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Patton John B - - 2011
Bile acids promoted the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and compromised the anti-HCV effects of interferon-α (IFN-α) in replicon-harboring cells. To explore a potential mechanism for the observation, we studied the effects of bile acids on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway ...
Zhang Yu-Kun Jennifer YK Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of - - 2011
Diurnal fluctuation of bile acid (BA) concentrations in the enterohepatic system of mammals has been known for a long time. Recently, BAs have been recognized as signaling molecules beyond their well-established roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis. The current study depicted diurnal variations of individual BAs detected by ...
Sohail Asma - - 2010
Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in cross-linked alginate beads is of major interest for improving the survivability in harsh acid and bile environment and also in food matrices. Alginate micro beads (10-40μm) containing the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM were produced by a novel technique based on dual ...
Miura Takuya - - 2011
To clarify the mechanism of persistent cholestasis after massive hepatectomy, the relationship between such cholestasis and the expression and localization of organic anion transporters for bile acids was examined in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90% hepatectomy, and tissues were harvested at 0, 1, 3, and ...
He Hongwei - - 2011
Cholestasis leads to liver cell death, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. Despite limited benefits, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for cholestatic disorders. Retinoic acid (RA) is a ligand for nuclear receptors that modulate bile salt homeostasis. RA also possesses immunomodulatory effects and is ...
Tsai Suh-Jen Jane - - 2011
An effective method has been developed for quantitative determination of six bile acids including lithocholic acid (LCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), hydodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), cholic acid (CA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in biological tissues including pig liver, pig kidney and bovine liver by gas chromatography-chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry ...
Giles David K DK Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology The Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, - - 2011
The Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae poses significant public health concerns by causing an acute intestinal infection afflicting millions of people each year. V. cholerae motility, as well as virulence factor expression and outer membrane protein production, has been shown to be affected by bile. The current study examines the effects ...
Panigrahy Dipak - - 2010
Endogenously produced lipid autacoids are locally acting small molecule mediators that play a central role in the regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. A well-studied group of autacoids are the products of arachidonic acid metabolism, among which the prostaglandins and leukotrienes are the best known. They are generated by two ...
Tang P - - 2011
Infective larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis may take up and incorporate exogenous arachidonic acid into their lipid pool. By scintillation counting, uptake and incorporation were determined to be time dependent. Arachidonic acid was mainly incorporated into phospholipid (56.8%) and neutral lipid (22.4%) pools. In the neutral lipids, 64.0% was diglyceride and ...
Qiao Xue - - 2011
Animal biles and gallstones are popularly used in traditional Chinese medicines, and bile acids are their major bioactive constituents. Some of these medicines, like cow-bezoar, are very expensive, and may be adulterated or even replaced by less expensive but similar species. Due to poor ultraviolet absorbance and structural similarity of ...
Tetsutani Tamiko - - 2010
Sulfation is considered to be a detoxifying mechanism for bile acids, which allows the sulfated bile acids to be eliminated in the urine (urinary sulfated bile acids: USBA) by enhancing renal clearance when serum bile acids increase due to hepatobiliary disease. We measured urinary sulfated bile acids in patients positive ...
Sajjan Shrishailnath - - 2010
The bacterium capable of producing melanin pigment in the presence of L-tyrosine was isolated from crop field soil sample and identified as Klebsiella sp. GSK based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequencing. The polymerization of this pigment occurs outside the cell wall, which has granular structure as melanin ghosts. ...
Walters Julian R F - - 2010
Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the (75)Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is ...
Brunnström Asa - - 2011
Hepoxilins are epoxy alcohols synthesized through the 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) pathway in animal cells. The epidermis is the principal source of hepoxilins in humans. Here we report on the formation of novel hepoxilin regioisomers formed by the 15-LO pathway in human cells. The Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L1236 possesses high 15-lipoxygenase-1 ...
He Hongwei - - 2010
Cholestasis leads to liver cell death, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. Despite limited benefits, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for cholestatic disorders. Retinoic acid (RA) is a ligand for nuclear receptors that modulate bile salt homeostasis. RA also possesses immunomodulatory effects and is ...
Kim Dong Hyun DH Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, Ohio 43614, - - 2010
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed substantial levels of CYP2J2, a major CYP450 involved in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) formation. MSCs synthesized significant levels of EETs (65.8 ± 5.8 pg/mg protein) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) (15.83 ± 1.62 pg/mg protein), suggesting the presence of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The addition of an sEH inhibitor to MSC culture ...
Hagey Lee R - - 2010
Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are important in lipid digestion and shaping of the gut microflora. There have been limited studies of bile-salt variation in birds. The purpose of our study was to determine bile-salt variation among birds and relate this variation to current avian phylogenies ...
Lu Zhenyu - - 2010
Two ring-A-aromatized bile acids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the sponge Sollasella moretonensis, collected from the seabed of northern Queensland. Structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies, as well as analysis by HRESIMS. Compound 2 has previously been produced synthetically, though this marks ...
Bukhari Ishfaq A IA Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226, - - 2011
Cytochrome P-450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs relax vascular smooth muscle by membrane hyperpolarization. 14,15-Epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EE5ZE) antagonizes many vascular actions of EETs. EETs are converted to the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). sEH activity in the bovine arterial endothelium and smooth ...
Ells Ruan - - 2011
Arachidonic acid (AA) is released from infected host cells during Candida albicans infection and may serve as carbon source for yeast growth and as precursor for the production of biologically active eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) by C. albicans. However, the mechanism involved in this production is still unclear. ...
Corriveau Stéphanie - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolic pathways in uterine tissues from pregnant women as well as the combined inhibition of LOX and cyclooxygenase (COX) on contractile activity. STUDY DESIGN: Uterine biopsies were performed from consenting women undergoing elective caesarean sections at ...
El-Sikhry Haitham E - - 2011
Development of sonosensitizers for sonodynamic therapy (SDT) which selectively target abnormal cells can limit undesired side effects in chemotherapeutic applications. Hypocrellin-B (HB) derivatives are low molecular weight compounds which belong to the perylenequinone family of photosensitizing and sonosensitizing compounds. In this study, we investigate the cytotoxic mechanisms of a novel ...
Turunen Pauli M - - 2010
Arachidonic acid (AA) release is a central message in cell signaling. Fatty acid release is generally assessed by manual sampling of radioactivity release from cells prelabeled with a radiolabeled fatty acid. The assay is laborious, time-consuming, and susceptible to high noise. Here we present a fast and reproducible method for ...
Stock Nicholas - - 2010
AM643 (compound 6, 3-{3-tert-butylsulfanyl-1-[4-(5-methoxy-pyrimidin-2-yl)-benzyl]-5-(5-methyl-pyridin-2-ylmethoxy)-1H-indol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethyl-propionic acid) was identified as a potential candidate for formulation as a topical agent for the treatment of skin disorders involving leukotriene production. Dermal application of 6 using a prototypical vehicle in a murine ear arachidonic acid model showed significant reduction in the concentrations of leukotrienes in ...
Newcomer Marcia E - - 2010
Leukotrienes (LTs), derived from arachidonic acid (AA) released from the membrane by the action of phospholipase A(2), are potent lipid mediators of the inflammatory response. In 1983, Dahlén et al. demonstrated that LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4) mediate antigen-induced constriction of bronchi in tissue obtained from subjects with asthma (Dahlén, S. ...
Sanchez-Mejia Rene O - - 2010
Essential fatty acids (EFA) play a critical role in the brain and regulate many of the processes altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Technical advances are allowing for the dissection of complex lipid pathways in normal and diseased states. Arachidonic acid (AA) and specific isoforms of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) appear to ...
El Ridi Rashika - - 2010
The development of arachidonic acid (ARA) for treatment of schistosomiasis is an entirely novel approach based on a breakthrough discovery in schistosome biology revealing that activation of parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) by unsaturated fatty acids, such as ARA, induces exposure of parasite surface membrane antigens to antibody binding and ...
Jiang Houli - - 2010
In addition to serving as carriers of O(2), red blood cells (RBCs) regulate vascular resistance and the distribution of microvascular perfusion by liberating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) upon exposure to a low O(2) environment. Therefore, RBCs act as sensors that respond to low pO(2) by releasing millimolar ...
Jenke Dennis - - 2010
Plastic materials are widely used in medical items such as solution containers, infusion sets, transfer tubing, devices, processing equipment and systems, filters, and the like. Components in medical items can leach out of such items when they are contacted by a therapeutic product or product-related solution. Stearic acid and stearate ...
Haworth Robert A - - 2010
We have sought evidence that arachidonic acid (AA) induces mitochondrial depolarization in isolated myocytes by a lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent mechanism and that such depolarization might contribute to arrhythmogenesis following ischemia-reperfusion injury. A method was developed for measuring mitochondrial depolarization in isolated adult rat myocytes in suspension, using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester. The ...
Kiss L - - 2010
Lipoxygenase, cyclo-oxygenase and cytochrome P450 (CYP) products of arachidonic acid (AA) are implicated in pulmonary vasoregulation. The CYP-mediated epoxyeicosatrienoates (EETs) have been described previously as the predominant eicosanoids in human lungs upon stimulation with the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In this study, we challenged perfused human lungs with two microbial agents: ...
Placzek Ekaterina A - - 2010
Elucidation of pathways involved with lipid metabolism has been limited by analytical challenges associated with detection and structure identification. A discovery-based mass spectrometry lipidomic approach has been applied to identify metabolites of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamide). Previously, a model system was established to show that anandamide can be recycled ...
Nithipatikom Kasem - - 2010
Recent evidence from a number of in vitro and in vivo studies in isolated cells and animal models has suggested that the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) pathway of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism produces potent cardioprotective metabolites that markedly reduce reversible (myocardial stunning) and irreversible (infarct size [IS]) injury in the ischemic/reperfused ...
Duncan Robin E - - 2010
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arachidonic acid was first detected in the brain in 1922. Although earlier work examined the role of arachidonic acid in growth and development, more recent advancements have elucidated roles for arachidonic acid in brain health and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we summarize evidence demonstrating that ...
Locke Jennifer A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: De novo androgen synthesis and subsequent androgen receptor (AR) activation has recently been shown to contribute to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. Herein we provide evidence that fatty acids (FA) can trigger androgen synthesis within steroid starved prostate cancer (CaP) tumor cells. METHODS: Tumoral FA and steroid levels were ...
Kubala Lukas L Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. - - 2010
Acute inflammation is a common feature of many life-threatening pathologies, including septic shock. One hallmark of acute inflammation is the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids forming bioactive products that regulate inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an abundant phagocyte-derived hemoprotein released during phagocyte activation. Here, we investigated the role of MPO in ...
Lamb David C - - 2010
The gene from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) encoding CYP102B1, a recently discovered CYP102 subfamily which exists solely as a single P450 heme domain, has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, characterized, and compared to its fusion protein family members. Purified reconstitution metabolism experiments with spinach ferredoxin, ferredoxin reductase, and NADPH ...
Zordoky Beshay N M - - 2010
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Taking into account the mounting evidence about the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in cardiovascular physiology, CYP polymorphisms can be considered one of the major determinants of individual susceptibility to CVDs. One of the important physiological ...
Revermann Marc - - 2010
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) build a family consisting of four arachidonic acid derived regioisomers that are generated by P450 epoxygenases. In the past years, growing interest in influencing EET level arose since EETs possess numerous beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system, for example, vasodilation, anti-inflammation and elicit renal and myocardial protection. ...
Anwar-mohamed Anwar - - 2010
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) generated cardioprotective metabolites, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and cardiotoxic metabolites, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) levels are determined by many factors, including the induction or repression of the CYP enzymes, responsible for their formation. Therefore, we examined the effect of acute inflammation on the expression of CYP epoxygenases and CYP ...
Ghosh Kumaresh - - 2010
A new anthracene labeled pyridinium amide-urea conjugate 1 has been designed and synthesized. The receptor shows a different fluorometric response with L-N-acetylvaline and L-N-acetylalanine salts in CH₃CN in contrast to the other salts of L-N-acetyl α-amino acids and (S)-α-hydroxy acids studied. Upon complexation of the tetrabutylammonium salt of L-N-acetylvaline, the ...
Adlercreutz Herman - - 2010
Rye contains more fibre and bioactive compounds than other cereals used for bread production. The fibre and compounds of the fibre complex could provide protection against breast cancer (BC). To review the evidence and theoretical background for a role of rye and some of its components in the prevention of ...
Pfister Sandra L - - 2010
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid that are produced by the vascular endothelium in responses to various stimuli such as the agonists acetylcholine (ACH) or bradykinin or by shear stress which activates phospholipase A(2) to release arachidonic acid. EETs are important regulators of vascular tone and ...
Chaudhary Ketul R KR Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, - - 2010
Arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, can be metabolized to cardioprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, which are subsequently hydrolyzed to less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). To study the effects of pharmacological inhibitor of sEH (sEHi), C57BL6 mice hearts were perfused in Langendorff mode ...
Sudhahar V V Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 53226, - - 2010
Arachidonic acid metabolites, eicosanoids, are key contributors to vascular function and improper eicosanoid regulation contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by epoxygenase enzymes to four regioisomers, 5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET. These EETs have interesting beneficial effects like vasodilation, anti-inflammation, and ...
Jørgensen Katarina Mariann - - 2010
Platelet activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is known to be present in excess in psoriatic skin, but its exact role is uncertain. In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the role of group VI PLA(2) in PAF-induced arachidonic acid release in highly differentiated human keratinocytes. The group IValpha ...
Kopf Phillip G PG Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wis 53226, - - 2010
Adrenic acid (docosatetraenoic acid), an abundant fatty acid in the adrenal gland, is identical to arachidonic acid except for 2 additional carbons on the carboxyl end. Adrenic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases, cytochrome P450s, and lipoxygenases; however, little is known regarding the role of adrenic acid and its metabolites in ...
Vogel Robert - - 2010
The nomenclature of lipoxygenases (LOXs) is partly based on the positional specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation, but there is no unifying concept explaining the mechanistic basis of this enzyme property. According to the triad model, Phe-353, Ile-418, and Ile-593 of the rabbit 12/15-LOX form the bottom of the substrate-binding pocket, ...
Aboutabl Mona E - - 2009
There is a strong correlation between cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism and the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Several aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands were found to alter P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism. Here, we have investigated the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), two AhR ligands, on the development ...
Orido Takashi - - 2010
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have chemopreventive activity and may be suitable for treatment of colorectal cancer. A popular and potent NSAID, indomethacin, is known to cause serious side-effects, for this reason its therapeutic usefulness is limited. However, these side-effects are likely to be attributed to the additional effects of indomethacin ...
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