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Kim Y S - - 2008
Salt effect on gelling properties of fish protein isolate (FPI) prepared by acid- and alkali-aided extraction was investigated. Acid- or alkali-extracted FPI formed significantly better gel texture with 0% NaCl than with 3% NaCl. Texture properties of acid- or alkali-extracted FPI decreased as NaCl content increased, especially at 2% to ...
Rolen S H - - 2008
Bile salts are known olfactory stimuli for teleosts, but only a single report has indicated that the taste system of a fish was sensitive to this class of stimuli. Here, gustatory responses of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to four bile salts that included taurine-, glycine- and non-conjugated compounds along ...
Chorghade Mukund S - - 2008
4-Fluoroprolines are among the most useful nonnatural amino acids in chemical biology. Here, practical routes are reported for the synthesis of the 2S,4R, 2S,4S, and 2R,4S diastereomers of 4-fluoroproline. Each route starts with (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline, which is a prevalent component of collagen and hence readily available, and uses a fluoride salt ...
Zorita Saioa - - 2008
Three different SPE sorbents (weak cation exchange, mixed cation exchange, and hydrophobic-lipophilic balance polymers) were compared in terms of recovery, precision, and the effect of matrix components on analyte response for the determination of fluoroquinolones antibiotics. The influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2-EDTA) was as well tested. Two of ...
Bacardit Anna - - 2008
Tanning processes performed in drums consume large amounts of water and chemicals, most of which end up in the wastewater. This study explores an alternative approach at an industrial scale to the traditional pickle-chrome tanning method. The new method replaces formic and sulphuric acids with sulphonic aromatic acid. Because it ...
Martoni Christopher - - 2008
This is the first study of its kind to screen probiotic lactic acid bacteria for the purpose of microencapsulating a highly bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active strain. A Lactobacillus reuteri strain and a Bifidobacterium longum strain were isolated as the highest BSH producers among the candidates. Microcapsules were prepared with a ...
Baldwin R W - - 2008
The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, ...
Dierks Anneke - - 2008
In the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae) essential components of fitness (such as fecundity and longevity) depend to a large degree on exogenous adult-derived nutrients, particularly carbohydrates. We investigated which of the nutrients/compounds found in the adult diet act as feeding stimuli, and whether butterflies show preferences for particular nutrients ...
Rizzi George P - - 2008
Effects of cationic species on Maillard browning were examined after heating (ca. 100 degrees C) aqueous pH 7.2 buffered solutions of amino acids and pentose sugars. Metallic ions of Group I metals (Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) produced a small increase in browning (A420), but somewhat greater effects were ...
Priebe Jacks P - - 2008
The rate of specific hydrogen ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-( p-heptoxyphenyl)-1,3-dioxolane and acid-base equilibrium of 4-carboxy-1-n-dodecylpyridinium in zwitterionic micelles of SB3-14, C14H29NMe2+(CH2)3SO3(-) are controlled by NaClO4, which induces anionic character and uptake of H3O+ in the micelles. Other salts, e.g., NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3, NaI, NaBF4, have similar, but smaller, effects ...
Toelstede Simone - - 2008
The first comprehensive quantitative determination of 49 putative taste-active metabolites and mineral salts in 4- and 44-week-ripened Gouda cheese, respectively, has been performed; the ranking of these compounds in their sensory impact based on dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, followed by the confirmation of their sensory relevance by taste reconstruction and omission ...
Singh Shailendra P - - 2008
In the present investigation we show that the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 produces a single mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA), shinorine (retention time = 2.3 min and absorption maximum at 334 nm) when isolated and purified by HPLC. Although there was significant induction of MAA synthesis from its initial value ...
Zhu Fenfen - - 2008
Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides ...
Qin Jing - - 2008
In the present study, various gradients were evaluated for efficient loading of weak acid into liposomes. Several salt gradients showed efficient loading of ferulic acid (FA) into liposomes and the optimized conditions were established in calcium acetate gradient method to obtain 80.2 +/- 5.2% entrapment efficiency (EE). Unilamellar vesicles were ...
Bigucci Federica - - 2008
Site-specific controlled release systems have been extensively investigated during the last decade. The aim of this study was to describe a pH-dependent drug release system based on chitosan salts for vancomycin hydrochloride delivery. Chitosan salts with succinic acid, adipic acid, and suberic acid were prepared by spray-drying and were coated ...
Sato Keiichi - - 2008
Surface coating of highly luminescent CdS nanocrystals by polyacrylic acid was demonstrated. The method proceeded in 2 steps, (i) modification of the CdS surface by alkyl molecules and (ii) polyacrylic acid coating of the surface modified CdS. Attachment of alkyl ammonium on the CdS surface induced a phase transfer reaction ...
Reis P - - 2008
Dietary fat has long been recognized as an essential component in nutrition. However, most of the lipids present in food need to be converted into more bioavailable compounds. Lipases have a crucial role in converting triglycerides into more polar lipids with increased water solubility and a tendency to form micelles. ...
Voigt Eduardo Luiz - - 2009
Seedling establishment is a critical process to crop productivity, especially under saline conditions. This work was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that reserve mobilization is coordinated with salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth due to changes in source-sink relations. To test this hypothesis, cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) were sown in ...
Brissos V - - 2008
Cutinase is an enzyme suitable for detergent applications as well as for organic synthesis in non-aqueous solvents. However, its inactivation in the presence of anionic surfactants is a problem which we have addressed by creating a complete saturation library. For this, the cutinase gene from Fusarium solani pisi was mutated ...
Rose Kathryn G - - 2008
Heating of the solid ammonium salts obtained from treatment of mellitic acid with 3 equiv of a primary amine yields trisubstituted mellitic triimides via dehydration and imide ring closure. This surprisingly simple synthetic approach is amenable to incorporation of alkyl, aryl, and amino acid ester substituents, thereby opening broad access ...
Horiyama Shizuyo - - 2008
Sorbic acid (SA: CH(3)-CH=CH-CH=CH-COOH) and its salts are widely used as preservatives in foodstuff because of their growth inhibitory effects on mold, yeast and a wide range of bacteria. However, it is still unclear whether SA and its salts are actually incorporated in these organisms and a higher organisms like ...
He Xiaorong - - 2008
In this paper, we report on the self-assembly of water-soluble N,N'-di(N,N'-dimethyl-dodecane-1, 12-diamide)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDDoAM) in formic acid and chloride salts for producing varied nano-aggregates with different optical properties. Interestingly, the self-assembly can lead to nanocubic, microsheet and "tower-like" nanostructures respectively, as demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. The optical ...
Susoff Markus - - 2008
The rodlike ionogenic polymers poly(p-pyridylene-phenylene) and poly(p-pyridylene/phenylene-ethynylene) form polyelectrolytes when protonated with toluene sulfonic acid or ethane sulfonic acid in chloroform solution. This molecular modification, clearly indicated by a marked red shift of the UV absorption band, induces the formation of prolate, bundlelike aggregates, whose size and shape are obtained ...
Uchida Yoshiaki - - 2008
The partial resolution is described of a series of racemic trans-4-[5-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl-2-yl]benzoic acids (1), which are the key intermediates for the synthesis of chiral organic radical liquid crystalline compounds and are crystallized to give racemic compounds. Racemic acid 1 [(+/-)-1] with a long alkyl chain (C7 to C13) could be resolved ...
Dinar E - - 2008
Recent field observations suggest that ammonium salts of organic acids may be very important in accounting for aerosols' properties in many environments. In this study we present laboratory experiments and calculations on the influence of ammonia reaction with organic aerosol components and its effect upon their (1) subsaturation hygroscopic growth ...
Elevi Bardavid Rahel - - 2008
Antibiotics and bile salts have been used to differentiate between heterotrophic activity of halophilic Archaea and Bacteria in saltern ponds. In NaCl-saturated brines of crystallizer ponds, most activity was attributed to Archaea. Following the recent isolation of Haloquadratum, the dominant archaeon in the salterns (reported to be sensitive to chloramphenicol ...
Benes Dina M - - 2008
Pentasodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid function as chelating agents in cosmetics. Pentasodium Pentetate is readily soluble in water, but the corresponding free acid is not. Pentasodium Pentetate is used in almost 400 cosmetic products over a wide range of product categories, although it is mostly used in hair dyes and ...
Baltruschat Helmut - - 2008
The root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica has been shown to increase resistance against biotic stress and tolerance to abiotic stress in many plants. Biochemical mechanisms underlying P. indica-mediated salt tolerance were studied in barley (Hordeum vulgare) with special focus on antioxidants. Physiological markers for salt stress, such as metabolic activity, ...
Bhattacharya Rahul - - 2008
Cyanide is a rapidly acting neurotoxin that necessitates immediate, vigorous therapy. The commonly used treatment regimen for cyanide includes the intravenous administration of sodium nitrite (SN) and sodium thiosulphate (STS). Due to many limitations of these antidotes, a search for more effective, safer molecules continues. Cyanide is known to react ...
Noweir Kamal H - - 2008
Acid deposition commonly occurs due to conversion of primary acidic pollutants (SO2 & NO2) into secondary pollutants (H2SO4 & HNO3 and their salts). The main natural sources of acid deposition in Alexandria include lightening and microbial processes. Anthropogenic sources include traffic, industrial, fuel burning, and incineration activities. Acid deposition has ...
Nyhlén Jonas - - 2008
A synthetic procedure for the preparation of 4-cyclohexyl-2-methyl-buta-2,3-dienoic acid in the two optically active forms has been developed. Synthesis of the racemic allenoic acid was made by an efficient route with good overall yield. Resolution of the enantiomers was achieved by forming the cinchonidine and cinchonine diastereomeric salt, respectively, and ...
Evans Chris D - - 2008
In the United Kingdom, as in other regions of Europe and North America, recent decreases in surface water sulphate concentrations, due to reduced sulphur emissions, have coincided with marked increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Since many of the compounds comprising DOC are acidic, the resulting increases in organic ...
Sanchez Diego H - - 2008
The model legume Lotus japonicus was subjected to non-lethal long-term salinity and profiled at the ionomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic levels. Two experimental designs with various stress doses were tested: a gradual step acclimatization and an initial acclimatization approach. Ionomic profiling by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed salt stress-induced ...
Novales Bruno - - 2008
We report the dispersions of a fatty acid and hydroxyl derivative salts in aqueous solutions that were further used to produce foams and emulsions. The tetrabutyl-ammonium salts of palmitic acid, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, and omega-hydroxy palmitic acid formed isotropic solutions of micelles, whereas the ethanolamine salts of the same acids ...
Alam Md Sayem - - 2008
Herein we report the effect of various additives (viz. alcohols, cycloalcohols, amino acids, sugars, ureas) on the clouding phenomenon observed in 50mM chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) drug solutions (prepared in 10mM sodium phosphate buffer). Long chain alcohols (except octanol), cyclohexanol and allylalcohol increased the cloud point (CP) followed by a decrease ...
Tsolakis H - - 2008
Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the toxicity and the influence of a commercial mixture of vegetal, essential oils, and potassium salts of fatty acids (Acaridoil 13SL) on the population growth rate (r(i)--instantaneous rate of increase) of two mite species, the phytophagous Tetranychus urticae Koch and the predator Phytoseiulus ...
Hirohata Mie - - 2008
The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alphaS) in the brain has been implicated as a critical step in the development of Lewy body diseases (LBD) [Parkinson's disease (PD)/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)] and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The involvement of neuroinflammation and microglial activation has been emphasized in the pathogenesis of PD. ...
Srivastava Brijesh Kumar - - 2007
A number of analogues of diaryl dihydropyrazole-3-carboxamides have been synthesized. Their activities were evaluated for appetite suppression and body weight reduction in animal models. Depending on the chemical modification of the selected dihydropyrazole scaffold, the lead compounds--the bisulfate salt of (+/-)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid morpholin-4-ylamide 26 and the bisulfate salt of (-)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic ...
Kang Hyung Seok - - 2007
Micelle-to-vesicle transition method was used to make liposomes containing oleanolic acid. First, the solubilization of potassium salt of oleanolic acid at basic condition by micelle formation was confirmed. Using the soluble state of oleanolic acid at basic condition, liposomes containing oleanolic acid was prepared by adjusting pH. After making homogeneous ...
Rodríguez-Lorenzo L M - - 2007
Two bisphosphonates (BPs), namely 1-hydroxy-2-[4-aminophenyl]ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (APBP) and 1-hydroxy-2-[3-indolyl]ethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (IBP), have been synthesized and incorporated to acrylic injectable and self-curing formulations. Alendronic acid monosodium trihydrated salt (ALN) containing cement was formulated as control. These systems have potential applications in low density hard tissues affected by ailments characterized by a ...
Gutiérrez T - - 2007
AIMS: To partially purify and characterize bioemulsifiers produced by two new marine Halomonas species, TG39 and TG67, and to compare their emulsifying activities with those of commercial emulsifiers. METHODS AND RESULTS: The production of emulsifiers HE39 and HE67 was achieved from glucose-supplemented marine broth, and recovered by cell removal, concentration ...
Pinkerton David M - - 2007
The acetate salts of tambjamines C, E, and F (2-4, respectively), as well as those of the related alkaloids BE-18591 (5) and 6, have been prepared by treatment of bipyrrole aldehyde 16 with the relevant amine in the presence of acetic acid. The 5'-bromo-analogue, 30, of compound 16 has also ...
Mellefont L A - - 2007
Two commercially available organic acid salts, potassium lactate (PURASAL HiPure P) and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend (PURASAL Opti. Form PD 4), were assessed as potential inhibitors of Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced ham in challenge studies. The influence of the initial inoculation level of L. ...
Xu Fang-Zhou - - 2007
AIM: To seek a novel and potent antitussive drug based on Shedan-Chuanbei powder, a complex of traditional Chinese medicine preparation for cough therapy. METHODS: Verticinone-cholic acid (Ver-CA) salt, a novel, salifying derivative of verticinone and cholic acid, both of which are the major bioactive components in Shedan-Chuanbei powder, was synthesized. ...
Sato Shingo - - 2008
Two hybrid compounds 6 and 7, linked via an ester-bond between the 7-hydroxyl residue of an umbelliferone 1 and a carboxylic acid residue of two nitroxide radicals 3 and 4, and one hybrid compound 8, linked via an ester-bond between a 3-carboxylic acid residue of umbelliferone 2 and a hydroxyl ...
Bester-Rogac Marija - - 2007
Systematic determinations of electrical conductivities of sodium penicillin G, potassium penicillin G, and potassium penicillin V in the 278.15-313.15 K temperature range are reported. These conductivities are examined by applying the Quint-Viallard conductivity equations and the Debye-Hückel equations for activity coefficients. Determined dissociation constants and the limiting conductances of penicillin ...
Manivannan P - - 2008
Experiments were conducted to study the effects of different sodium salts viz., sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulphate (Na(2)SO(4)) and sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3)) on growth, dry matter production, mineral contents, biochemical constituent and enzyme activities of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The germinating sunflower seeds were treated with 10, 20 and 50mM ...
Fujioka Hiromichi - - 2007
A mild and efficient method for the preparation of O,O-mixed, O,S- and N,O-acetals from symmetrical O,O-acetals has been developed. Thus, the treatment of symmetrical O,O-acetals with TESOTf and 2,4,6-collidine formed weakly electrophilic collidinium salts. The addition of nucleophiles, such as an alcohol, lithium thioxide, and sodium azide, to the salts ...
Fernández E - - 2007
A kinetic study was carried out on the acid hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylacetate and 4-nitrophenyllaurate in water/HOT/isooctane microemulsions. The substitution of Na+ in the sodium salt of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate by H+ has permitted us to obtain a functionalized surfactant (HOT) and, consequently, strongly acid microemulsions. The use of HOT-based microemulsions allows us ...
Zuliani V - - 2007
AIMS: to study and model the effect of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, potassium sorbate and combination of acid salts on the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in ground pork. METHODS AND RESULTS: Water activity (a(w)), pH and concentration of acid salt of the meat were adjusted. The behaviour of inoculated L. ...
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