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Results 351 - 400 of 712
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Tan E L - - 1992
TNT was mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium without the need of a rat liver metabolic activation system (S9). The mutagenic potency of TNT decreased in proportion to the number of nitro groups that were reduced to the amino form. The presence of a nitro group on the 4 position of the ...
Kako Y - - 1992
Nitrite treatment enhances the direct-acting mutagenicity of various foodstuffs (e.g., chicken, bloater, the soybean flour 'kinako', and Ban-Ban-Chi sauce) on Salmonella typhimurium TA100. p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and glutathione (GSH) reduced this mutagenicity; on the other hand, thioproline (TPRO) increased it. PABA seemed more effective than TPRO in scavenging nitrite ion. ...
Leyer G J - - 1992
Salmonella typhimurium was adapted to acid by exposure to hydrochloric acid at pH 5.8 for one to two doublings. Acid-adapted cells had increased resistance to inactivation by organic acids commonly present in cheese, including lactic, propionic, and acetic acids. Recovery of cells during the treatment with organic acids was increased ...
Hibino M - - 1992
Components of humic substances, such as vanillin, syringaldehyde, vanillic acid and di-n-butylphtalate, were ozonated and subjected to the mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and 100 with and without S9 mix. The strong mutagenic activity was found on all components except di-n-butylphtalate by strain TA 100 with and without ...
Godin C S - - 1992
Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) is a perfluorinated fatty acid that produces hepatomegaly and increased peroxisomal beta-oxidation when administered to rodents. Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) trimer acid and CTFE tetramer acid are metabolites of the six- and eight-carbon oligomers of CTFE, respectively. They are structurally related to PFDA, and CTFE tetramer acid has caused ...
Matsuda H - - 1992
Humic substances and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, one of their components, were ozonated and quantitative analysis of the mutagenic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glyoxylic acid and methylglyoxal) was performed. Glyoxal and glyoxylic acid were the main mutagenic compounds. The ozone-treated solutions were flowed through a granular activated carbon (GAC) column and the KMnO4 ...
Ayrton A D - - 1992
The ability of the plant phenol ellagic acid to inhibit the mutagenicity of the food mutagen IQ was evaluated using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the Ames mutagenicity test. Ellagic acid caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the S-9- and microsome-mediated mutagenicity of IQ. The plant phenol did not interact directly ...
Papavergou E - - 1992
This paper reports the evaluation of five tetrahydro-beta-carboline carboxylic acids, formed from the interaction of woodsmoke carbonyls and tryptophan, for mutagenicity in the Ames test. Three of the compounds tested have been detected recently in smoked foods at levels in the micrograms/kg or mg/kg range. None of the compounds induced ...
Yen G C - - 1992
The antimutagenic effects of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) prepared by heating three sugars (fructose, glucose and xylose) and four amino acids (arginine, glycine, lysine and tryptophan) at 100 degrees C for 10 hr was evaluated in the Salmonella/microsome assay. The highest extent of browning was found in the MRPs of ...
Dunkel V C - - 1992
The nitrosamine contaminant, N-nitroso-N-methyl-p-aminobenzoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester (NPABAO), of the major sunscreen ingredient Padimate O (4-N,N'-dimethylamino-benzoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester) was synthesized and tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium and mouse lymphoma L5178Y TK +/- assays. In contrast to the previously reported positive responses in S. typhimurium tester strains TA100 ...
Weng Y M - - 1992
Salted and dried fish (Nemipterus virgatus), acquired from Hong Kong, was treated with 0.43-110 mM nitrite during in vitro digestion using gastric enzymes and the volatile N-nitrosamine content and mutagenicity on Salmonella typhimurium TA100 assayed without concentration. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA; the only nitrosamine detected) formation was second order in nitrite concentration. ...
Jung R - - 1992
The genotoxic potential of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of sorbic acid (up to 5000 mg/kg body weight) did not induce sister chromatid exchanges or the formation of micronuclei in bone marrow cells of mice. Intraperitoneal treatment of rats with 400-1200 ...
Vorobjeva L I - - 1991
The antimutagenic effect of dialysed cell extracts of 4 strains of propionic acid bacteria was examined against the mutagenicity of sodium azide in the TA1535 tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium using the Ames test. It was noted that dialysates of 2 strains of Propionibacterium shermanii, P. pentosaceum and P. acnes, ...
Crebelli R - - 1991
The mutagenicity spectra of the organic extracts of both airborne particulate matter and diesel and gasoline soot particles were determined using a battery of 9 bacterial strains of different genetic specificity. The assays with crude extracts and with fractionated acidic, neutral and basic components revealed striking differences in the patterns ...
Espinosa-Aguirre J J - - 1991
Niclosamide is an anti-helminthic drug susceptible to being metabolized into a bacterial mutagen by the action of enzymes present in the S9 activation mixture. Additional results from genotoxic studies in rodents and humans suggest that the drug is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and mutagenic metabolites are excreted both in ...
Kai G - - 1991
In this study, a continuous-flow UV-induced mutation (CUM) device and the CUM device coupled to a selector (CUMS) reactor were fabricated and tested for their ability to enhance the probability of obtaining populations capable of chlorinated organic biodegradation. A mixed culture of bacteria were used as the starting strain for ...
Knize M G - - 1991
A new heterocyclic amine mutagen was isolated from a dry-heated reaction of the natural meat components creatine, glutamic acid and glucose. Heating creatine and glutamic acid alone had only one seventh of the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic activity of the glucose, creatine and glutamic acid mixture. The major mutagenic compound was purified ...
Lawson T A - - 1991
The mutagenicity of N-nitrosobis (2-hydroxypropyl) amine (BHP), N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) and N-nitroso-(2-hydroxy-propyl) (2-oxopropyl) amine (HPOP) was measured in V79 cells. Hepatocytes, used to metabolize (activate) the nitrosamines, were isolated from untreated Syrian hamsters (control) and hamsters treated with clofibrate (CLO) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in vivo. BHP and HPOP mutagenicity increased 3- ...
Gichner T - - 1991
UV-irradiation (254 nm, 10 or 20 J/cm2) of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and p-aminosalicylic acid (NaPAS) potentiated their antimutagenicity towards N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium. Their inhibitory action towards the formation of the mutagen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea from the nitrosation mixture of N-methylurea and nitrite was also increased by UV-irradiation. In contrast, UV-irradiated ...
Ziprin R L - - 1991
Inclusion of lactose in the diets of chickens has been determined to reduce cecal colonization with Salmonella typhimurium. We hypothesized, therefore, that dietary lactose may be a practical means for reducing the prevalence of Salmonella contamination of chicken products. Because some strains of Salmonella are atypical and ferment lactose, we ...
Lynch A M - - 1991
We have investigated covalent binding of radiolabelled [14C]2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) to mouse haemoglobin in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we report the development of a capillary column gas chromatography negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assay capable of detecting MeIQx liberated from haemoglobin after acid or base hydrolysis. Following microsomal activation, the ...
DeMarini D M - - 1991
The following solvents did not induce prophage lambda in the Escherichia coli WP2s(lambda) Microscreen assay: acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, n-hexane, isopropanol, methanol, toluene, and a mixture of the three isomers of xylene. Dimethyl sulfoxide was genotoxic in the presence and absence of S9, and methylene chloride was weakly genotoxic in ...
Boerth D W - - 1991
Ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the STO-3G and 3-21G levels were used to clarify the mechanism of mutagenic action of various substituted allyl chlorides. Computed molecular properties were compared with experimental mutagenic potentials of these allylic compounds. In agreement with experiment, the computational results suggest that the primary mechanism ...
Kozumbo W J - - 1991
As an active ingredient in insect repellents, dimethyl phthalate (DMP) had previously been shown to produce chromosomal aberrations in the livers of rats following subchronic application of the phthalate to skin. When we tested DMP in the Ames mutagenesis assay, it produced in bacterial tester strain TA100 (but not TA98) ...
Zordan M - - 1991
The genotoxicity of a chelating agent, the trisodium salt of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), was assessed in a somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster employing the wing hair markers mwh and flr3. The experiments were performed in parallel in two different laboratories (Padua, Italy and Schwerzenbach, Switzerland). The ...
Mori Y - - 1991
Published data on the mutagenicity of 3 bile acids in the bacterial fluctuation test are conflicting. Eleven 5 beta-cholanoic acids including 2 of the bile acids were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in the fluctuation tests. In any of these bile acids at the doses tested, ...
Jägerstad M - - 1991
Initially, modeling was used to identify the mutagenic heterocyclic amines and their precursors. Major precursors have been shown to be single amino acids or amino acids together with creatine or creatinine. There is also evidence that Maillard reactions are involved since heating sugar and amino acids together with creatine or ...
Wang C Y - - 1991
Effects of diacylmethanes on the mutagenicity of 2-naphthohydroxamic acid, methylnitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium and the tRNA binding by benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B1 were investigated. Acetylacetone, benzoylacetone and dibenzoylmethane inhibited the mutagenicity of 2-naphthohydroxamic acid, and dibenzoylmethane and 1,3-indandione inhibited that of methylnitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene and aflatoxin B1. ...
Manabe S - - 1991
Diesel-exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether carcinogenic amino-alpha-carbolines and amino-gamma-carbolines are present in diesel-exhaust particles. These carcinogens which were originally isolated from pyrolysates of proteins and amino acids have been detected in diesel-exhaust particles obtained from two ...
Osawa T - - 1991
Physodic acid, one of the main constituents of Hypogymnia enteromorpha, inhibited the mutagenicity of indirect mutagens, including benzo[a]pyrene and heterocyclic amines in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. In contrast, it was not effective against direct mutagens such as 6-nitropiperonal and adriamycin. Its antimutagenicity was not associated with free-radical scavenging or antioxidative ...
Iwado H - - 1991
A methanol extract of air-borne particulates collected in a suburban area of Okayama City showed not only mutagenicity but also antimutagenicity in the Ames test. Thus, when the mutagenicity of this preparation in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (with metabolic activation) was measured, we observed that the dose response reached a plateau ...
Shirnamé-Moré L - - 1991
Mutagenicity of 4 popular brands of smokeless tobaccos was studied using a S. typhimurium forward mutation assay. Aqueous extracts of 4 brands and dichloromethane and methanol extracts of 1 of the 4 brands of smokeless tobacco's did not induce significant mutagenicity either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. ...
Takeda K - - 1991
Fatty acids inhibited the direct mutagenicity of N-nitroso compounds in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, Escherichia coli WP2 and WPhcr-, and E. coli H/r30R (wild) and Hs30R (uvrA). This inhibitory activity was dependent on the concentration of fatty acids, and fatty acids with longer alkyl chain were more potent. Of the N-nitroso ...
McGregor D B - - 1991
Twenty-seven chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk+/tk- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay using procedures based upon those described by McGregor et al. (McGregor DB, Martin R, Cattanach P, Edwards I, McBride D, Caspary WJ (1987): Environ Mol Mutagen 9:143-160). Cultures were exposed to the ...
Commandeur J N - - 1991
The mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and metabolism of two regioisomic L-cysteine- and N-acetyl-L-cysteine-S-conjugates of trichloroethylene were studied. The 1,2-dichlorovinyl(1,2-DCV) isomers of both the cysteine conjugate and the mercapturate were much stronger mutagens in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA2638 when compared to the corresponding 2,2-dichlorovinyl (2,2-DCV) isomers. Similarly, the 1,2-DCV isomers ...
Pfau W - - 1990
Molecular orbital calculations with aristolochic acid I (AAI) and the model compounds 8-nitro-1-naphthoic acid (1,8NNA) and 3-nitro-2-naphthoic acid (2,3NNA) confirm a similar conformation of the nitro and carboxyl groups in these molecules. The ortho isomer 2,3NNA is not mutagenic in the Salmonella strains TA 100 or TA 1537, but the ...
Shou M G - - 1990
Products formed in the metabolism of 2S-hydroxy-3-methylcholanthrene (2S-OH-3MC) by liver microsomes prepared from phenobarbital-treated rats were isolated by sequential use of reversed-phase and normal-phase HPLC. Metabolites of 2S-OH-3MC were characterized by UV-visible absorption, mass and circular dichroic spectra, and chiral stationary phase HPLC analyses. The metabolites that had been identified ...
Surh Y J - - 1990
6-Hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene was activated to an electrophilic and mutagenic sulfuric acid ester metabolite by rat and mouse liver sulfotransferase activity. The intrinsic mutagenicity of this reactive ester, 6-sulfooxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene, was inhibited by glutathione and glutathione S-transferase. A single i.p. dose of 2.5 nmol/g body wt of 6-sulfooxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene in infant male B6C3F1 mice ...
Josephy P D - - 1990
Dibenzo[b, d]pyran-6-one, hydroxylated and methoxylated derivatives of this ring system, and some other analogues of the natural product ellagic acid have been synthesized and examined as inhibitors of benzo[a]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide (BPDE) mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. Some of these new compounds have inhibitory effectiveness comparable to the natural ...
Reed G A - - 1990
We have reported previously that cyclopenteno[c,d]pyrene (CPP), an environmentally prevalent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is activated as a bacterial mutagen by several model systems which generate peroxyl radicals. In this report we present our findings on the chemical fate of CPP in these activating systems. The peroxyl radical systems employed are ...
Walker R - - 1990
Sorbic acid and its salts have been subjected to an extensive battery of tests, including acute, short-term and chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity tests, two-generation reproduction and teratogenicity studies. These studies show that sorbic acid and sorbates have a very low level of mammalian toxicity, even in chronic studies at up to 10% ...
Kinderlerer J L - - 1990
A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans-1,3-pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4-hexenol and 4-hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3-pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. ...
Drechsler P A - - 1990
A postmilking teat dip containing chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide was evaluated by experimental challenge and in two herds under natural exposure. The test product had an efficacy of 78.9% against Staphylococcus aureus and 52.5% against Streptococcus agalactiae in the experimental challenge trial. The product was compared with a 1% iodine product ...
Lee M S - - 1990
The objective of the present study was to explore the mechanisms responsible for the strong, direct-acting mutagenicity of 2-naphthohydroxamic acid (NHA) for Salmonella typhimurium TA98. NHA was converted to its O-acetate (O-Ac-NHA) by acetyl-CoA, in the presence of competent or heat-treated cell-free bacterial preparations. O-Ac-NHA, which is more mutagenic than ...
Buonarati M H - - 1990
Metabolism of heterocyclic amines to N-hydroxy intermediates appears critical in the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of these compounds. We have studied the murine hepatic microsomal and cytosolic activation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic amine mutagen formed in cooked meats. PhIP (25 microM) was almost completely converted to N-hydroxy-PhIP and 4'-hydroxy-PhIP ...
Corrier D E - - 1990
The effect of providing lactose in feed and inoculation with volatile fatty acid-producing anaerobic cultures (AC) of cecal flora on Salmonella typhimurium colonization was evaluated in broilers. One-day-old chicks were divided into four groups and provided 1) no lactose, no AC; 2) AC, no lactose; 3) AC and lactose on ...
Corrier D E - - 1990
One-day-old broiler chicks were inoculated with volatile fatty acid producing cecal flora from adult chickens. The chicks were divided into four groups and provided 1) no lactose, 2) 2.5% lactose in water, 3) 5% lactose in feed, or 4) 10% lactose in feed, until 10 days of age. All groups ...
Ziprin R L - - 1990
The combined effect of treatments with dietary lactose plus anaerobic organisms on cecal colonization of broiler chicks by Salmonella typhimurium was evaluated. Chickens treated with a combination of anaerobic organisms and 7% dietary lactose were resistant to cecal colonization by S. typhimurium. The number of recoverable S. typhimurium cells per ...
Renner H W - - 1990
The food components chlorophyllin, beta-carotene and alpha-linolenic acid (in its methyl ester form) were tested in Chinese hamsters for antimutagenic activity on the powerful mutagen thio-tepa. Each of these natural protective compounds inhibited by 70-85% the clastogenic effects induced by the mutagen. When 2 or 3 of these antimutagens were ...
Sanglier J J - - 1990
By mutagenic treatment of a strain of Tolypocladium inflatum, a cyclosporin non-producing mutant was obtained which accumulated the characteristic building unit of cyclosporins, (4R)-4-[(E)-2-butenyl]-4-methyl-L-threonine (abbreviation Bmt; systematic name: (2S,3R,4R,6E)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-octenoic acid) in free form. The isolation from a culture filtrate was performed by extraction, chromatographic separation and final crystallization from methanol ...
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