolites. Their co-evolution during the ancestral acquisition of a plastid and subsequent loss of photosynthesis resulted in divergent metabolic pathways compared with mammals and plants. This is most evident in their chimerical haem synthesis pathway. Toxoplasma and Plasmodium mitochondria ...
Schäff C - - 2013
The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete ...
Kim Miran - - 2013
Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are environmental toxicants that persistently accumulate in human blood. Their widespread detection and accumulation in the environment raise concerns about whether these chemicals might be developmental toxicants and teratogens in ecosystem. We evaluated and compared the toxicity of PFCs of containing various numbers of carbon atoms (C8-11 ...
Kulkarni Supriya R - - 2013
CR increases fatty acid oxidation to decrease tissue lipid content. The Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch like ECH associated Protein 1 (Keap1) pathway is an antioxidant gene regulatory pathway that has been previously investigated in weight gain. However, limited interaction of Nrf2/Keap1 and CR exists. The purpose of this ...
Scorletti E - - 2013
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids belong to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are known to have important beneficial effects on metabolism and inflammation. Such effects may confer a benefit in specific chronic noncommunicable diseases that are becoming very prevalent in Westernized societies [e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)]. Typically, ...
Murashita Koji - - 2013
In mammals, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) are rate-limiting enzymes in bile acid synthesis. In addition, a small heterodimer partner (SHP) is also known to inhibit bile acid synthesis via the suppression of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 expression. However, little information is currently available regarding primary structure of the ...
Mencarelli Andrea - - 2013
The Farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR) and the Liver-x-receptors (LXRs) are bile acids activated receptors highly expressed in the eneterohepatic tissues. The mechanisms that support the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery are only partially defined. Here we have investigated the effects of ileal interposition (IT), a surgical relocation of distal ileum into the ...
Geng T - - 2013
Previous studies have shown that saturated fatty acids cause insulin resistance (IR) that is prevented by unsaturated fatty acids. Tribbles homologue 3 (TRIB3) is a putative endogenous inhibitor of insulin signalling, but its role in insulin signalling is controversial. This study aimed to determine whether fatty acids regulate IR via ...
Nishikawa Hiroki - - 2013
The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. A nutritional approach is required in the treatment of cirrhosis, which is frequently complicated with protein-energy malnutrition. Several advanced treatment approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been established in the past decade. HCC is often complicated ...
Chiang John Y L - - 2013
Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. ...
St-Jules David E - - 2013
Fish and omega-3 fatty acids are reported to be beneficial in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but no studies have assessed their relation to histological severity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dietary intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD, and ...
de Quelen F - - 2013
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) contribute to the normal growth and development of numerous organs in the piglet. The fatty acid composition of piglet tissues is linked to the fatty acid composition of sow milk and, consequently, to the composition of sow diet during the gestation and lactation period. ...
Liu Aiqiu - - 2013
Although successful production of fatty alcohols in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli with heterologous expression of fatty acyl-CoA reductase has been reported, low biosynthetic efficiency is still a hurdle to be overcome. In this study, we examined the characteristics of two fatty acyl-CoA reductases encoded by Maqu_2220 and Maqu_2507 genes from ...
Lu Xinshan - - 2013
This study was to examine the hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharides from green tea of Huangshan Maofeng (HMTP) against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in mice. HMTP is an acidic heteropolysaccharide with galactose (35.0%, mol.%), arabinose (28.9%) and galacturonic acid (11.3%) being the main monosaccharide components. HMTP (400 and 800mg/kg·bw) administered orally daily ...
Stojković Dejan - - 2013
Mushrooms have been reported as sources of biomolecules with various potential. Coprinus comatus was studied to obtain information about this species, comparing cultivated and wild samples. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. C. comatus methanolic extractwas tested ...
Lauinger Ina L - - 2013
Chemicals targeting the liver stage (LS) of the malaria parasite are useful for causal prophylaxis of malaria. In this study, four lichen metabolites, evernic acid (1), vulpic acid (2), psoromic acid (3), and (+)-usnic acid (4), were evaluated against LS parasites of Plasmodium berghei. Inhibition of P. falciparum blood stage ...
Nzwalo Hipólito - - 2013
Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to ...
Wang Renxue - - 2013
The bile salt export pump (BSEP), encoded by the abcb11 gene, is the major canalicular transporter of bile acids from the hepatocyte. BSEP malfunction in humans causes bile acid retention and progressive liver injury, ultimately leading to end stage liver failure. The natural, hydrophilic, bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is ...
Ristić-Medić Danijela - - 2013
The fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids were analyzed in 20 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (11 with malnutrition and 9 with acceptable nutritional status); 25 healthy age and sex-matched adults were used as controls. Cirrhotic patients showed higher levels of palmitic acid and total saturated fatty acids than healthy ...
Muir Kyle K Molecular Diagnostics Program and Cancer Prevention Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. - - 2013
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common preneoplastic condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mice with hepatocytic deletion of Pten develop NASH and HCC later in life. This model is highly valuable for studies aimed at identifying the molecular mechanism by which metabolic disorders contribute to tumor development. We applied proteomic and ...
Naito Takako - - 2013
Autophagy is a highly inducible intracellular degradation process. It is generally induced by nutrient starvation and suppressed by food intake. Mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is considered to be the major regulator of autophagy, but the precise mechanism of in vivo regulation remains to be fully ...
Holecek Milan - - 2013
The rationale for recommendation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in treatment of liver failure is based on their unique pharmacologic properties, stimulatory effect on ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN), and decreased concentrations in liver cirrhosis. Multiple lines of evidence have shown that the main cause of ...
Kwak Hyun Jung - - 2013
A series of benzimidazole derivatives with a phenylcyclohexyl acetic acid group as DGAT-1 inhibitors was developed. Among the benzimidazole series, compound 5k showed submicromolar in vitro activity toward human and mouse DGAT-1, good selectivity toward DGAT-2, human liver metabolic stability, and pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles such as hERG, CYP ...
Chang Jia-Jen - - 2013
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been considered to possess different benefits such as protecting liver, improving fever, urine excretion disorder, hypertension and diabetic syndrome, and preventing cardiovascular diseases. Recently, mounting evidences have shown that mulberry anthocyanins extracts (MAE) is beneficial to hyperlipidemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study ...
Sato K - - 2013
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) which is characterized by acute massive liver necrosis in the absence of chronic liver disease, shows an imbalance of amino acid levels resulting from acute hepatocyte necrosis. We investigated plasma free amino acid profiles among FHF patients. This retrospective review of 25 patients investigated laboratory profiles ...
Teoh Chaiw-Yee - - 2013
The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10 or 20% of total fatty acid) with the ...
Fernández-Fígares I - - 2013
A three-day assay was developed to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on protein quality of vetch as an alternative to classical growth methods. Male chickens (n = 10/diet) were given approximately isonitrogenous diets based on raw or autoclaved vetch for 3 days. Samples of plasma, muscle and liver were obtained for free amino ...
Janczyk Wojciech - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome since obesity and insulin resistance are the main pathogenic contributors for both conditions. NAFLD carries increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. There is an urgent need to find effective and safe therapy for children and adults ...
Yang Tao - - 2013
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY: Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) was formulated on the basis of Chinese medicine theory in treating liver fibrosis. It has a significant efficacy against liver fibrosis caused by chronic hepatitis B, with the action mechanisms of inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation, protection of hepatocyte oxidative injury and regulations of ...
Kojima Seiichiro - - 2013
The patient, a 69-year-old man, had a chief complaint of hepatomegaly. The liver was palpated four fingerbreadths below the costal margin, and the spleen was three fingerbreadths below the costal margin. There were no other abnormal findings. Laparoscopy showed that the liver resembled an orange-yellow crayon in appearance and was ...
Stocks S E - - 2013
We previously showed that propionic acid was more hypophagic than acetic acid when infused intraruminally in cows in the postpartum period and that the degree of hypophagia from short-term propionic acid infusion (18 h) was related to the acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) concentration in the liver. The objective of this ...
De Sousa-Coelho Ana Luisa - - 2013
Lipogenic gene expression in liver is repressed in mice upon leucine deprivation. The hormone FGF21, which is critical to the adaptive metabolic response to starvation, is also induced under amino acid deprivation. Upon leucine deprivation, we found that FGF21 is needed to repress expression of lipogenic genes in liver and ...
Böhm Therese - - 2013
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity and hepatic steatosis are frequently associated with the development of a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The mechanisms driving progression of a non-inflamed steatosis to NASH are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether ingestion of peroxidized lipids, as being present in Western style diet, triggers the development of hepatic inflammation. ...
Stephenson James A - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Mediators derived from the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid oxidation have been shown to have tumour promoting effects in experimental models, while n-3 PUFAs are thought to be protective. Here we report fatty acid concentrations in hepatic colorectal metastases compared to liver tissue without tumour in humans. ...
Feng Bo - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Compared with biofluids, target tissues and organs more directly reflect the pathophysiological state of a disease process. In this study, a D-galactosamine (GalN) / lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model was constructed to investigate metabonomics of liver tissue and directly characterize metabolic changes in acute liver failure (ALF). METHODS: After pretreatment ...
Nandivada P - - 2013
Parenteral nutrition (PN) can be life saving for infants unable to adequately absorb enteral nutrients due to intestinal failure from inadequate bowel length or function. However, long-term PN carries significant morbidity and mortality, with 30 to 60% of patients developing progressive liver dysfunction. The etiology of PN-associated liver disease (PNALD) ...
Ziamajidi Nasrin - - 2013
We evaluated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) seed extract (CI) on hepatic steatosis caused by early and late stage diabetes in rats (in vivo), and induced in HepG2 cells (in vitro) by BSA-oleic acid complex (OA). Different dosages of CI (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml) were applied along ...
Hixson Stefanie M - - 2013
Camelina (Camelina sativa) oil was tested as a replacement for fish oil in diets for farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Camelina differs from other plant oilseeds previously used in aquaculture with high lipid (40 %), α-linolenic acid (40 %), antioxidants and low proportions of saturated fats. Dietary treatments were fed to cod ...
Ishibashi Minako - - 2013
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that are highly expressed in macrophages and regulate lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Among putative LXR target genes, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) involved in the Lands cycle controls the fatty acid composition at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids and, therefore, the availability of ...
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