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Results 451 - 500 of 712
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Namba T - - 1988
It has been presumed that ring-A-aromatized bile acids are produced from biliary bile acids by intestinal flora and the acids thus formed participate in the large bowel carcinogenesis. One of these acids is probably 3-hydroxy-19-nor-1,3,5(10)-cholatrien-24-oic acid, judged from the literatures. Consequently, this acid was synthesized from previously prepared 3-methoxy-19-nor-1,3,5(10)-cholatrien-24-ol. The ...
Romanin C - - 1988
Nitrovasodilators relax vascular smooth muscle by stimulating guanylate cyclase. Ignarro et al. (1981) proposed a mechanistic scheme according to which organic nitrates release nitrite in the presence of thiols. The corresponding nitrous acid would decay leading to nitric oxide, which then would react with another thiol to nitrosothiol. Dose-response relations ...
Shihab F A - - 1988
The effects of sucrose, glucose, sorbitol, and saccharin on the aqueous solubility of sorbic acid at 20 and 37 degrees C were determined. Sucrose, glucose, and sorbitol decreased the solubility of sorbic acid with increasing concentrations at both temperatures. Increasing the concentrations of these sweetening agents resulted in decreases in ...
Lunn G - - 1988
Spills of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, N-methyl-N-nitrosourethane and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourethane can be decontaminated using a mixture of ethanol and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. Spills of N-methyl-N-nitroso-p-toluenesulphonamide, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine can be decontaminated with a solution of sulphamic acid in 2 M-hydrochloric acid. In all cases the nitrosamides are completely destroyed and only ...
Kappas A - - 1988
The plant growth-regulating hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), both strong recombinogens in Aspergillus nidulans, were tested in Salmonella typhimurium strains for his revertants at a range of concentrations from 1 to 2000 micrograms/plate with and without metabolic activation and were found negative. Also 3 herbicides of the ...
Martin W - - 1988
1. Unactivated extracts of bovine retractor penis (BRP) contains 3-7 microM nitrite. Acid-activation of these extracts at pH 2 for 10 min followed by neutralization generates the active form of inhibitory factor (IF; assayed by its vasodilator action on rabbit aorta), and is associated with partial loss of nitrite. 2. ...
Ayrton A D AD Department of Biochemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, Great - - 1988
The ability of anthraflavic acid to inhibit the mutagenicity of IQ was investigated using the Ames test and employing hepatic activation systems from Aroclor 1254-pretreated rats. Incorporation of anthraflavic acid into the S9 mix caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the mutagenicity of IQ. A similar effect was seen when microsomes ...
Salomaa S - - 1988
Samples of indoor air were collected from an office room (88 m3) both before smoking and during experimental smoking of 96 cigarettes by 10 persons within 6 h. The particulates were collected on glass-fibre filters and the vapour-phase compounds on XAD-2 resin. The samples were extracted with acetone and analysed ...
Fung V A - - 1988
The mutagenicity of 4 coffee flavor ingredients (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, pyrazine, and trigonelline) was evaluated in the Salmonella plate incorporation assay and mouse lymphoma L5178Y TK +/- assay. Two of the compounds, pyrazine and trigonelline, were negative in both assays. The other two compounds, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, ...
Humphrey T J - - 1988
The treatment of feed given to laying hens with 0.5% formic acid reduced significantly the isolation rate of salmonellas and was associated with a reduction in the incidence of infection in newly hatched chicks. These improvements were not sustained until slaughter, however, as growing birds acquired salmonellas, probably from feed ...
Nesnow S - - 1988
The metabolites of benz[j]aceanthrylene (B[j]A) produced by incubation with liver S9 proteins from rats induced with Aroclor-1254 and phenobarbital have been identified as: trans-B[j]A-1,2-dihydrodiol, B[j]A-9,10-dihydrodiol, B[j]A-11,12-dihydrodiol, and 10-hydroxy-B[j]A. The major metabolite formed (58-60%) by both induced S9 preparations was trans-B[j]A-1,2-dihydrodiol, the cyclopenta-ring dihydrodiol while oxidation at the k-region or the ...
McGregor D B - - 1988
Seventy-two chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk+/- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, using procedures based upon those described by Clive and Spector (Mutat Res 44:269-278, 1975) and Clive et al. (Mutat Res 59:61-108, 1979). Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then ...
Hayatsu H - - 1988
Blue-cotton (-rayon) adsorbable fractions of human urines were examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with metabolic activation. Ingestion of cooked beef caused significant increases in urinary mutagenicity that were comparable to that caused by cigarette smoking. When a sample obtained after ingestion of cooked beef was passed through a ...
Jones R C - - 1988
Laboratory models were used to study the inhibition of mutagen formation by Maillard-type reactions during cooking of meats or fish. The amino acid L-proline (L-pro) was an effective, dose-dependent inhibitor of the development of mutagenicity (Ames test) in a liquid-reflux model of glucose + glycine + creatine known to produce ...
Whong W Z - - 1988
Chlorophyllin was studied for its antimutagenic activity against aflatoxin B1 in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 using the plate-incorporation test in the presence of S9 activation. Comparative antimutagenicity between chlorophyllin and certain commonly studied antimutagens (i.e., vitamins A, C, and E, retinoic acid, and beta-carotene) was also examined. A dose-related inhibition ...
Ayrton A D AD Biochemistry Department, University of Surrey, Guildford, - - 1987
Consideration of the computer-optimised dimensions of anthraflavic acid indicates that it is essentially a planar molecule with a large area/depth ratio, that would preferentially interact with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced family of cytochrome P-450 proteins (cytochromes P-448). Anthraflavic acid was a potent inhibitor of the O-deethylations of ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin, ...
Alzieu P - - 1987
Vitamin A deficiency has been shown to enhance the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (Narbonne et al., 1985). Here we report that this is not a result of increased benzo[a]pyrene metabolism but might be a consequence of either a lack of vitamin A or a decreased level of scavengers (ascorbic acid and ...
Sayato Y - - 1987
The mutagenicity of products formed by ozonation of naphthoresorcinol in aqueous solution was assayed with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA104 in the presence and absence of S9 mix from phenobarbital- and 5,6-benzoflavone-induced rat liver. Ozonated naphthoresorcinol was mutagenic in TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA104 without S9 ...
Ahmad M U - - 1987
The nitrosation of gramine, a tertiary amine alkaloid present in barley malt, was carried out by reaction with sodium nitrite in buffered acetic acid (pH 3.4) for 1 hr at room temperature. Following the previous isolation and identification of the major nitrosation products (Ahmad et al. Fd Chem. Toxic. 1985, ...
Laser Reuterswärd A - - 1987
The mutagenicity of pan-fried patties of five bovine tissues (meat, heart, tongue, liver and kidney) containing various concentrations of creatine, monosaccharides and free amino acids were studied. Two experiments were performed, one on single tissues fried at 150, 175 or 200 degrees C for 3 min and the other on ...
Gichner T - - 1987
p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) exhibited antimutagenic activity toward N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG)-induced mutagenicity in the Ames assay in Salmonella typhimurium. The antimutagenic effects were associated with an increased rate of decomposition of MNNG in the presence of PABA. The participation of other mechanisms, such as the alteration of cellular processes by PABA, however, cannot ...
Herren-Freund S L - - 1987
Trichloroethylene (TCE) has previously been shown to be carcinogenic in mouse liver when administered by daily gavage in corn oil. The metabolism of TCE results, in part, in the formation of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a major metabolite and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) as a minor metabolite. These chlorinated acetic acids ...
Vamvakas S - - 1987
The metabolism of the mercapturic acids S-pentachlorobutadienyl-N-acetylcysteine (N-Ac-PCBC), S-trichlorovinyl-N-acetylcysteine (N-Ac-TCVC) and S-dichlorovinyl-N-acetylcysteine (N-Ac-DCVC) by subcellular fractions from male rat liver and kidney homogenates was studied. As a model compound, N-Ac-PCBC, 14C labelled, was synthesised. It was intensively metabolised by cytosolic but not by microsomal enzymes from rat liver and kidney. ...
Tan H K - - 1987
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for water treatment. Many organic compounds present in water and food treated with ClO2 are subject to oxidation. 21 amino acids and 3 peptides (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame), L-glycyl-L-tryptophan and L-tryptophylglycine) were studied for their ...
Mullin C A - - 1987
The mutagenicities of 12 conjugated non-fused nitroaromatic compounds and 1 amino analogue were determined in strains TA100 and TA98 of Salmonella typhimurium. Reversions by p-nitroaromatics increased in the order of the acetophenone, benzaldehyde, styrene, chalcone, cinnamic acid and stilbene indicating the importance for mutagenic potency of extended conjugation to the ...
Guttenplan J B - - 1987
Aqueous extracts of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, chewing tobacco, smokeless tobacco) sold in the USA are mutagenic in the base-pair substitution mutant, Salmonella typhimurium TA100, with potencies of 8000-16,000 revertants/g tobacco. Most of the activity failed to extract into organic solvents at neutral pH and a portion of the activity ...
Wallin H - - 1987
The nature of the adducts formed between benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and globin were investigated in animals treated with [3H]BP. Modification levels on globin were determined by radioactivity measurements. Since BP tetraols can be released from benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide modified protein and DNA by acid treatment, globin samples were treated with acid, ...
Whong W Z - - 1987
Polar solvent extracts of tobacco snuff under acidic conditions were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium. Using the Griess reagent test, nitrite ranging from approximately 1.8 to 5.4 mg/g of snuff was found in the polar fraction of extracts. After acid treatment, nitroso compounds in the amount corresponding to the nitrite concentration ...
Sato T - - 1987
Humic acid inhibited the mutagenicity of various mutagens. The inhibitory effect was desmutagenic, heat-resistant and increased with an increase of the humic acid molecular weight. Typical monomeric components of humic acids had no desmutagenic effect. The desmutagenic effect of humic acid was caused by adsorption of mutagen, not by decomposition ...
Venitt S - - 1987
3 bile acids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid) were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in fluctuation tests in the absence of an external source of metabolic activation. At the doses tested, there were no dose-related statistically significant increases in mutagenicity compared with appropriate controls. ...
LaVelle J M - - 1987
Azide is metabolized to the proximate mutagen, L-azidoalanine in bacterial systems. While this novel mutagenic metabolite plays a key role in azide mutagenesis, the biochemistry of this role is unknown. The chemical synthesis of authentic racemic azidoalanine and several derivatives thereof allowed the exploration of structure-activity relationships with this unique ...
Sasaki Y - - 1987
An organic extract of airborne particles collected in Tokyo and its fractions (neutral, acidic, and basic) were investigated in Ames Salmonella assays for mutagenicity and in newborn mice for carcinogenicity. Mutagenicity to TA100 and TA98 strains was detected in the whole extract, the neutral, the acidic and the basic fractions ...
Yates I E - - 1987
Toxic properties of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxin B1 have been analyzed separately and in combination by monitoring their effects on luminescence in the marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum, Strain NCMB 844. Genotoxicity was analyzed with a dark mutant of this organism whose reversion to the bioluminescent condition is stimulated ...
de France B F - - 1987
Benzidine and several derivatives are activated to mutagenic species in an H2O2-dependent Ames test system. Optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy are employed in studies of the H2O2-dependent oxidation of benzidine and 3,5,3',5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) catalyzed by intact bacteria, and provide direct evidence for peroxidase activity in Salmonella typhimurium. The ...
Speer M - - 1987
The detoxification of penicillic acid by reaction with ammonia was examined by means of a polymerase assay using two strains of Escherichia coli (pol A+ and pol A-1) and a recombination assay using two strains of Bacillus subtilis (rec+ and rec-). A 100-fold surplus of ammonia added to penicillic acid ...
Watson W P - - 1987
This study has confirmed that the direct mutagenicity previously observed when S. typhimurium TA100 was treated with (Z)-1,3-dichloropropene (DCP) was in fact due to trace impurities. These impurities result from autoxidation of (Z)-1,3-DCP and have now been identified. Both (Z)- and (E)-2-chloro-3-(chloromethyl)oxiranes (DCP oxides) were identified as significant products during ...
Gichner T - - 1987
The frequency of his+ revertants induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium was decreased by gallic and tannic acid. In weak buffer solutions, the inhibition effects of gallic acid towards MNU and MNNG mutagenicity was caused primarily by a decrease of pH in ...
Shephard S E - - 1987
Nitrosation of dietary components has been combined with the 4-(para-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) colorimetric test for screening alkylating agents and with the Ames test for the detection of mutagenic activity. This allowed the investigation of short-lived nitrosation products of dietary components which generate electrophilic degradation products requiring no metabolic activation (natural amino ...
van Broekhoven L W - - 1987
The effect of lettuce cultivars on the nitrosation rate of proline was investigated. The lettuce was analysed for the presence of phenolic compounds. Lettuce and/or fish was incubated with nitrite under acidic conditions, and the incubation mixtures were investigated for the presence of N-nitroso compounds and mutagenic activity. Both volatile ...
Alldrick A J - - 1986
The ability of 3 plant flavonoids (morin, myricetin and quercetin) and 4 polyphenolic acids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid and ferulic acid) to inhibit the genotoxic effects of a number of cooked-food mutagens (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2), was investigated in a bacterial mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium ...
Mori M - - 1986
The mutagenicity of 2-hydroxylamino-4-nitrotoluene (2HA4NT), 4-hydroxylamino-2-nitrotoluene (4HA2NT), 2-hydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (2HA6NT) or 4-acetylamino-2-hydroxylaminotoluene (4AA2HAT) towards Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 was investigated in the absence and presence of uridine-5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA), acetyl CoA or 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) systems, or S9 mix. None of the hydroxylaminonitrotoluenes (2HA4NT, 4HA2NT or 2HA6NT) were mutagenic in ...
Meier J R - - 1986
Chlorination of humic and fulvic acid results in the formation of direct-acting mutagenicity, detectable in the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test). This mutagenicity is being characterized as part of an overall effort aimed at evaluating potential health risks associated with the presence of mutagenic chemicals in drinking water. A number of ...
Smart R C - - 1986
The effect of ellagic acid and its more lipophilic derivative, 3-O-decylellagic acid, on the amount of DNA-bound adducts in the epidermis or lung of CD-1 mice treated with [3H]benzo-[a]pyrene ([3H]B[a]P) was evaluated using several different treatment protocols. The i.v. administration of 50 mumol/kg of ellagic acid or 3-O-decylellagic acid either ...
Smart R C - - 1986
The effect of ellagic acid and some of its more lipophilic derivatives on the mutagenicity of (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenz[a]pyrene was examined in Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Ellagic acid, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid, 4,4'-di-O-methylellagic acid and 3-O-decylellagic acid were found to have approximately equal antimutagenic activity. The tissue distribution and elimination of ...
Sato T - - 1986
In the present study, humic acid was not found to be mutagenic and did not inhibit spontaneous mutation. It did, however, inhibit the mutagenicities of benzo[a]pyrene and 3-aminoanthracene (+S9 mix), but not the mutagenicities of 4NQO, AF-2 and MNNG (-S9 mix). 2-Nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene do not need S9 mix for ...
Zoetemelk C E - - 1986
1,2-Dibromopropane was administered orally in doses of 50-350 mg/kg to male Wistar rats. Four mercapturic acids were identified in urine by GC/MS, viz. N-acetyl-S-(2-oxopropyl)-L-cysteine (I), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (II), N-acetyl-S-(1-carboxyethyl)-L-cysteine (III), and N-acetyl-S-(2-bromo-2-propenyl)-L-cysteine (IV). Mercapturic acid IV was a minor metabolite which could only be measured at doses of 200 mg/kg or ...
Kammerer R C - - 1986
Methapyrilene, four structurally related antihistamines, three metabolites of methapyrilene and two products of the reaction of methapyrilene with nitrite were all tested for mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium. The two products of the methapyrilene-nitrite reaction have also been identified as metabolites of methapyrilene. None was mutagenic alone, either with or without ...
Tomoda R - - 1986
Preliminary screening of polycyclic mutagens is achieved within 20 min by using a biomimetic electrode composed of an oxygen electrode and a copper-phthalocyanine membrane. When benzo[alpha]pyrene (0.05 mM) was added to the buffer solution in the presence of 0.98 M hydrogen peroxide, the current of the phthalocyanine electrode decreased. A ...
Terada M - - 1986
A mutation assay system with Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL) using diphtheria toxin resistance as a selective marker has been established. The mutagenic activities of heterocyclic amines, originally isolated from pyrolyzates of amino acids and proteins, broiled fish and fried beef were assayed in cultured CHL cells in the absence ...
Caspary W J - - 1986
Methylisocyanate (MIC) induced mutagenic responses in the absence of exogenous activation in the mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay at concentrations as low as 8-24 microM. MIC produced predominantly small mutant colonies, suggesting the possibility of clastogenic activity. The intermediate hydrolysis product, methylamine, was also mutagenic without exogenous activation but ...
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