Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2613
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Wright Lesley C - - 2007
Cryptococci survive and replicate within macrophages and can use exogenous arachidonic acid for the production of eicosanoids. Phospholipase B1 (PLB1) has a putative, but uninvestigated, role in these processes. We have shown that uptake and esterification of radiolabeled arachidonic, palmitic, and oleic acids by the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 ...
Shah Sachin - - 2007
The yeast Candida bombicola (ATCC 22214) grown on primary carbon source glucose (100 g l(-1)) and secondary carbon, arachidonic acid (2 g l(-1)) produced mixture of sophorolipids up to 1.44 g l(-1). The crude product was a heterogeneous mixture of sophorolipids, which are glycolipids of sophorose linked to the fatty ...
Pastor Nitida - - 2006
To assess the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation in infant formula on the incidence of respiratory illnesses, pediatricians assigned infants to receive docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid-supplemented formula or control formula. Anthropometrics, medical history, and illnesses were reported. Among 1342 infants, there was a higher incidence of bronchiolitis in ...
Castillo Ana Fernanda - - 2006
We have investigated the direct effect of arachidonic acid on cholesterol transport in intact cells or isolated mitochondria from steroidogenic cells and the effect of cyclic-AMP on the specific release of this fatty acid inside the mitochondria. We show for the first time that cyclic-AMP can regulate the release of ...
Aggarwal Nitin T - - 2007
Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the rabbit aorta is mediated by either nitric oxide (NO) or arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from cyclooxygenase (COX) and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) pathways. 15-LO-1 metabolites of AA, 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA), and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) cause concentration-dependent relaxation. We tested the hypothesis that in the 15-LO pathway of AA ...
Yang Peiying - - 2006
Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase arachidonate products, including prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), are known to modulate inflammation within tissues and can serve as important etiologic factors in carcinogenesis. Eicosanoid content in tissues is typically determined either as a single molecular species through antibody-based assays or by high-performance liquid ...
Thomas Elizabeth A - - 2007
Apolipoprotein D (apoD), a member of the lipocalin superfamily of lipid-binding proteins, exhibits abundant expression within the CNS of many species, including humans; however, its physiological role remains unclear. Treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine, results in elevation of apoD expression levels in rodent brain and in human plasma ...
Spector Arthur A - - 2007
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which function primarily as autocrine and paracrine mediators in the cardiovascular and renal systems, are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P-450 epoxygenases. They activate smooth muscle large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, producing hyperpolarization and vasorelaxation. EETs also have anti-inflammatory effects in the vasculature and kidney, stimulate angiogenesis, ...
Shishehbor Mehdi H - - 2006
Oxidant stress is widely believed to participate in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. However, progress in defining appropriate systemic antioxidant targeted therapies has been hindered by uncertainty in defining clinically relevant systemic oxidant stress measures. In a case control study, 50 subjects with CAD (>50% stenosis in one or more major coronary ...
Bednar Wolfgang - - 2007
12(S)-Lipoxygenase (LOX) is regarded as a pro-tumorigenic enzyme and as a potential target for therapy and prevention of cancer so that the search for specific 12(S)-LOX inhibitors is part of drug development strategies. To facilitate the identification of specific 12(S)-LOX inhibitors we have created an assay cell line by introducing ...
Wiley Jenny L - - 2006
The pharmacological profiles of the endocannabinoid anandamide and exogenous cannabinoids (e.g., Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) are similar, but not exactly the same. One notable difference is that anandamide's in vivo effects in mice are not blocked by the brain cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonist SR141716A. The degree to which the rapid metabolism of anandamide ...
Wang Ze-Jian - - 2006
Arachidonic acid (AA), 5,8,11,14-eicosateraenoic acid is abundant, active and necessary in the human body. In the present study, we reported the neuroprotective effects and mechanism of arachidonic acid on hippocampal slices insulted by glutamate, NaN(3) or H(2)O(2)in vitro. Different types of models of brain injury in vitro were developed by ...
Aiyar Nambi - - 2007
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is the major bioactive lipid component of oxidized LDL, thought to be responsible for many of the inflammatory effects of oxidized LDL described in both inflammatory and endothelial cells. Inflammation-induced transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells from a contractile phenotype to a proliferative/secretory phenotype is a hallmark of ...
Inceoglu Bora - - 2006
Soluble epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides in acyclic systems. In man this enzyme is the product of a single copy gene (EPXH-2) present on chromosome 8. The human sEH is of interest due to emerging roles of its endogenous substrates, epoxygenated fatty acids, in inflammation and hypertension. One ...
Medhora Meetha - - 2007
Arachidonic acid (AA) is an essential fatty acid that is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) or cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to generate eicosanoids which in turn mediate a number of biological activities including regulation of angiogenesis. While much information on the effects of COX and LOX products is known, ...
Oike Hideaki - - 2006
Vertebrate sensory cells such as vomeronasal neurons and Drosophila photoreceptor cells use TRP channels to respond to exogenous stimuli. In mammalian taste cells, bitter and sweet substances as well as some amino acids are received by G protein-coupled receptors (T2Rs or T1Rs). As a result of activation of G protein ...
Pedersen Stine F - - 2006
Osmotic swelling of NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts activates a bromoenol lactone (BEL)-sensitive taurine efflux, pointing to the involvement of a Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) (Lambert IH. J Membr Biol 192: 19-32, 2003). We report that taurine efflux from NIH3T3 cells was not only increased by cell swelling but also decreased by ...
Seubert John M - - 2007
Cardiomyocyte injury following ischemia-reperfusion can lead to cell death and result in cardiac dysfunction. A wide range of cardioprotective factors have been studied to date, but only recently has the cardioprotective role of fatty acids, specifically arachidonic acid (AA), been investigated. This fatty acid can be found in the membranes ...
Hu Hong-Zhen - - 2006
Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are polymodal detectors of multiple environmental factors, including temperature, pH, and pressure. Inflammatory mediators enhance TRPV function through multiple signaling pathways. The lipoxygenase and epoxygenase products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism have been shown to directly activate TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively. TRPV3 is a ...
Jiang Houli - - 2007
Red blood cells (RBCs) are reservoirs for cis- and trans-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) that can be released. The sources of EET release from RBCs include direct synthesis from arachidonic acid, peroxidation of phospholipids and EETs esterified into cellular phospholipids. The release of EETs from RBCs can be through cytosolic phospholipase A2 ...
Poeckel Daniel - - 2006
Boswellic acids inhibit the transformation of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes via 5-lipoxygenase but can also enhance the liberation of arachidonic acid in human leukocytes and platelets. Using human platelets, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the boswellic acid-induced release of arachidonic acid and the subsequent metabolism by platelet-type 12-li-poxygenase (p12-LO). ...
Fang Xiang - - 2007
20-carboxy-arachidonic acid (20-COOH-AA) is a metabolite of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an eicosanoid produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 (CYP) omega-oxidases. Alcohol dehydrogenases convert 20-HETE to 20-COOH-AA, and we now find that a microsomal preparation containing recombinant human CYP4F3B converts arachidonic acid to 20-HETE and 20-COOH-AA. Studies with transfected COS-7 ...
Leduc Martin - - 2006
High oxygen tension is a major factor in the genesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, clinical and experimental evidence suggests a significant role for high carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tension as well. Along these lines, although ischemia is often considered to be synonymous with an oxygen deficit, it is also ...
Kaewsuwan Songsri - - 2006
The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high levels of arachidonic acid and lesser amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid. Here we report the identification and characterization of a delta5-desaturase from P. patens that is associated with the synthesis of these fatty acids. A full-length cDNA for this desaturase was identified by data base ...
Diani-Moore Silvia - - 2006
Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes metabolize the membrane lipid arachidonic acid to stable biologically active epoxides [eicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). These products have cardiovascular activity, primarily acting as vasodilators and vasoconstrictors, respectively. EET formation can be increased by the prototype CYP1A or CYP2 inducers, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or phenobarbital ...
McGinley Chris M - - 2006
The synthesis of arachidonic acid derivatives containing site-specifically incorporated deuterium atoms and also a remote tritium label are described. Deuterium incorporation at the C11 and/or C15 position was achieved using Wittig chemistry, while the radiolabel was introduced at a remote position using [(3)H]NaBH(4) as the radiolabel source. These compounds can ...
Pontiki E - - 2006
Lipoxygenase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of the leukotrienes. Leukotrienes, as LO metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), have been implicated as mediators in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases, host defense reactions and to play important role in the propagation of the diseases states, exacerbating the local events and ...
Lambert I H - - 2006
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is increased in mammalian cells in response to numerous stimuli such as osmotic challenge, oxidative stress and exposure to allergens. The increased PLA2 activity is seen as an increased release of free, polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. arachidonic acid and membrane-bound lysophospholipids. Even though arachidonic acid acts ...
Yoshioka Hidenori - - 2006
The human genome project revealed a new member of the P450 family 2, CYP2W1, which has orthologous form in other vertebrate species, suggesting CYP2W1's significant physiological function. Recently, it was reported that CYP2W1 can metabolize arachidonic acid. In this study, we isolated human CYP2W1 cDNA, and successfully expressed truncated CYP2W1 ...
Frohberg Petra - - 2006
Eicosanoids play an important role as lipid mediators for physiological and pathological processes. Inhibitors of their biosynthesis have been developed as drugs for various diseases with major health political relevance. The search for more efficient inhibitors of eicosanoid formation requires simultaneous monitoring of various metabolic pathways. We developed an HPLC-based ...
Darios Frédéric F MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, - - 2006
Growth of neurite processes from the cell body is the critical step in neuronal development and involves a large increase in cell membrane surface area. Arachidonic-acid-releasing phospholipases are highly enriched in nerve growth cones and have previously been implicated in neurite outgrowth. Cell membrane expansion is achieved through the fusion ...
Luo Ming - - 2006
The eicosanoids are a diverse family of molecules that have powerful effects on cell function. They are best known as intercellular messengers, having autocrine and paracrine effects following their secretion from the cells that synthesize them. Many of the eicosanoids are produced from one polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. The ...
Falck J R - - 2006
Deuterated arachidonic acid and 20-HETE were prepared in good overall yields and high stereoselectivities. Key transformations include a trans-specific vinyl dibromide reduction and Suzuki cross-couplings to a lithium borate or a 9-BBN borane. These standards are three and two mass units higher, respectively, than their naturally occurring counterparts and are ...
Lion Ulrich - - 2006
We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release ...
Nithipatikom Kasem - - 2006
Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenases and their arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), have been shown to produce increases in postischemic function via ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)); however, the direct effects of EETs on infarct size (IS) have not been investigated. We demonstrate that two major regioisomers of CYP ...
Tokheim Abigail M - - 2006
From earlier studies on calcineurin, the presence of multiple double bonds in putative inhibitors was hypothesized as critical features for effective inhibition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were tested as inhibitors of calcineurin and found to inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin although effective inhibition was observed only in the absence of ...
Dymkowska Dorota - - 2006
Arachidonic acid and, to a smaller extent, oleic acid at micromolar concentrations decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential within AS-30D rat hepatoma cells cultivated in vitro and increased cell respiration. The uncoupling effect of both fatty acids on cell respiration was partly prevented by cyclosporin A, blocker of the mitochondrial permeability ...
Hughes-Fulford Millie - - 2006
Essential fatty acids are not only energy-rich molecules; they are also an important component of the membrane bilayer and recently have been implicated in induction of fatty acid synthase and other genes. Using gene chip analysis, we have found that arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, induced 11 genes that ...
Zhang Gu - - 2006
In this study, we investigated the effects of arachidonic acid, a PLA2-produced lipid metabolite, on the lysosomal permeability, osmotic sensitivity and stability. Through the measurements of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase free activity, membrane potential, intralysosomal pH, and lysosomal latency loss in hypotonic sucrose medium, we established that arachidonic acid could increase the ...
López-Nicolás Rubén - - 2006
Arachidonic acid, one of the major unsaturated fatty acids released during cell stimulation, participates in the signaling necessary for activation of different enzymes, including protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid is a direct activator of PKCalpha, but needs the cooperation of Ca(2+) to exert its function. ...
Schneider Claus - - 2006
5-Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) initiate the biosynthesis of distinct families of mediators from arachidonic acid (leukotrienes and prostaglandins, respectively) and are each the target of anti-inflammatory medications. Here we show that the product of 5-lipoxygenase, 5S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, is selectively and efficiently triply oxygenated by COX-2, implicating a cross-pathway interaction. The ...
Wei Shouzou - - 2006
An HPLC method for the chiral analysis of the four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) is described. The cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase metabolites are resolved, without the need for derivatization, by chiral-phase HPLC on a Chiralcel OJ column. Application of this methodology to the analysis of the liver endogenous EETs ...
Ong Wee-Liat - - 2006
The fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane during exocytosis can be recorded by membrane capacitance measurements under voltage-clamp conditions. These measurements enable high time-resolution quantitation of exocytosis. The present study was carried out using the above technique to elucidate the effects of various polyunsaturated fatty acids on exocytosis ...
Grandel Ulrich - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcal alpha-toxin and Escherichia coli hemolysin (ECH) evoke cardiac dysfunction in isolated rat hearts by provoking myocardial synthesis of arachidonic acid-derived thromboxane A2 or the cysteinyl-leukotrienes, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, respectively. We investigated whether low doses of either toxin, which fail to induce cardiac depression by themselves, induce cardiac ...
Zemski Berry Karin A - - 2006
When aminophospholipids with only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids esterified to the glycerol backbone were labeled with isotopically enriched N-methylpiperazine acetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagents, it was found that they could be readily detected as N-methylpiperazine-amide-tagged aminophospholipids using a precursor scan of the stable isotope reporter ion (m/z 114-117) formed ...
Leik Courtney E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress, elevated plasma levels of linoleic acid (LA), and increased vascular smooth muscle expression of the inflammatory chemokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8). We hypothesized that increased levels of LA under conditions of oxidative stress would increased production of IL-8 by vascular smooth muscle cells because LA ...
Christon Raymond - - 2005
Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are known to modulate endothelial dysfunction, which is the first stage of atherosclerosis. However, their exact role in this initial phase is still unclear. The effects of isolated or combined (by 2) purified FAs from the main FA families were studied on the vascular response of ...
Shi Qi-Xian - - 2005
We investigated, using guinea-pig spermatozoa as a model, whether phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is involved in progesterone or zona pellucida (ZP)-stimulated acrosomal exocytosis, if progesterone enhances ZP-induced activation of PLA2, and mechanisms underlying PLA2 regulation. Spermatozoa were capacitated and labeled in low Ca2+ medium with [14C]choline chloride or [14C]arachidonic acid, washed, ...
Jun Mira - - 2005
Inhibitory effect of kudzu isoflavones on arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were investigated. Isoflavone aglycones, such as daidzein, genistein, biochanin A, and formononetin significantly suppressed arachidonic acid release (50 microM). Biochanin A, which displayed the most active inhibition on arachidonic acid ...
DeTure Michael - - 2006
Formation of inclusions containing polymerized tau protein is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. In vitro studies have demonstrated the ability of polyglycosaminoglycans and fatty acids to promote tau polymerization. In this report, we examined their impact on tau polymerization separately and together. Tau assembly with only arachidonic ...
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