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Kasthuri J - - 2009
The vital bioactivities of bile salts are physiologically important molecules. The concept of using bile acids and their conjugates in nanoscience is a novel idea, which opens up fascinating prospects and gives way for various versatile properties. Here in, we report novel strategy for the synthesis of aqueous stable, silver ...
Posternak Anna G - - 2009
N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives of N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-[N'-(trifluoromethylsufonyl)-trifluoromethylsulfoximidoyl] imides 2a,b were prepared by alkylation of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimino)trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 1 or its silver salt 1a. It turns out that these imides are strong alkylating agents in spite of the fact that Me (Et) groups are attached to nitrogen atom. The alkylating activity of n-PrI, ...
Riedel Charlotte Tandrup - - 2009
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168, which were not significantly ...
Silva Alessandra C - - 2009
Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L(-1), NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at ...
Katritzky Alan R - - 2009
2H-Chromene-based conjugates of N-acyl-1,omega-amino acids (5, 9a-f, 14a-f) of natural amino acids (10a,b) and of dipeptide (10c) are prepared (60-97%) by N-acylbenzotriazole methodology in aqueous media at 20 degrees C. Gelation properties of the corresponding sodium salts in DMF and DMSO are generalized with respect to an increase or decrease ...
Chlebda Ewa - - 2010
Water-soluble quercetin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaQSA) and morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMSA) could exert an antagonistic effect on cadmium intoxication. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of these substances on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the mouse liver in the subacute cadmium intoxication ...
Ding W K - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for applying an extra coating of palm oil and poly-L-lysine (POPL) to alginate (ALG) microcapsules to enhance the survival of probiotic bacteria. Eight strains of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, ...
Tokumoto Yuta - - 2009
Succinoyl trehalose lipids (STLs) are promising glycolipid biosurfactants produced from n-alkanes by Rhodococcus sp. These compounds show not only unique interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In this study, we determined for the first time the complete structure of the main component, namely STL-1, based on NMR, MALDI-TOF/MS and ...
Avelar Amy A Center for S and P Block Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403, - - 2009
Acid remarks: The anhydrous diprotic boron acids H(2)(B(12)X(12)) (X = Cl, Br; see picture, B orange, X green) are the first examples of diprotic superacids and may be the strongest acids yet isolated. Both protons protonate benzene to give benzenium ion salts that are stable at room temperature. These acids ...
Madibela O R - - 2009
Effects of site and degutting on chemical composition of mopane worm were investigated. Samples were cooked for 30 min in either brine or in plain water. Samples from Moreomabele were high in acid detergent fibre (ADF) (P < 0.05) and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) (P < 0.01) while samples ...
Palacio Lorena - - 2008
An efficient protocol for the in vitro germination and propagation of Larrea divaricata CAV. (Jarilla) was established. To determine the effect of different growth regulators on the growth rates and phenol production, apical-node microshoots from in vitro germinated plantlets were incubated on the following media: 1) full-strength MS (Murashige and ...
Gibbs-Davis Julianne M - - 2008
Using nonlinear optics, we show that acid-base chemistry at aqueous/solid interfaces tracks bulk pH changes at low salt concentrations. In the presence of 10 to 100 mM salt concentrations, however, the interfacial acid-base chemistry remains jammed for hours, until it finally occurs within minutes at a rate that follows the ...
Banales Jesús M - - 2008
Polycystic kidney (PCK) rats are a spontaneous model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease that exhibit cholangiocyte-derived liver cysts. We have previously reported that in normal cholangiocytes a subset of vesicles contain three proteins (ie, the water channel AQP1, the chloride channel CFTR, and the anion exchanger AE2) that account ...
Garre Elena - - 2009
The role of the acid trehalase encoded by the ATH1 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still unclear. In this work, we investigated the regulation of ATH1 transcription and found a clear involvement of the protein kinase Hog1p in the induction of this gene under severe stress conditions, such ...
Ghosh Suman - - 2008
Colonization by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans varies significantly, depending upon the pH and availability of oxygen. Because of our interest in extracellular molecules as potential quorum-sensing molecules, we examined the physiological conditions which regulate the production of the aromatic alcohols, i.e., phenethyl alcohol, tyrosol, and tryptophol. The production of ...
Kim Y S - - 2008
Salt effect on gelling properties of fish protein isolate (FPI) prepared by acid- and alkali-aided extraction was investigated. Acid- or alkali-extracted FPI formed significantly better gel texture with 0% NaCl than with 3% NaCl. Texture properties of acid- or alkali-extracted FPI decreased as NaCl content increased, especially at 2% to ...
Rolen S H - - 2008
Bile salts are known olfactory stimuli for teleosts, but only a single report has indicated that the taste system of a fish was sensitive to this class of stimuli. Here, gustatory responses of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to four bile salts that included taurine-, glycine- and non-conjugated compounds along ...
Chorghade Mukund S - - 2008
4-Fluoroprolines are among the most useful nonnatural amino acids in chemical biology. Here, practical routes are reported for the synthesis of the 2S,4R, 2S,4S, and 2R,4S diastereomers of 4-fluoroproline. Each route starts with (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline, which is a prevalent component of collagen and hence readily available, and uses a fluoride salt ...
Zorita Saioa - - 2008
Three different SPE sorbents (weak cation exchange, mixed cation exchange, and hydrophobic-lipophilic balance polymers) were compared in terms of recovery, precision, and the effect of matrix components on analyte response for the determination of fluoroquinolones antibiotics. The influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2-EDTA) was as well tested. Two of ...
Bacardit Anna - - 2008
Tanning processes performed in drums consume large amounts of water and chemicals, most of which end up in the wastewater. This study explores an alternative approach at an industrial scale to the traditional pickle-chrome tanning method. The new method replaces formic and sulphuric acids with sulphonic aromatic acid. Because it ...
Martoni Christopher - - 2008
This is the first study of its kind to screen probiotic lactic acid bacteria for the purpose of microencapsulating a highly bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active strain. A Lactobacillus reuteri strain and a Bifidobacterium longum strain were isolated as the highest BSH producers among the candidates. Microcapsules were prepared with a ...
Baldwin R W - - 2008
The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, ...
Dierks Anneke - - 2008
In the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae) essential components of fitness (such as fecundity and longevity) depend to a large degree on exogenous adult-derived nutrients, particularly carbohydrates. We investigated which of the nutrients/compounds found in the adult diet act as feeding stimuli, and whether butterflies show preferences for particular nutrients ...
Rizzi George P - - 2008
Effects of cationic species on Maillard browning were examined after heating (ca. 100 degrees C) aqueous pH 7.2 buffered solutions of amino acids and pentose sugars. Metallic ions of Group I metals (Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) produced a small increase in browning (A420), but somewhat greater effects were ...
Priebe Jacks P - - 2008
The rate of specific hydrogen ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-( p-heptoxyphenyl)-1,3-dioxolane and acid-base equilibrium of 4-carboxy-1-n-dodecylpyridinium in zwitterionic micelles of SB3-14, C14H29NMe2+(CH2)3SO3(-) are controlled by NaClO4, which induces anionic character and uptake of H3O+ in the micelles. Other salts, e.g., NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3, NaI, NaBF4, have similar, but smaller, effects ...
Toelstede Simone - - 2008
The first comprehensive quantitative determination of 49 putative taste-active metabolites and mineral salts in 4- and 44-week-ripened Gouda cheese, respectively, has been performed; the ranking of these compounds in their sensory impact based on dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, followed by the confirmation of their sensory relevance by taste reconstruction and omission ...
Singh Shailendra P - - 2008
In the present investigation we show that the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 produces a single mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA), shinorine (retention time = 2.3 min and absorption maximum at 334 nm) when isolated and purified by HPLC. Although there was significant induction of MAA synthesis from its initial value ...
Zhu Fenfen - - 2008
Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides ...
Qin Jing - - 2008
In the present study, various gradients were evaluated for efficient loading of weak acid into liposomes. Several salt gradients showed efficient loading of ferulic acid (FA) into liposomes and the optimized conditions were established in calcium acetate gradient method to obtain 80.2 +/- 5.2% entrapment efficiency (EE). Unilamellar vesicles were ...
Bigucci Federica - - 2008
Site-specific controlled release systems have been extensively investigated during the last decade. The aim of this study was to describe a pH-dependent drug release system based on chitosan salts for vancomycin hydrochloride delivery. Chitosan salts with succinic acid, adipic acid, and suberic acid were prepared by spray-drying and were coated ...
Sato Keiichi - - 2008
Surface coating of highly luminescent CdS nanocrystals by polyacrylic acid was demonstrated. The method proceeded in 2 steps, (i) modification of the CdS surface by alkyl molecules and (ii) polyacrylic acid coating of the surface modified CdS. Attachment of alkyl ammonium on the CdS surface induced a phase transfer reaction ...
Reis P - - 2008
Dietary fat has long been recognized as an essential component in nutrition. However, most of the lipids present in food need to be converted into more bioavailable compounds. Lipases have a crucial role in converting triglycerides into more polar lipids with increased water solubility and a tendency to form micelles. ...
Voigt Eduardo Luiz - - 2009
Seedling establishment is a critical process to crop productivity, especially under saline conditions. This work was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that reserve mobilization is coordinated with salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth due to changes in source-sink relations. To test this hypothesis, cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) were sown in ...
Brissos V - - 2008
Cutinase is an enzyme suitable for detergent applications as well as for organic synthesis in non-aqueous solvents. However, its inactivation in the presence of anionic surfactants is a problem which we have addressed by creating a complete saturation library. For this, the cutinase gene from Fusarium solani pisi was mutated ...
Rose Kathryn G - - 2008
Heating of the solid ammonium salts obtained from treatment of mellitic acid with 3 equiv of a primary amine yields trisubstituted mellitic triimides via dehydration and imide ring closure. This surprisingly simple synthetic approach is amenable to incorporation of alkyl, aryl, and amino acid ester substituents, thereby opening broad access ...
Horiyama Shizuyo - - 2008
Sorbic acid (SA: CH(3)-CH=CH-CH=CH-COOH) and its salts are widely used as preservatives in foodstuff because of their growth inhibitory effects on mold, yeast and a wide range of bacteria. However, it is still unclear whether SA and its salts are actually incorporated in these organisms and a higher organisms like ...
He Xiaorong - - 2008
In this paper, we report on the self-assembly of water-soluble N,N'-di(N,N'-dimethyl-dodecane-1, 12-diamide)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDDoAM) in formic acid and chloride salts for producing varied nano-aggregates with different optical properties. Interestingly, the self-assembly can lead to nanocubic, microsheet and "tower-like" nanostructures respectively, as demonstrated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. The optical ...
Susoff Markus - - 2008
The rodlike ionogenic polymers poly(p-pyridylene-phenylene) and poly(p-pyridylene/phenylene-ethynylene) form polyelectrolytes when protonated with toluene sulfonic acid or ethane sulfonic acid in chloroform solution. This molecular modification, clearly indicated by a marked red shift of the UV absorption band, induces the formation of prolate, bundlelike aggregates, whose size and shape are obtained ...
Uchida Yoshiaki - - 2008
The partial resolution is described of a series of racemic trans-4-[5-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl-2-yl]benzoic acids (1), which are the key intermediates for the synthesis of chiral organic radical liquid crystalline compounds and are crystallized to give racemic compounds. Racemic acid 1 [(+/-)-1] with a long alkyl chain (C7 to C13) could be resolved ...
Dinar E - - 2008
Recent field observations suggest that ammonium salts of organic acids may be very important in accounting for aerosols' properties in many environments. In this study we present laboratory experiments and calculations on the influence of ammonia reaction with organic aerosol components and its effect upon their (1) subsaturation hygroscopic growth ...
Elevi Bardavid Rahel - - 2008
Antibiotics and bile salts have been used to differentiate between heterotrophic activity of halophilic Archaea and Bacteria in saltern ponds. In NaCl-saturated brines of crystallizer ponds, most activity was attributed to Archaea. Following the recent isolation of Haloquadratum, the dominant archaeon in the salterns (reported to be sensitive to chloramphenicol ...
Benes Dina M - - 2008
Pentasodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid function as chelating agents in cosmetics. Pentasodium Pentetate is readily soluble in water, but the corresponding free acid is not. Pentasodium Pentetate is used in almost 400 cosmetic products over a wide range of product categories, although it is mostly used in hair dyes and ...
Baltruschat Helmut - - 2008
The root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica has been shown to increase resistance against biotic stress and tolerance to abiotic stress in many plants. Biochemical mechanisms underlying P. indica-mediated salt tolerance were studied in barley (Hordeum vulgare) with special focus on antioxidants. Physiological markers for salt stress, such as metabolic activity, ...
Bhattacharya Rahul - - 2008
Cyanide is a rapidly acting neurotoxin that necessitates immediate, vigorous therapy. The commonly used treatment regimen for cyanide includes the intravenous administration of sodium nitrite (SN) and sodium thiosulphate (STS). Due to many limitations of these antidotes, a search for more effective, safer molecules continues. Cyanide is known to react ...
Noweir Kamal H - - 2008
Acid deposition commonly occurs due to conversion of primary acidic pollutants (SO2 & NO2) into secondary pollutants (H2SO4 & HNO3 and their salts). The main natural sources of acid deposition in Alexandria include lightening and microbial processes. Anthropogenic sources include traffic, industrial, fuel burning, and incineration activities. Acid deposition has ...
Nyhlén Jonas - - 2008
A synthetic procedure for the preparation of 4-cyclohexyl-2-methyl-buta-2,3-dienoic acid in the two optically active forms has been developed. Synthesis of the racemic allenoic acid was made by an efficient route with good overall yield. Resolution of the enantiomers was achieved by forming the cinchonidine and cinchonine diastereomeric salt, respectively, and ...
Evans Chris D - - 2008
In the United Kingdom, as in other regions of Europe and North America, recent decreases in surface water sulphate concentrations, due to reduced sulphur emissions, have coincided with marked increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Since many of the compounds comprising DOC are acidic, the resulting increases in organic ...
Sanchez Diego H - - 2008
The model legume Lotus japonicus was subjected to non-lethal long-term salinity and profiled at the ionomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic levels. Two experimental designs with various stress doses were tested: a gradual step acclimatization and an initial acclimatization approach. Ionomic profiling by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed salt stress-induced ...
Novales Bruno - - 2008
We report the dispersions of a fatty acid and hydroxyl derivative salts in aqueous solutions that were further used to produce foams and emulsions. The tetrabutyl-ammonium salts of palmitic acid, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, and omega-hydroxy palmitic acid formed isotropic solutions of micelles, whereas the ethanolamine salts of the same acids ...
Alam Md Sayem - - 2008
Herein we report the effect of various additives (viz. alcohols, cycloalcohols, amino acids, sugars, ureas) on the clouding phenomenon observed in 50mM chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ) drug solutions (prepared in 10mM sodium phosphate buffer). Long chain alcohols (except octanol), cyclohexanol and allylalcohol increased the cloud point (CP) followed by a decrease ...
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