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Keestra A Marijke - - 2008
Mammalian Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) senses flagellin of several bacterial species and activates the innate immune system. The avian TLR repertoire exhibits considerable functional diversity compared to mammalian TLRs and evidence of a functional TLR5 in the avian species is lacking. In the present study we cloned and successfully expressed ...
Kartal Alma - - 2007
Cigarette smoke contains toxic amounts of acetaldehyde that dissolves in saliva, posing a significant risk of developing oral, laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinomas. L-cysteine, a non-essential amino acid, can react covalently with carcinogenic acetaldehyde to form a stable, non-toxic 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. The main aim of this study was to find out ...
Rishi Praveen - - 2007
Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) encounters short chain fatty acids (inorganic acids containing propionate, butyrate and acetate) in the intestine as well as in food preservatives. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) exposed organisms have been reported to offer resistance to organic acid resulting into enhanced virulence. However, the role ...
Stratford Malcolm - - 2007
The spoilage yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae degraded the food preservative sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) to a volatile hydrocarbon, identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as 1,3-pentadiene. The gene responsible was identified as PAD1, previously associated with the decarboxylation of the aromatic carboxylic acids cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid to ...
Soriano Carolina - - 2007
Arsenic compounds are generally considered as poor inducers of gene mutations. To investigate the mutagenicity of several arsenic compounds at the thymidine kinase (Tk) gene, a reporter gene for mutation induction, we used the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA). This test is widely applied and detects a broad spectrum of mutational ...
Luksiene Zivile - - 2007
Development of new, ecologically safe technologies to control insect pest populations is of great importance. Photoactive compounds usually used for photosensitization might be effective as pesticide agents, with low impact on the environment, being non-toxic and not mutagenic. Phosensitizer accumulates within the insect body and, following exposure to visible light, ...
Finnen M J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Topical treatment of nail diseases is hampered by the nail plate barrier, consisting of dense cross-linked keratin fibres held together by cysteine-rich proteins and disulphide bonds, which prevents penetration of antifungal agents to the focus of fungal infection. Acidified nitrite is an effective treatment for tinea pedis. It releases ...
Blackburne Richard - - 2007
Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are nitrite-oxidising bacteria commonly identified in nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants. Little is known about the growth parameters of Nitrospira or the effects of environmental conditions or inhibitory compounds on Nitrospira activity. These bacterial properties were investigated using an enriched Nitrospira culture and an enriched Nitrobacter culture ...
Makena Patrudu S - - 2007
Benzidine (Bz), a human bladder carcinogen, was strongly mutagenic to Salmonella TA102 tester strain in the Ames Salmonella microsome/mutagenicity assay in the presence of rat liver S9 mix. Various non-mutagenic plant polyphenols were included in the assay to test their inhibitory effects on the Bz-induced mutations. Coumestrol, ellagic acid (EA), ...
Alakomi Hanna-Leena - - 2007
Gram-negative bacteria are important food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Their unique outer membrane (OM) provides them with a hydrophilic surface structure, which makes them inherently resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus hindering their control. However, with permeabilizers, compounds that disintegrate and weaken the OM, Gram-negative cells can be sensitized to ...
Siddique Yasir Hasan - - 2007
Antioxidants and plant products are reported to reduce the genotoxic damage of steroids. In our present study we have tested different dosages of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) against the genotoxic damage induced by ethynodiol diacetate in the presence of S9 mix. Treatments with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) results in the reduction of ...
Drecktrah Dan - - 2007
Following invasion of non-phagocytic host cells, Salmonella enterica survives and replicates within a phagosome-like compartment known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). It is now well established that SCV biogenesis, like phagosome biogenesis, involves sequential interactions with the endocytic pathway. However, Salmonella is believed to limit these interactions and, in particular, ...
Mitschke Anja - - 2007
The nitrated lipids 9-nitro-oleic acid (9-NO(2)-OA) and 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO(2)-OA) have been reported to be present in blood of healthy humans. Free and esterified forms of 9-NO(2)-OA and 10-NO(2)-OA have been detected in human plasma at about 600 and 300 nM, respectively. These concentrations are of the same order of ...
Redshaw Natalie - - 2007
The bioluminescence response of two genetically modified (lux-marked) bacteria to potentially toxic compounds (PTCs) in stomach contents was monitored using an in vitro assay. Cells of Escherichia coli HB101 and Salmonella typhimurium both carrying the lux light producing gene on a plasmid (pUDC607) were added to stomach contents containing various ...
Muellner Mark G - - 2007
Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are toxic nitrogenous drinking water disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) and are observed with chlorine, chloramine, or chlorine dioxide disinfection. Using microplate-based Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assays for chronic cytotoxicity and acute genotoxicity, we analyzed 7 HANs: iodoacetonitrile (IAN), bromoacetonitrile (BAN), dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), bromochloroacetonitrile (BCAN), chloroacetonitrile (CAN), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), ...
Wang Li-Sha - - 2007
Chlorine is a widely used disinfectant which prevents the spread of harmful pathogens when reusing wastewater, but harmful byproducts might be formed and cause adverse ecological and health effects. In this study, the potential effects of chlorination on the genotoxicity of different biologically treated wastewater samples were investigated using the ...
Zhao Yunliang - - 2007
Food cooking can be a significant source of atmospheric particulate organic matter. In this study, the chemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) in PM2.5 emitted from four different Chinese cooking styles were examined by gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified species are consistent in the emissions from different Chinese ...
Kumar Ajit - - 2007
Earlier observations carried out in our laboratory highlighted the mode of action of acetoxy 4-methylcoumarins and quercetin pentaacetate in preventing the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). We have extended the observation to an acetoxy biscoumarin i.e. ellagic acid peracetate (EAPA), which unlike ellagic acid (EA) has demonstrated time-dependent inhibition of ...
Pinches S E - - 2007
The ability of two strains of Trichoderma, isolated from food, to produce the Volatile Organic Compounds 1,3-pentadiene and styrene was investigated. One of the strains had been implicated in a case of food spoilage involving the production of both compounds. In vitro in potato dextrose broth, the strains produced both ...
Koparal A T - - 2006
This study investigates cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of (+)-Usnic acid and (-)-usnic acid isolated from the lichen Ramalina farinacea and the lichen Cladonia foliacea, respectively. To determine the activities of these acids, we used the MTT assay on V79 (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast like) and A549 (human lung carcinoma epithelial ...
Xia Deng-sheng - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Salivary nitrate is positively correlated with plasma nitrate and its level is 9 times the plasma level after nitrate loading. Nitrate in saliva is known to be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. Nitrate and nitrite levels in saliva are 3 - 5 times those in serum in physiological ...
Harris K - - 2006
A study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm) and acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%) were effective in reducing foodborne pathogens in beef trim prior to grinding in a simulated processing environment. The reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at high (4.0 log ...
Kieboom Jasper - - 2006
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium does not survive a pH 2.5 acid challenge under conditions similar to those used for Escherichia coli. Here, we provide evidence that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium can display arginine-dependent acid resistance (AR) provided the cells are grown under anoxic conditions and not under the microaerobic conditions ...
Jolivet-Gougeon A - - 2006
S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic ...
Hsieh Meng-Li - - 2006
In this study, soymilk was first fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum) both individually and simultaneously. Mutagenicity and the suppression of fermented soymilk against the mutagenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO), a direct-acting mutagen, and 3,2'-dimethyl-4-amino-biphenyl (DMAB), an indirect-acting mutagen, on Salmonella ...
Vadivelu Vel M - - 2006
The inhibitory effects of nitrite (NO2-)/free nitrous acid (HNO2-FNA) on the metabolism of Nitrobacter were investigated using a method allowing the decoupling of the growth and energy generation processes. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was operated forthe enrichment of a Nitrobacter culture. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that ...
Winkler Christiana - - 2006
Antioxidant preservatives prolong the quality of food and ensure the nutritional adequacy, palatability and safety of many processed foods and beverages. Effects of sodium sulfite (E221) and sorbic acid (E200) were investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) which were purified from blood of healthy donors. Cells were stimulated ...
Türk Hayrettin - - 2006
The antimicrobial activity and the MIC values of the ethanol, chloroform, diethyl ether, and acetone extracts of the chemical races of Pseudevernia furfuracea (var. furfuracea and var. ceratea) and their physodic acid, chloroatranorin, atranorin, and olivetoric acid constituents have been investigated against some microorganisms. Nearly all extracts of both chemical ...
Schrader T J - - 2006
Previously, Alternaria extract and metabolite mutagenicities+/-nitrosylation were characterized using Ames Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100, which are both reverted at GC sites. To examine other targets for mutation, the metabolites Altertoxin I (ATX I), Altenuene (ALT), Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), Tentoxin (TENT), Tenuazonic acid (TA) and Radicinin (RAD) ...
Peterson Sabrina - - 2006
In humans, apiaceous vegetables (carrots, parsnips, celery, parsley, etc.) inhibit cytochrome P-450 1A2, a biotransformation enzyme known to activate several procarcinogens, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB). We evaluated eight phytochemicals from apiaceous vegetables for effects on human cytochrome P-450 1A2 (hCYP1A2) activity using a methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) assay and a trp-recombination ...
Yu Feng-Yih - - 2006
Aristolochic acid, a naturally occurring nephrotoxin and rodent carcinogen, has been associated with the development of various nephropathies in humans. Developing a sensitive and rapid method to screen the aristolochic acid levels in herbal remedies is urgent for protecting public health. Polyclonal antibodies for aristolochic acid were generated from rabbits ...
Cemeli Eduardo - - 2006
Drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are generated by the chemical disinfection of water and may pose a hazard to the public health. Previously we demonstrated that iodoacetic acid was the most cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP analyzed in a mammalian cell system. Little is known of the mechanisms of its genotoxicity. ...
Meinl Walter - - 2006
Use of herbal preparations containing Aristolochia species has led to progressive nephropathy and urothelial cancer in humans. Analysis of DNA adducts formed in human target tissues and studies in animal models have pointed out a major role of the secondary plant metabolites, aristolochic acids, in these effects. Only a minority ...
Chilaka K C - - 2006
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic originally extracted from the fungus Streptomyces venezuelae, but it is now synthesized. It is a drug of choice for many of its toxicity in the blood-forming organs. The main objective of this study is to find out how to reduce the anemic effects of chloramphenicol and ...
Grummt Tamara - - 2006
2-Amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (2-A-4,6-DNBA), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrobenzoic acid (4-A-2,6-DNBA), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (2,4,6-TNBA), 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrobenzylalcohol (2-A-4,6-DNBAlc), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrobenzylalcohol (4-A-2,6-DNBAlc), 2,4-dinitrotoluol-5-sulfonic acid (2,4-DNT-5-SA), 2,4-dinitrotoluol-3-sulfonic acid (2,4-DNT-3-SA), and 2, 4-dinitrobenzoic acid (2,4-DNBA) are derivatives of nitro-explosives that have been detected in groundwater close to munitions facilities. In the present study, the genotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated ...
Kawai Kazuaki - - 2006
Since the diet plays an important role in the development of human cancer, it is important to identify mutagens in foods. We have detected a novel mutagenic product, 4-oxo-2-hexenal (4-OHE), in a model lipid peroxidation reaction mixture [H. Kasai, M. Maekawa, K. Kawai, K. Hachisuka, Y. Takahashi, H. Nakamura, R. ...
Maekawa Muneyuki - - 2006
We searched for mutagens that react with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) in model systems of lipid peroxidation. To autoxidation systems of methyl linoleate (model of omega-6 fat), methyl alpha-linolenate (MLN) (model of omega-3 fat), and commercial salad oil, dGuo was added. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by HPLC. Six adducts were detected, ...
Onoue Satomi - - 2006
PURPOSE: Phototoxic responses after administration of photosensitive pharmaceutics have been recognized as undesirable side effects, and predicting potential hazardous side effects is gaining importance as new drugs are introduced to the market. In this work, we characterize the photochemical/photobiological properties of model compounds to develop an effective screening method for ...
Yang Huang-Yu - - 2006
Chinese herbs nephropathy is known as a subacute interstitial nephritis attributed to aristolochic acid. This work describes the case of a 49-year-old male who displayed subacute renal failure induced by ingestion of herbal powder containing Xi Xin, which includes aristolochic acid. Since Xi Xin is a common ingredient in traditional ...
Cheung Thomas P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Certain frequently used Chinese herbal medicines commonly used for weight control, may contain toxic Aristolochia species, which have been associated with severe nephropathy and urothelial cancer in humans and animals. The toxic entities in Aristolochia species are aristolochic acid-I (AA-I) and aristolochic acid-II (AA-II). There is a lack of ...
Andersen Alan - - 2006
Benzaldehyde is an aromatic aldehyde used in cosmetics as a denaturant, a flavoring agent, and as a fragrance. Currently used in only seven cosmetic products, its highest reported concentration of use was 0.5% in perfumes. Benzaldehyde is a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) food additive in the United States and ...
Van Immerseel F - - 2005
Short-chain fatty acids have been widely used as feed additives to control Salmonella in poultry. Data on the use of butyric acid in poultry are lacking. In this study, powder form and coated butyric acid were compared in their ability to reduce Salmonella colonization of ceca and internal organs shortly ...
Birosová Lucia - - 2005
In the present study, the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA 100 was used in the plate-incorporation test to examine the antimutagenic potential of caffeic, ferulic and cichoric acids extracted from plant species of genera Echinacea (L) Moench, as well as of another phenolic acids, on 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid (5NFAA) and sodium ...
Masuda Shuichi - - 2005
We examined the mutagenic activity of each of 29 amino acids mixed under acidic conditions with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and nitrite using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 100 with or without a metabolic activation system (S9 mix). The reaction mixture containing L-cysteine was strongly mutagenic without S9 mix. We subjected an ethyl ...
Ozkul Y - - 2005
The in vitro anticarcinogenic potential of propolis in human lymphocytes was investigated. Blood samples were obtained from ten healthy males, non-smoking volunteers, which were incubated and exposed to increasing concentrations of propolis (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 ml). The mean micronucleus rates were 1.47 +/- 0.38 - ...
Whittaker Paul - - 2005
Chromium picolinate is one of the most commonly used chromium dietary supplements available in the United States, and it has been marketed to consumers for use in weight loss, increasing muscle mass, and lowering serum cholesterol. Chromium picolinate is a synthetic compound that provides a bioavailable form of Cr(III) that ...
Suzuki H - - 2005
When saliva, with its high nitrite content derived from the enterosalivary recirculation of dietary nitrate, meets acidic gastric juice, the nitrite is converted to nitrous acid, nitrosative species, and nitric oxide. In healthy volunteers this potentially mutagenic chemistry is focused at the gastric cardia. We have studied the location of ...
Gustavino Bianca - - 2005
The use of chlorinated disinfectants during drinking-water production has been shown to generate halogenated compounds as a result of interactions of humic acids with chlorine. Such chlorinated by-products have been shown to induce genotoxic effects and consumption of chlorinated drinking-water has been correlated with increased risk for cancer induction in ...
Kasai Hiroshi - - 2005
To identify mutagens formed in a model reaction of lipid peroxidation, linolenic acid methyl ester and hemin were reacted with dG. As a result, a 4-oxo-2-hexenal-dG adduct (dG*) was identified in the model reaction mixture. The 4-oxo-2-hexenal (4-OHE) showed mutagenic activity in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA104. After ...
Totsuka Yukari - - 2005
A kind of N-nitrosobile acid conjugate, N-nitrosotaurocholic acid (NO-TCA), was incubated with calf thymus DNA, and formation of an adduct was detected by the 32P-postlabeling method under nuclease P1 conditions. To examine the nucleotides containing the adduct from NO-TCA, each of 2'-deoxyribonucleotide 3'-monophosphates (3'-dAp, 3'-dGp, 3'-dCp, or 3'-Tp) was incubated ...
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