Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2634
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Kaye Alan D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: There are extensive data on roles of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX 1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) enzymes in temperature, coagulation, and inflammatory modulation. There is little known of the function of these enzymes in regulating tone in pulmonary vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the roles ...
Doroshenko Nina - - 2007
Within the framework of studying the mechanisms of acute toxicity of arachidonic acid and the role of ambient cations, we have investigated the effects of extracellular La(3+) on arachidonic acid-induced death (lactate dehydrogenase release) and mitochondrial depolarization (rhodamine 123 fluorescence) in PC12 cells. Micromolar La(3+) profoundly suppressed arachidonic acid toxicity ...
Prusakiewicz Jeffery J JJ A. B. Hancock, Jr. Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research, Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2007
The lipoamino acids and endovanilloids have multiple roles in nociception, pain, and inflammation, yet their biological reactivity has not been fully characterized. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOs) oxygenate polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate signaling molecules. The ability of COXs and LOs to oxygenate arachidonyl-derived lipoamino acids and vanilloids was investigated. ...
Ng Valerie Y - - 2007
Cytochrome P450 (P450) eicosanoids regulate vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cellular proliferation, and inflammation. Both the CYP4A omega-hydroxylases, which catalyze 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) formation, and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which catalyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) degradation to the dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), are induced upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) ...
Zhao Zheng-Ge - - 2007
In this report, the effect of flufenamic acid on voltage-activated transient outward K(+) current (I(A)) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells was investigated. At a concentration of 20 microM to 1 mM, flufenamic acid reversibly inhibited I(A) in a dose-dependent manner. However, flufenamic acid at a concentration of 0.1 to ...
Andersson David A - - 2007
We investigated the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the effects of PLA2 products (polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophospholipids) on the cold-sensitive channel transient receptor potential (melastatin)-8 (TRPM8), heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. TRPM8 responses to cold and the agonist icilin were abolished by inhibitors of the calcium-independent ...
Connell Emma E Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, - - 2007
Syntaxin and Munc18 are, in tandem, essential for exocytosis in all eukaryotes. Recently, it was shown that Munc18 inhibition of neuronal syntaxin 1 can be overcome by arachidonic acid, indicating that this common second messenger acts to disrupt the syntaxin-Munc18 interaction. Here, we show that arachidonic acid can stimulate syntaxin ...
Zhou Jing-Jun - - 2007
Arachidonic acid inhibits the activity of a number of different Cl- channels, however its molecular mechanism of action is not known. Here we show that inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels by arachidonic acid is weakened following mutagenesis of two positively charged pore-lining amino acids. Charge-neutralizing ...
Hii Charles S - - 2007
Arachidonic acid (AA), a second-messenger molecule released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A(2) in activated cells, is a stimulator of neutrophil responses, including the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst. The polyunsaturated fatty acid is also the precursor of biologically active eicosanoids. There are several mechanisms by which AA stimulates the respiratory burst. ...
Falck J R JR Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. - - 2007
Eight members of a recently identified family of tetrahydrofuran-diols (THFDs), originating from epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), were prepared stereospecifically from D-(+)-glucose. The THFDs potently induced relaxation of pre-contracted bovine arteries.
Lee Jung-Jin - - 2007
Carnosic acid is a major phenolic diterpene derived from Rosmarinus officinalis and has been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiobese and photoprotective activities. This study investigated the antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid. carnosic acid significantly inhibited collagen-, arachidonic acid-, U46619- and thrombin-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent ...
Smith E S - - 2007
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by a decrease in extracellular pH. ASICs are expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, and several lines of evidence suggest that they are responsible for signaling the pain caused by extracellular acidification, but little is understood of the modulation of ASICs by pro-inflammatory factors. Using ...
Yi Xiu-Yu - - 2007
Adrenic acid (docosatetraenoic acid), an abundant fatty acid in the vasculature, is produced by a two-carbon chain elongation of arachidonic acid. Despite its abundance and similarity to arachidonic acid, little is known about its role in the regulation of vascular tone. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of bovine coronary artery and ...
Upmacis Rita K - - 2007
Nitric oxide (*NO) and eicosanoids are critical mediators of physiological and pathophysiological processes. They include inflammation and atherosclerosis. *NO production and eicosanoid synthesis become disrupted during atherosclerosis and thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to this outcome. We, and others, have shown that nitrogen oxide ...
Yoshida K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostaglandins (PGs), is released by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and plays an important role in biological reactions. We examined the roles of arachidonic acid on the pathway of PG synthesis and osteoblast differentiation by using clone MC3T3-E1 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of arachidonic ...
Hsu Mei-Hui - - 2007
The microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 4 monooxygenases are the major fatty acid omega-hydroxylases. These enzymes remove excess free fatty acids to prevent lipotoxicity, catabolize leukotrienes and prostanoids, and also produce bioactive metabolites from arachidonic acid omega-hydroxylation. In addition to endogenous substrates, recent evidence indicates that CYP4 monooxygenases can also ...
Latham Catherine F - - 2007
Neuronal communication relies on the fusion of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with the neuronal plasma membrane. Recent genetic studies have highlighted the critical role played by polyunsaturated fatty acids in neurotransmission, however, there is little information available about which fatty acids act on exocytosis and, more importantly, by what mechanism. We have ...
Singh Dev K - - 2007
To investigate the role of sphingomyelin (SM) in the regulation of inflammatory reactions, we studied its effect on the activity and fatty acid specificity of group X secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)X). Compared with other phospholipases, recombinant sPLA(2)X released more arachidonate from HDL. Pretreatment of HDL with sphingomyelinase (SMase) C activated ...
Luria Ayala A Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2007
Arachidonic acid-derived epoxides, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, are important regulators of vascular homeostasis and inflammation, and therefore manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to their corresponding diols, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, modifying or eliminating the function of these oxylipins. To better understand the phenotypic ...
Chemin Jean - - 2007
Anandamide, originally described as an endocannabinoid, is the main representative molecule of a new class of signaling lipids including endocannabinoids and N-acyl-related molecules, eicosanoids, and fatty acids. Bioactive lipids regulate neuronal excitability by acting on G-protein-coupled receptors (such as CB1) but also directly modulate various ionic conductances including voltage-activated T-type ...
Fürstenberger G - - 2006
Substantial evidence supports a functional role for cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-catalyzed arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolism in cancer development. Genetic intervention studies firmly established cause-effect relations for cyclooxygenase-2, but cyclooxygenase-1 may also be involved. In addition, pharmacologic cyclooxygenase inhibition was found to suppress carcinogenesis in both experimental mouse models and several ...
Wright Lesley C - - 2007
Cryptococci survive and replicate within macrophages and can use exogenous arachidonic acid for the production of eicosanoids. Phospholipase B1 (PLB1) has a putative, but uninvestigated, role in these processes. We have shown that uptake and esterification of radiolabeled arachidonic, palmitic, and oleic acids by the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 ...
Shah Sachin - - 2007
The yeast Candida bombicola (ATCC 22214) grown on primary carbon source glucose (100 g l(-1)) and secondary carbon, arachidonic acid (2 g l(-1)) produced mixture of sophorolipids up to 1.44 g l(-1). The crude product was a heterogeneous mixture of sophorolipids, which are glycolipids of sophorose linked to the fatty ...
Pastor Nitida - - 2006
To assess the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation in infant formula on the incidence of respiratory illnesses, pediatricians assigned infants to receive docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid-supplemented formula or control formula. Anthropometrics, medical history, and illnesses were reported. Among 1342 infants, there was a higher incidence of bronchiolitis in ...
Castillo Ana Fernanda - - 2006
We have investigated the direct effect of arachidonic acid on cholesterol transport in intact cells or isolated mitochondria from steroidogenic cells and the effect of cyclic-AMP on the specific release of this fatty acid inside the mitochondria. We show for the first time that cyclic-AMP can regulate the release of ...
Aggarwal Nitin T - - 2007
Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the rabbit aorta is mediated by either nitric oxide (NO) or arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from cyclooxygenase (COX) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) pathways. 15-LO-1 metabolites of AA, 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA), and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) cause concentration-dependent relaxation. We tested the hypothesis that in the 15-LO pathway of AA ...
Yang Peiying - - 2006
Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase arachidonate products, including prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), are known to modulate inflammation within tissues and can serve as important etiologic factors in carcinogenesis. Eicosanoid content in tissues is typically determined either as a single molecular species through antibody-based assays or by high-performance liquid ...
Thomas Elizabeth A - - 2007
Apolipoprotein D (apoD), a member of the lipocalin superfamily of lipid-binding proteins, exhibits abundant expression within the CNS of many species, including humans; however, its physiological role remains unclear. Treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine, results in elevation of apoD expression levels in rodent brain and in human plasma ...
Spector Arthur A AA Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2007
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which function primarily as autocrine and paracrine mediators in the cardiovascular and renal systems, are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P-450 epoxygenases. They activate smooth muscle large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, producing hyperpolarization and vasorelaxation. EETs also have anti-inflammatory effects in the vasculature and kidney, stimulate angiogenesis, ...
Shishehbor Mehdi H MH Department of Cell Biology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, - - 2006
Oxidant stress is widely believed to participate in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. However, progress in defining appropriate systemic antioxidant targeted therapies has been hindered by uncertainty in defining clinically relevant systemic oxidant stress measures. In a case control study, 50 subjects with CAD (>50% stenosis in one or more major coronary ...
Bednar Wolfgang - - 2007
12(S)-Lipoxygenase (LOX) is regarded as a pro-tumorigenic enzyme and as a potential target for therapy and prevention of cancer so that the search for specific 12(S)-LOX inhibitors is part of drug development strategies. To facilitate the identification of specific 12(S)-LOX inhibitors we have created an assay cell line by introducing ...
Wiley Jenny L - - 2006
The pharmacological profiles of the endocannabinoid anandamide and exogenous cannabinoids (e.g., Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) are similar, but not exactly the same. One notable difference is that anandamide's in vivo effects in mice are not blocked by the brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonist SR141716A. The degree to which the rapid metabolism of anandamide ...
Wang Ze-Jian - - 2006
Arachidonic acid (AA), 5,8,11,14-eicosateraenoic acid is abundant, active and necessary in the human body. In the present study, we reported the neuroprotective effects and mechanism of arachidonic acid on hippocampal slices insulted by glutamate, NaN(3) or H(2)O(2)in vitro. Different types of models of brain injury in vitro were developed by ...
Aiyar Nambi - - 2007
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is the major bioactive lipid component of oxidized LDL, thought to be responsible for many of the inflammatory effects of oxidized LDL described in both inflammatory and endothelial cells. Inflammation-induced transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile phenotype to a proliferative/secretory phenotype is a hallmark of ...
Inceoglu Bora B Department of Entomology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United - - 2006
Soluble epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides in acyclic systems. In man this enzyme is the product of a single copy gene (EPXH-2) present on chromosome 8. The human sEH is of interest due to emerging roles of its endogenous substrates, epoxygenated fatty acids, in inflammation and hypertension. One ...
Medhora Meetha - - 2007
Arachidonic acid (AA) is an essential fatty acid that is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) or cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to generate eicosanoids which in turn mediate a number of biological activities including regulation of angiogenesis. While much information on the effects of COX and LOX products is known, ...
Oike Hideaki - - 2006
Vertebrate sensory cells such as vomeronasal neurons and Drosophila photoreceptor cells use TRP channels to respond to exogenous stimuli. In mammalian taste cells, bitter and sweet substances as well as some amino acids are received by G protein-coupled receptors (T2Rs or T1Rs). As a result of activation of G protein ...
Pedersen Stine F - - 2006
Osmotic swelling of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts activates a bromoenol lactone (BEL)-sensitive taurine efflux, pointing to the involvement of a Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) (Lambert IH. J Membr Biol 192: 19-32, 2003). We report that taurine efflux from NIH3T3 cells was not only increased by cell swelling but also decreased by ...
Seubert John M - - 2007
Cardiomyocyte injury following ischemia-reperfusion can lead to cell death and result in cardiac dysfunction. A wide range of cardioprotective factors have been studied to date, but only recently has the cardioprotective role of fatty acids, specifically arachidonic acid (AA), been investigated. This fatty acid can be found in the membranes ...
Hu Hong-Zhen HZ Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, - - 2006
Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are polymodal detectors of multiple environmental factors, including temperature, pH, and pressure. Inflammatory mediators enhance TRPV function through multiple signaling pathways. The lipoxygenase and epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism have been shown to directly activate TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively. TRPV3 is a ...
Jiang Houli - - 2007
Red blood cells (RBCs) are reservoirs for cis- and trans-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) that can be released. The sources of EET release from RBCs include direct synthesis from arachidonic acid, peroxidation of phospholipids and EETs esterified into cellular phospholipids. The release of EETs from RBCs can be through cytosolic phospholipase A2 ...
Poeckel Daniel - - 2006
Boswellic acids inhibit the transformation of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes via 5-lipoxygenase but can also enhance the liberation of arachidonic acid in human leukocytes and platelets. Using human platelets, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the boswellic acid-induced release of arachidonic acid and the subsequent metabolism by platelet-type 12-li-poxygenase (p12-LO). ...
Fang Xiang X Department of Biochemistry, 4-403 BSB, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, United States. - - 2007
20-carboxy-arachidonic acid (20-COOH-AA) is a metabolite of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an eicosanoid produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 (CYP) omega-oxidases. Alcohol dehydrogenases convert 20-HETE to 20-COOH-AA, and we now find that a microsomal preparation containing recombinant human CYP4F3B converts arachidonic acid to 20-HETE and 20-COOH-AA. Studies with transfected COS-7 ...
Leduc Martin - - 2006
High oxygen tension is a major factor in the genesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, clinical and experimental evidence suggests a significant role for high carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tension as well. Along these lines, although ischemia is often considered to be synonymous with an oxygen deficit, it is also ...
Kaewsuwan Songsri - - 2006
The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high levels of arachidonic acid and lesser amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid. Here we report the identification and characterization of a delta5-desaturase from P. patens that is associated with the synthesis of these fatty acids. A full-length cDNA for this desaturase was identified by data base ...
Diani-Moore Silvia - - 2006
Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes metabolize the membrane lipid arachidonic acid to stable biologically active epoxides [eicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). These products have cardiovascular activity, primarily acting as vasodilators and vasoconstrictors, respectively. EET formation can be increased by the prototype CYP1A or CYP2 inducers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or phenobarbital ...
McGinley Chris M - - 2006
The synthesis of arachidonic acid derivatives containing site-specifically incorporated deuterium atoms and also a remote tritium label are described. Deuterium incorporation at the C11 and/or C15 position was achieved using Wittig chemistry, while the radiolabel was introduced at a remote position using [(3)H]NaBH(4) as the radiolabel source. These compounds can ...
Pontiki E - - 2006
Lipoxygenase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of the leukotrienes. Leukotrienes, as LO metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), have been implicated as mediators in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, host defense reactions and to play important role in the propagation of the diseases states, exacerbating the local events and ...
Lambert I H - - 2006
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is increased in mammalian cells in response to numerous stimuli such as osmotic challenge, oxidative stress and exposure to allergens. The increased PLA2 activity is seen as an increased release of free, polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. arachidonic acid and membrane-bound lysophospholipids. Even though arachidonic acid acts ...
Yoshioka Hidenori - - 2006
The human genome project revealed a new member of the P450 family 2, CYP2W1, which has orthologous form in other vertebrate species, suggesting CYP2W1's significant physiological function. Recently, it was reported that CYP2W1 can metabolize arachidonic acid. In this study, we isolated human CYP2W1 cDNA, and successfully expressed truncated CYP2W1 ...
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