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Jordan Janeen R - - 2008
Mesenteric lymph is the mechanistic link between splanchnic hypoperfusion and acute lung injury (ALI), but the culprit mediator(s) remains elusive. Previous work has shown that administration of a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) inhibitor attenuated postshock ALI and also identified a non-ionic lipid within the postshock mesenteric lymph (PSML) responsible for polymorphonuclear ...
Tanka-Salamon Anna - - 2008
Thrombi, which are dissolved primarily by plasmin (EC 3.4.21.7.), contain up to millimolar concentrations of fatty acids and these are known to affect the action of the protease. In the present study the modulation of plasmin activity was characterized quantitatively in a continuous amidolytic assay based on synthetic plasmin substrate ...
Martin Diana - - 2008
The effect of replacing pork fat in liver pâtés by an enriched conjugated linoleic acid oil (CLA-pâté), olive oil (OO-pâté), or the combination of both type of oils (CLA+OO-pâté) on the fatty acid profile, lipid oxidative stability, consistency and emulsion stability was studied and compared with a traditional liver pâté ...
Hou Ching T - - 2008
The filamentous fungi of the genus Mortierella are known to produce arachidonic acid from glucose, and the species alpina is currently used in industrial production of arachidonic acid in Japan. In anticipation of a large excess of the co-product glycerol from the national biodiesel program, we are trying to find ...
Chawengsub Yuttana - - 2008
Arachidonic acid (AA) causes endothelium-dependent smooth muscle hyperpolarizations and relaxations that are mediated by a 15-lipoxygenase-I (15-LO-I) metabolite, 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12,15-THETA). We propose that AA is metabolized sequentially by 15-LO-I and hydroperoxide isomerase to an unidentified hydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA), which is hydrolyzed by a soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to 11,12,15-THETA. ...
Feltenmark Stina - - 2008
Human eosinophils contain abundant amounts of 15-lipoxygenase (LO)-1. The biological role of 15-LO-1 in humans, however, is unclear. Incubation of eosinophils with arachidonic acid led to formation of a product with a UV absorbance maximum at 282 nm and shorter retention time than leukotriene (LT)C4 in reverse-phase HPLC. Analysis with ...
Fleming Ingrid - - 2008
Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases and the soluble epoxide hydrolase are enzymes that regulate the cellular content of bioactive epoxides such as the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids derived from arachidonic acid. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids are recognized as lipid mediators that participate in vascular signaling processes such as the acute regulation of vascular tone and the ...
Gauthier Kathryn M - - 2007
Continuing investigations of the roles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) arachidonic acid epoxygenase metabolites in the regulation of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology have revealed their complex and diverse biological effects. Often these metabolites demonstrate protective properties that are revealed during cardiovascular disease. In this regard, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are an ...
Kooli Amna - - 2008
Nitrative stress is an important regulator of vascular tone. We have recently described that trans-arachidonic acids (TAA) are major products of NO(2)(.)-mediated isomerization of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and that nitrative stress increases TAA levels leading to neural microvascular degeneration. In the present study, we explored whether TAA exert ...
Miyahara Takashige - - 2008
We previously reported that the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2) pathway is involved in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) produced by high peak inflation pressures (PIP) (J Appl Physiol 98: 1264-1271, 2005), but the relative contributions of the various downstream products of cPLA2 on the acute permeability response were not determined. Therefore, ...
Strauss Kenneth I - - 2008
Overexpression of COX2 appears to be both a marker and an effector of neural damage after a variety of acquired brain injuries, and in natural or pathological aging of the brain. COX2 inhibitors may be neuroprotective in the brain by reducing prostanoid and free radical synthesis, or by directing arachidonic ...
Nieves Diana - - 2007
Previous studies have demonstrated that arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites released by the cyclooxygenase pathway is involved in serum-induced 3T6 fibroblast cycle progression and proliferation. However, these results also suggest that other AA cascade pathways might be involved. Recently, we also described the role of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, which are produced by ...
Larsen Brandon T - - 2008
The cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) both function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) in the human coronary microcirculation. However, the relative importance of and potential interactions between these 2 vasodilators remain unexplored. We identified a novel inhibitory interaction between ...
Pawlas Natalia - - 2007
Release of arachidonic acid (AA) is a neurotoxic mechanism of oxidative nature in trauma and ischemia. We studied ebselen effects on AA and 4-hydroxynonenal toxicity in rat cortical neurons in simulated ischemia in vitro by assessing cell viability and glutathione concentration. Ebselen normalized neuronal viability diminished by AA and 4-hydroxynonenal ...
Brock Thomas G - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, like arachidonic acid, can bind proteins and affect their function. The 14-3-3 proteins bind phosphorylated sites on a diverse array of client proteins and, in this way, are involved in many intracellular signaling pathways. In this study, we used a novel approach to discover that 14-3-3zeta is ...
Yuhas Yael - - 2007
Rifampin, a potent antimicrobial agent, is a major drug in the treatment of tuberculosis. There is evidence that rifampin also serves as an immunomodulator. Based on findings that arachidonic acid and its metabolites are involved in the pathogeneses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, we investigated whether rifampin affects prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) ...
Theken Katherine N - - 2007
The cytochrome (CYP) P450 epoxygenase pathway catalyzes the epoxidation of arachidonic acids to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which are subsequently hydrolyzed to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that CYP-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids possess potent vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties in the cardiovascular system. In humans, functionally ...
Gáti I - - 2007
The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action for potential targets of therapeutic intervention related to the arachidonic acid cascade in muscular dystrophy. Primary cultures from a Duchenne patient were used to study the expression of dystrophin-1, utrophin, desmin, neonatal myosin heavy chain (MHCn) and Bcl-2 ...
Wichmann Oliver - - 2007
The Foerster resonance energy transfer-based sensor, PENN, measures intracellular phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity in living cells and small organisms. In an attempt to modify the probe for the detection of particular isoforms, we altered the sn-2 fatty acid in such a way that either one or three of the Z ...
Krajka-Ku┼║niak Violetta - - 2008
A simple plant phenolic acid, protocatechuic acid and a polyphenol, tannic acid are potential chemopreventive agents which inhibited the chemically induced carcinogenesis in many experimental models. We previously demonstrated that those compounds modulate the activity of xenobiotic detoxifying enzymes, including GST in mouse liver, kidney and epidermis. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment ...
Sheldrick E Linda R - - 2007
Arachidonic acid is a potential paracrine agent released by the uterine endometrial epithelium to induce PTGS2 [PG (prostaglandin)-endoperoxide synthase 2] in the stroma. In the present study, bovine endometrial stromal cells were used to determine whether PTGS2 is induced by arachidonic acid in stromal cells, and to investigate the potential ...
Padma A Sai - - 2007
Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in the non-pregnant sheep uterus was studied in vitro using conventional chromatographic and HPLC techniques. High expression of both lipoxygenase (LOX) as well as cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and their activities was found in the uterine tissues. On incubation of uterine enymes with AA, the LOX products ...
Farooqui Akhlaq A - - 2007
The neural membranes contain phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are precursors for lipid mediators involved in signal transduction processes. Degradation of glycerophospholipids by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) generates arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). Arachidonic acid is metabolized to eicosanoids and DHA is metabolized to docosanoids. The ...
Williams Jan Michael JM Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, - - 2007
This study examined the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in isolated glomeruli and the effects of selective inhibitors of the synthesis of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETs) on glomerular permeability to albumin (P(alb)). Glomeruli avidly produced 20-HETE, EETs, dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (diHETEs), and HETEs when ...
Cheng Z - - 2007
Second messenger signalling through cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays an important role in the response of the endometrium to prostaglandin (PG) E(2) during early pregnancy. Arachidonic acid, which is a by-product of the luteolytic cascade in ruminants, is a potential paracrine signal from the epithelium to the stroma. We investigated the ...
Hao Chuan-Ming - - 2007
Small lipids such as eicosanoids exert diverse and complex functions. In addition to their role in regulating normal kidney function, these lipids also play important roles in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Increased glomerular cyclooxygenase (COX)1 or COX2 expression has been reported in patients with nephritis and in animal models ...
Kaye Alan D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: There are extensive data on roles of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX 1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) enzymes in temperature, coagulation, and inflammatory modulation. There is little known of the function of these enzymes in regulating tone in pulmonary vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the roles ...
Doroshenko Nina - - 2007
Within the framework of studying the mechanisms of acute toxicity of arachidonic acid and the role of ambient cations, we have investigated the effects of extracellular La(3+) on arachidonic acid-induced death (lactate dehydrogenase release) and mitochondrial depolarization (rhodamine 123 fluorescence) in PC12 cells. Micromolar La(3+) profoundly suppressed arachidonic acid toxicity ...
Prusakiewicz Jeffery J - - 2007
The lipoamino acids and endovanilloids have multiple roles in nociception, pain, and inflammation, yet their biological reactivity has not been fully characterized. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOs) oxygenate polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate signaling molecules. The ability of COXs and LOs to oxygenate arachidonyl-derived lipoamino acids and vanilloids was investigated. ...
Ng Valerie Y - - 2007
Cytochrome P450 (P450) eicosanoids regulate vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cellular proliferation, and inflammation. Both the CYP4A omega-hydroxylases, which catalyze 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) formation, and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which catalyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) degradation to the dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), are induced upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) ...
Zhao Zheng-Ge - - 2007
In this report, the effect of flufenamic acid on voltage-activated transient outward K(+) current (I(A)) in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells was investigated. At a concentration of 20 microM to 1 mM, flufenamic acid reversibly inhibited I(A) in a dose-dependent manner. However, flufenamic acid at a concentration of 0.1 to ...
Andersson David A - - 2007
We investigated the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the effects of PLA2 products (polyunsaturated fatty acids and lysophospholipids) on the cold-sensitive channel transient receptor potential (melastatin)-8 (TRPM8), heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. TRPM8 responses to cold and the agonist icilin were abolished by inhibitors of the calcium-independent ...
Connell Emma E Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, - - 2007
Syntaxin and Munc18 are, in tandem, essential for exocytosis in all eukaryotes. Recently, it was shown that Munc18 inhibition of neuronal syntaxin 1 can be overcome by arachidonic acid, indicating that this common second messenger acts to disrupt the syntaxin-Munc18 interaction. Here, we show that arachidonic acid can stimulate syntaxin ...
Zhou Jing-Jun - - 2007
Arachidonic acid inhibits the activity of a number of different Cl- channels, however its molecular mechanism of action is not known. Here we show that inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels by arachidonic acid is weakened following mutagenesis of two positively charged pore-lining amino acids. Charge-neutralizing ...
Hii Charles S - - 2007
Arachidonic acid (AA), a second-messenger molecule released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A(2) in activated cells, is a stimulator of neutrophil responses, including the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst. The polyunsaturated fatty acid is also the precursor of biologically active eicosanoids. There are several mechanisms by which AA stimulates the respiratory burst. ...
Falck J R - - 2007
Eight members of a recently identified family of tetrahydrofuran-diols (THFDs), originating from epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), were prepared stereospecifically from D-(+)-glucose. The THFDs potently induced relaxation of pre-contracted bovine arteries.
Lee Jung-Jin - - 2007
Carnosic acid is a major phenolic diterpene derived from Rosmarinus officinalis and has been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiobese and photoprotective activities. This study investigated the antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid. carnosic acid significantly inhibited collagen-, arachidonic acid-, U46619- and thrombin-induced washed rabbit platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent ...
Smith E S - - 2007
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by a decrease in extracellular pH. ASICs are expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, and several lines of evidence suggest that they are responsible for signaling the pain caused by extracellular acidification, but little is understood of the modulation of ASICs by pro-inflammatory factors. Using ...
Yi Xiu-Yu - - 2007
Adrenic acid (docosatetraenoic acid), an abundant fatty acid in the vasculature, is produced by a two-carbon chain elongation of arachidonic acid. Despite its abundance and similarity to arachidonic acid, little is known about its role in the regulation of vascular tone. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of bovine coronary artery and ...
Upmacis Rita K - - 2007
Nitric oxide (*NO) and eicosanoids are critical mediators of physiological and pathophysiological processes. They include inflammation and atherosclerosis. *NO production and eicosanoid synthesis become disrupted during atherosclerosis and thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to this outcome. We, and others, have shown that nitrogen oxide ...
Yoshida K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostaglandins (PGs), is released by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and plays an important role in biological reactions. We examined the roles of arachidonic acid on the pathway of PG synthesis and osteoblast differentiation by using clone MC3T3-E1 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of arachidonic ...
Hsu Mei-Hui - - 2007
The microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 4 monooxygenases are the major fatty acid omega-hydroxylases. These enzymes remove excess free fatty acids to prevent lipotoxicity, catabolize leukotrienes and prostanoids, and also produce bioactive metabolites from arachidonic acid omega-hydroxylation. In addition to endogenous substrates, recent evidence indicates that CYP4 monooxygenases can also ...
Latham Catherine F - - 2007
Neuronal communication relies on the fusion of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles with the neuronal plasma membrane. Recent genetic studies have highlighted the critical role played by polyunsaturated fatty acids in neurotransmission, however, there is little information available about which fatty acids act on exocytosis and, more importantly, by what mechanism. We have ...
Singh Dev K - - 2007
To investigate the role of sphingomyelin (SM) in the regulation of inflammatory reactions, we studied its effect on the activity and fatty acid specificity of group X secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)X). Compared with other phospholipases, recombinant sPLA(2)X released more arachidonate from HDL. Pretreatment of HDL with sphingomyelinase (SMase) C activated ...
Luria Ayala - - 2007
Arachidonic acid-derived epoxides, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, are important regulators of vascular homeostasis and inflammation, and therefore manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to their corresponding diols, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, modifying or eliminating the function of these oxylipins. To better understand the phenotypic ...
Chemin Jean - - 2007
Anandamide, originally described as an endocannabinoid, is the main representative molecule of a new class of signaling lipids including endocannabinoids and N-acyl-related molecules, eicosanoids, and fatty acids. Bioactive lipids regulate neuronal excitability by acting on G-protein-coupled receptors (such as CB1) but also directly modulate various ionic conductances including voltage-activated T-type ...
Fürstenberger G - - 2006
Substantial evidence supports a functional role for cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-catalyzed arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolism in cancer development. Genetic intervention studies firmly established cause-effect relations for cyclooxygenase-2, but cyclooxygenase-1 may also be involved. In addition, pharmacologic cyclooxygenase inhibition was found to suppress carcinogenesis in both experimental mouse models and several ...
Wright Lesley C - - 2007
Cryptococci survive and replicate within macrophages and can use exogenous arachidonic acid for the production of eicosanoids. Phospholipase B1 (PLB1) has a putative, but uninvestigated, role in these processes. We have shown that uptake and esterification of radiolabeled arachidonic, palmitic, and oleic acids by the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii H99 ...
Shah Sachin - - 2007
The yeast Candida bombicola (ATCC 22214) grown on primary carbon source glucose (100 g l(-1)) and secondary carbon, arachidonic acid (2 g l(-1)) produced mixture of sophorolipids up to 1.44 g l(-1). The crude product was a heterogeneous mixture of sophorolipids, which are glycolipids of sophorose linked to the fatty ...
Pastor Nitida - - 2006
To assess the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation in infant formula on the incidence of respiratory illnesses, pediatricians assigned infants to receive docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid-supplemented formula or control formula. Anthropometrics, medical history, and illnesses were reported. Among 1342 infants, there was a higher incidence of bronchiolitis in ...
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