Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2627
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Dymkowska Dorota - - 2006
Arachidonic acid and, to a smaller extent, oleic acid at micromolar concentrations decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential within AS-30D rat hepatoma cells cultivated in vitro and increased cell respiration. The uncoupling effect of both fatty acids on cell respiration was partly prevented by cyclosporin A, blocker of the mitochondrial permeability ...
Hughes-Fulford Millie - - 2006
Essential fatty acids are not only energy-rich molecules; they are also an important component of the membrane bilayer and recently have been implicated in induction of fatty acid synthase and other genes. Using gene chip analysis, we have found that arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, induced 11 genes that ...
Zhang Gu - - 2006
In this study, we investigated the effects of arachidonic acid, a PLA2-produced lipid metabolite, on the lysosomal permeability, osmotic sensitivity and stability. Through the measurements of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase free activity, membrane potential, intralysosomal pH, and lysosomal latency loss in hypotonic sucrose medium, we established that arachidonic acid could increase the ...
López-Nicolás Rubén - - 2006
Arachidonic acid, one of the major unsaturated fatty acids released during cell stimulation, participates in the signaling necessary for activation of different enzymes, including protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid is a direct activator of PKCalpha, but needs the cooperation of Ca(2+) to exert its function. ...
Schneider Claus - - 2006
5-Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) initiate the biosynthesis of distinct families of mediators from arachidonic acid (leukotrienes and prostaglandins, respectively) and are each the target of anti-inflammatory medications. Here we show that the product of 5-lipoxygenase, 5S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, is selectively and efficiently triply oxygenated by COX-2, implicating a cross-pathway interaction. The ...
Wei Shouzou - - 2006
An HPLC method for the chiral analysis of the four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) is described. The cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase metabolites are resolved, without the need for derivatization, by chiral-phase HPLC on a Chiralcel OJ column. Application of this methodology to the analysis of the liver endogenous EETs ...
Ong Wee-Liat - - 2006
The fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane during exocytosis can be recorded by membrane capacitance measurements under voltage-clamp conditions. These measurements enable high time-resolution quantitation of exocytosis. The present study was carried out using the above technique to elucidate the effects of various polyunsaturated fatty acids on exocytosis ...
Grandel Ulrich - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcal alpha-toxin and Escherichia coli hemolysin (ECH) evoke cardiac dysfunction in isolated rat hearts by provoking myocardial synthesis of arachidonic acid-derived thromboxane A2 or the cysteinyl-leukotrienes, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, respectively. We investigated whether low doses of either toxin, which fail to induce cardiac depression by themselves, induce cardiac ...
Zemski Berry Karin A - - 2006
When aminophospholipids with only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids esterified to the glycerol backbone were labeled with isotopically enriched N-methylpiperazine acetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagents, it was found that they could be readily detected as N-methylpiperazine-amide-tagged aminophospholipids using a precursor scan of the stable isotope reporter ion (m/z 114-117) formed ...
Leik Courtney E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress, elevated plasma levels of linoleic acid (LA), and increased vascular smooth muscle expression of the inflammatory chemokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8). We hypothesized that increased levels of LA under conditions of oxidative stress would increased production of IL-8 by vascular smooth muscle cells because LA ...
Christon Raymond - - 2005
Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are known to modulate endothelial dysfunction, which is the first stage of atherosclerosis. However, their exact role in this initial phase is still unclear. The effects of isolated or combined (by 2) purified FAs from the main FA families were studied on the vascular response of ...
Shi Qi-Xian - - 2005
We investigated, using guinea-pig spermatozoa as a model, whether phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is involved in progesterone or zona pellucida (ZP)-stimulated acrosomal exocytosis, if progesterone enhances ZP-induced activation of PLA2, and mechanisms underlying PLA2 regulation. Spermatozoa were capacitated and labeled in low Ca2+ medium with [14C]choline chloride or [14C]arachidonic acid, washed, ...
Jun Mira - - 2005
Inhibitory effect of kudzu isoflavones on arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were investigated. Isoflavone aglycones, such as daidzein, genistein, biochanin A, and formononetin significantly suppressed arachidonic acid release (50 microM). Biochanin A, which displayed the most active inhibition on arachidonic acid ...
DeTure Michael - - 2006
Formation of inclusions containing polymerized tau protein is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. In vitro studies have demonstrated the ability of polyglycosaminoglycans and fatty acids to promote tau polymerization. In this report, we examined their impact on tau polymerization separately and together. Tau assembly with only arachidonic ...
Caro Andres A - - 2006
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) comprise a set of extracellular and intracellular enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn-2 fatty acyl bond of phospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids. The PLA2 reaction is the primary pathway through which arachidonic acid (AA) is released from phospholipids. PLA2s have an important role ...
Tang Xin - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Aortic 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) metabolizes arachidonic acid (AA) to 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, which is then converted to the vasodilators 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid. These metabolites contribute to endothelium-dependent relaxations of rabbit aorta to AA and acetylcholine. We investigated the identity of rabbit aortic 15-LO and studied its importance in the ...
Gross Garrett J - - 2005
Ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and other organs results in the accumulation of unesterified arachidonic acid (AA) via the action of membrane-bound phospholipases, primarily phospholipase A2. AA can be metabolized by the classical cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways to well-characterized metabolites and their respective cardioprotective end products such as prostacyclin ...
Knights Kathleen M - - 2005
The exact mechanism(s) of NSAID-induced nephrotoxicity remains unclear, but most theories centre on the initial inhibition of COX and the subsequent perturbation of the numerous actions of COX in the kidney. Since the nineteenth century no NSAIDs have been developed that are devoid of renal adverse effects, including the COX-2 ...
Du Liping - - 2006
The epidermis expresses cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochromes P450, which utilize arachidonic acid to generate a diverse array of lipid mediators affecting epidermal cellular differentiation and functions. Recent studies show that mouse epidermis expresses CYP2B19, a keratinocyte-specific epoxygenase that generates 11,12- and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic (EET) acids from arachidonate. We studied CYP2B19-dependent metabolism ...
Xiang Lusha - - 2006
These studies tested the hypothesis that in obese Zucker rats (OZRs), a model of metabolic syndrome, the impaired functional vasodilation is due to increased thromboxane receptor (TP)-mediated vasoconstriction and/or decreased prostacyclin-induced vasodilation. Spinotrapezius arcade arterioles from 12-wk-old lean (LZR) and OZR were chosen for microcirculatory observation. Arteriolar diameter (5 LZR ...
Roy Uzzal - - 2005
5,6-trans-AA (5,6-TAA, where TAA stands for trans-arachidonic acid) is a recently identified trans fatty acid that originates from the cis-trans isomerization of AA initiated by the NO2 radical. This trans fatty acid has been detected in blood circulation and we suggested that it functions as a lipid mediator of the ...
Ciccoli Roberto - - 2005
Cyclo-oxygenases-1/2 (COX-1/2) catalyse the oxygenation of AA (arachidonic acid) and related polyunsaturated fatty acids to endoperoxide precursors of prostanoids. COX-1 is referred to as a constitutive enzyme involved in haemostasis, whereas COX-2 is an inducible enzyme expressed in inflammatory diseases and cancer. The fungus Dipodascopsis uninucleata has been shown by ...
Seki Takayuki - - 2005
We examined the effect of N-hydroxy-N'-(4-butyl-2-methylphenyl)-formamidine) (HET0016), an inhibitor of 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthesis on the omega-hydroxylation and epoxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) catalyzed by recombinant cytochrome P450 4A1 (CYP4A1), CYP4A2 and CYP4A3, and characterized the enzyme inhibitory profile of HET0016. The IC50 values of HET0016 for recombinant CYP4A1-, CYP4A2- ...
Chávez Ibeth Oviedo - - 2005
Hexane extract from the bark of Amphipterygium adstringens, as well as its principal constituents, masticadienonic acid and 3alpha-hydroxymasticadienolic acid, inhibited the growth of five human cancer cell lines. Derivatives of, namely 24,25 S-dihydromasticadienonic acid and masticadienolic acid, were also evaluated. The results showed that both and had greater activity than ...
Chen Wen-Ying - - 2005
We investigated whether GABA activates phospholipase A2 (PLA2) during acrosomal exocytosis, and if the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway modulates PLA2 activation initiated by GABA, progesterone or zona pellucida (ZP). In guinea pig spermatozoa prelabelled with [14C]arachidonic acid or [14C]choline chloride, GABA stimulated a decrease in phosphatidylcholine (PC), and release of arachidonic acid ...
Dunn Laurel K - - 2005
Shell-less culture of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of developing chicken embryos is a useful model to evaluate the effects of vascular agents. We assessed the response of CAM vessels to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), derivatives of the essential fatty acid arachidonic acid, that have a number of important biological functions, including ...
Miyata Noriyuki - - 2005
Cytochrome P450s (P450) metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Among these eicosanoids, 20-HETE is formed in a tissue and cell-specific fashion and plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone in the brain, kidney, heart and splanchnic beds. 20-HETE is a potent ...
Estévez Mario - - 2005
The physico-chemical characteristics of a traditional Finnish liver sausage (FLS) and different types of Spanish porcine liver pâtés (commercial, home-made and experimental) were studied. The characteristic recipes and different protocols of manufacture influenced the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the liver products. FLS showed, amongst the liver products, the ...
Kwon Kyoung Ja - - 2005
Arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids during normal and pathologic processes such as neurodegeneration. AA is metabolized via lipoxygenase (LOX)-, cyclooxygenase (COX)-, and cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-catalyzed pathways. We investigated the relative contributions of these pathways in AA-induced neuronal death. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to AA (50 microM) ...
Yang Kun-Ta - - 2005
Arachidonic acid (AA) plays important physiological or pathophysiological roles. Here, we show in cultured rat astrocytes that: (i) endothelin-1 or thapsigargin (Tg) induces store-depleted activated Ca(2+) entry (CCE), which is inhibited by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB) or La(3+); (ii) AA (10 microM) and other unsaturated fatty acids (8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid and gamma-linoleic ...
Yaghini Fariborz A - - 2005
Angiotensin II and the arachidonic acid metabolite derived via cytochrome P450 20-hydroxyeicostetraenoic acid promote vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. This study was conducted to determine if 20-hydroxyeicostetraenoic acid contributes to angiotensin II-induced neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat carotid artery. In anesthetized rats, the drugs were infused into ...
Hughes-Fulford Millie - - 2005
For the past 60 years, dietary intake of essential fatty acids has increased. Moreover, the omega-6 fatty acids have recently been found to play an important role in regulation of gene expression. Proliferation of human prostate cells was significantly increased 48 h after arachidonic acid (AA) addition. We have analyzed ...
You Junping - - 2005
We tested the hypotheses that EDHF in rat middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) involves 1) metabolism of arachidonic acid through the epoxygenase pathway, 2) metabolism of arachidonic acid through the lipoxygenase pathway, or 3) reactive oxygen species. EDHF-mediated dilations were elicited in isolated and pressurized rat MCAs by activation of endothelial ...
Baber Syed R - - 2005
Generation of vasoactive prostanoids from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 was investigated in anesthetized mice. Intravenous injections of the prostanoid precursor arachidonic acid increased pulmonary arterial pressure and decreased systemic arterial pressure. Pulmonary pressor and systemic depressor responses were attenuated by SC-560 and nimesulide, inhibitors of COX-1 and ...
López-Lluch G - - 2005
Arachidonic acid metabolism is modulated during differentiation induced by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in HL-60 cells. Antioxidants that affect arachidonic acid metabolism enhance this differentiation program. Ascorbate also enhances differentiation in 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced cells depending on the induction of cAMP. The aim of this work was to study if this cAMP rise depends on ...
Serrano-Mollar Anna - - 2005
In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the involvement of pro-inflammatory lipidic mediators in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The most relevant lipidic mediator is arachidonic acid and its metabolites. Arachidonic acid is the precursor for biosynthesis of eicosanoids, potent mediators of inflammation that have been implicated ...
Maloberti Paula - - 2005
Arachidonic acid and its lypoxygenated metabolites play a fundamental role in the hormonal regulation of steroidogenesis. Reduction in the expression of the mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase (MTE-I) by antisense or small interfering RNA (siRNA) and of the arachidonic acid-preferring acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS4) by siRNA produced a marked reduction in steroid output ...
Harris Robin B - - 2005
Differential effects of fatty acids on carcinogenesis suggest that fatty acid composition is important in tumor development. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites elicit inflammation and promote tumor formation in mouse skin. Inhibitors of the arachidonic cascade inhibit tumor incidence. A population-based case control study in Southeastern Arizona tested the hypothesis ...
Ferrante Judith V - - 2005
The metabolism of arachidonic acid via the lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways generates metabolites that regulate the inflammatory response. Although products of lipoxygenase are classically proinflammatory, recently it has been demonstrated that lipoxins, 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE) and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. We now demonstrate for the first time that 15-HPETE ...
Lundblad Mia Sandberg - - 2005
Arachidonic acid is oxidized by cytochromes P450 2C (CYP2C) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), possessing vasoactive properties, with 11,12-EET as the endothelium derived hyperpolarization factor. Genetic variants of CYP2C enzymes have altered drug metabolizing capacity. Our primary aim was to determine whether EET biosynthesis differed in human liver microsomes with known ...
Yang Wenqi - - 2005
5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET) is a cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid that causes vasorelaxation. However, investigations of its role in biological systems have been limited by its chemical instability. We developed a stable agonist of 5,6-EET, 5-(pentadeca-3(Z),6(Z),9(Z)-trienyloxy)pentanoic acid (PTPA), in which the 5,6-epoxide was replaced with a 5-ether. PTPA ...
880-01 Kun-Ta, Yang
Thesis (Ph.D.)--National Taiwan University Graduate Institute of Physiology
Kroetz Deanna L - - 2005
Cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid is an important pathway for the formation of paracrine and autocrine mediators of numerous biological effects. The omega-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in numerous tissues, particularly the vasculature and kidney tubules. Members of the cytochrome P450 4A and ...
Gainer James V - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The CYP4A11 arachidonic acid monooxygenase oxidizes endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a metabolite with renovascular and tubular functions. Mice with targeted disruption of Cyp4a14, a murine homologue of CYP4A11, have severe hypertension. We combined molecular and biochemical approaches to identify a functional variant of the CYP4A11 ...
Yi Sun-Ju - - 2004
We have investigated whether arachidonic acid could regulate tissue transglutaminase (tTGase) via intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in NIH3T3 cells. tTGase was identified in NIH3T3 cells by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Arachidonic acid elevated in situ tTGase activity in dose- and time-dependent manners with a maximal level at 1h, ...
Senger Toralf - - 2005
A complex mixture of fatty acid-derived aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols is released upon wounding of the moss Physcomitrella patens. To investigate the formation of these oxylipins at the molecular level we isolated a lipoxygenase from P. patens, which was identified in an EST library by sequence homology to lipoxygenases from ...
Wei Yuan - - 2004
We used the patch-clamp technique to study the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) on epithelial Na channels (ENaC) in the rat cortical collecting duct (CCD). Application of 10 microM AA decreased the ENaC activity defined by NPo from 1.0 to 0.1. The dose-response curve of the AA effect on ENaC ...
Kowluru Anjaneyulu - - 2004
Long-chain fatty acids (e.g. arachidonic acid) have been implicated in physiological control of insulin secretion. We previously reported histidine phosphorylation of at least two islet proteins (e.g., NDP kinase and the beta subunit of trimeric G-proteins), and suggested that such a signalling step may have regulatory roles in beta cell ...
Buckler K J - - 2005
TREK-1 is a member of the two-pore domain potassium (K(2P)) channel family that is mechano-, heat, pH, voltage and lipid sensitive. It is highly expressed in the central nervous system and probably encodes one of the previously described arachidonic acid-activated K(+) channels. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophospholipids protect the brain ...
Caley Alex J - - 2005
Two-pore-domain potassium channels are a family of ion channels that are widely believed to play an important role in maintaining and regulating neuronal excitability. It has been shown that they can be modulated by an extraordinarily diverse range of endogenous and exogenous factors. One particular member of the family, TREK-1 ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >