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Ridruejo Ezequiel - - 2011
OBJECTIVE To report a case of severe cholestatic hepatitis caused by thioctic acid in a patient with diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy and mild chronic renal failure. CASE SUMMARY A 63-year-old man with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and stage 2 chronic renal failure was referred to the outpatient liver clinic with ...
Aubert J - - 2011
Due to the worldwide surge in obesity and type 2 diabetes, the increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major concern for the public health. Indeed, NAFLD encompasses a large spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can progress to cirrhosis in ...
Landry France - - 2011
A positive correlation between stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 expression and metabolic diseases has been reported in rodents and humans. These findings indicate that SCD1 is a promising therapeutic target for the chronic treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. The SCD1 enzyme is expressed at high levels in several human tissues and is ...
Hill J M - - 2011
Uric acid was used as a test for liver disease before the advent of enzymology. Three old studies criticised uric acid as a test of liver function. Uric acid, as an end-product of purine metabolism in the liver, deserved re-evaluation as a liver function test. Serum totalbile acids are widely ...
Doolaege Evelyne H A - - 2011
The absorption, distribution and elimination of carnosic acid, the main antioxidant found in rosemary was studied, in vivo, in rats. Therefore, carnosic acid was administrated in a single dose, intravenously (20.5 ± 4.2 mg/kg) and orally (64.3 ± 5.8 mg/kg), to four and nine rats, respectively. Blood samples were collected at different time points, and plasma ...
Prawitt Janne - - 2011
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing health problem worldwide, but the currently available strategies for therapy and prevention are insufficient. Recent observations indicate that bile acid homeostasis is altered in T2D. Bile acids are metabolic regulators that act as signaling molecules through receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. The most prominent ...
Dyck Martin C - - 2011
In the past number of years, the anticancer activities of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) as well as Vitamin D have been intensively studied, but separately. Supplementation of Vitamin D and omega-3 PUFA via cod-liver oil, one of few natural sources of both of these molecules, may have additive and ...
Gao Fei - - 2011
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), are critical for health. These PUFAs can be synthesized in liver from their plant-derived precursors, α-linolenic acid (α-LNA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6). Vegetarians and vegans may have suboptimal long-chain ...
Chen Qiang - - 2011
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty ...
Lin Lianzhu L College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, - - 2011
Rabdosia serra has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of R. serra as hypoglycaemic and skin-whitening agents, rosmarinic acid (confirmed as the major compound in R. serra), methyl rosmarinate and pedalitin isolated from R. serra were evaluated for their inhibitory effects ...
Kawaguchi Takumi - - 2011
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are a group of essential amino acids comprising valine, leucine, and isoleucine. Low plasma BCAAs/aromatic amino acids ratio is a physiological hallmark of liver cirrhosis and BCAA supplementation was originally devised with the intention of normalizing amino acid profiles and nutritional status. However, recent studies on ...
Qiu Jiang - - 2011
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic. The ionization constants of daptomycin have not been individually elucidated. The objective of this research is to determine the sequence-specific ionization constants of daptomycin in the monomeric state. The pH titrations of daptomycin were performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The sequence-specific pKa ...
Quillin Sarah J - - 2011
Mammalian bile has potent anti-microbial activity, yet bacterial pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system nonetheless persist and replicate within bile-rich environments. Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen, encounters bile at three stages throughout its infectious cycle in vivo: in the gut during initial infection, in the liver where it ...
Takahama Umeo - - 2011
During the digestion of starch in foods, starch is mixed with bile in the duodenum. Because fatty acids and some kind of polyphenols could bind to starch, we postulated that bile salts might also bind to starch. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of bile and ...
Alemmari Abdulla - - 2011
Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis remains a significant problem, especially for the surgical neonate. Aluminum is a toxic element known to contaminate parenteral nutrition. We hypothesize that parenterally administered aluminum causes liver injury similar to that seen in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. Twenty 3- to 6-day-old domestic pigs were divided into 5 equal ...
Pettinelli P - - 2011
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome associated with diabetes mellitus type 2. The prevalence of NAFLD in the general population reaches 15-20%. It is also estimated that nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) affects 3% ...
González Raúl - - 2011
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rifampicin has been used for the treatment of patients with jaundice and pruritus. This study evaluated the effect of rifampicin on the expression of different detoxification systems and bile acid transporters during in-vivo and in-vitro experimental models of cholestasis. METHODS: Rifampicin was administered to glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated human hepatocytes ...
Muraguchi Takashi - - 2011
Geranylgeranoic acid, a 20-carbon polyprenoic acid (all-trans 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,4,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenoic acid) and its derivatives were previously developed as synthetic "acyclic retinoids" for cancer chemoprevention. Recently, we demonstrated the natural occurrence of geranylgeranoic acid in various medicinal herbs (Shidoji and Ogawa, 2004). In this present study, we present several lines of evidence to ...
Boecxstaens V - - 2011
Background  Previous studies have established the presence of a postprandial acid pocket at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Aims  To investigate whether altering gastric motility would affect the location and the extent of postprandial acid pockets in healthy volunteers and also to study the presence of bile in this pocket. Methods  A ...
Tutar Hakan - - 2011
Purpose: The objective of this study is to show the accumulation of bile acids in laryngeal tissues of laryngeal carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods: The present study compared the total bile acid level in the hypopharyngeal tissue, tumor tissue, and blood of 21 primary laryngeal carcinoma patients (study group) to ...
Kolouchova Gabriela - - 2011
Background and Aim: The administration of pravastatin to patients with cholestatic liver disease has suggested the potential of the drug with regard to reducing raised plasma cholesterol and bile acid levels. Information about the mechanisms associated with this effect is lacking. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate ...
Pereañez Jaime Andrés - - 2011
Bile acids, such as cholic acid (CA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) have shown to decrease or increase the enzymatic activity of group IB pancreatic PLA(2), depending on the concentration used. Studies suggest that the inhibition of hydrolysis rate of the substrate is due to formation in aqueous phase of a ...
Poša Mihalj - - 2011
The formation of mixed micelles built of 7,12-dioxolithocholic and the following hydrophobic bile acids was examined by conductometric method: cholic (C), deoxycholic (D), chenodeoxycholic (CD), 12-oxolithocholic (12-oxoL), 7-oxolithocholic (7-oxoL), ursodeoxycholic (UD) and hiodeoxycholic (HD). Interaction parameter (β) in the studied binary mixed micelles had negative value, suggesting synergism between micelle ...
Takahashi Yoshiko - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The effect of the composition of reflux bile acids, especially the ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic ones, on the development of Barrett's oesophagus has not been fully investigated in human studies. AIMS: To evaluate the influence of the bile acid composition of gastric juice on Barrett's oesophagus, a prospective ...
Wang Renxue - - 2011
The biliary secretion of bile acids is critical for multiple liver functions including digesting fatty nutrients and driving bile flow. When this process is impaired, the accumulating bile acids cause inflammatory liver injury. Multiple ABC transporters in the liver are key players to safeguard the hepatocyte and avoid toxicity due ...
Odermatt Alex - - 2011
The oxidised bile acid 7-oxolithocholic acid (7-oxoLCA), formed primarily by gut microorganisms, is reduced in human liver to chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and, to a lesser extent, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The responsible enzyme(s) remained unknown. Using human liver microsomes, we observed enhanced 7-oxoLCA reduction in the presence of detergent. The reaction ...
Sargazi Mansour - - 2011
Aim To investigate whether patients follow advice regarding the duration of a fast, prior to blood tests which require an overnight fast for their correct interpretation. Method Patients referred for a glucose-tolerance test gave informed consent. They were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the duration of their fast, and ...
Song Shuhua S Ophthalmic Research/Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2011
Human lens membranes contain the highest cholesterol concentration of any known biological membranes, but it significantly decreases with age. Oxygenation of cholesterol generates numerous forms of oxysterols (bile acids). We previously showed that two forms of the bile acid components--ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)--suppressed lens epithelial cell death ...
Rizzi Luca - - 2011
Amphiphilic bile acids linked through an oligoethylene glycol to a biotin moiety were synthesized and shown to create micellar structures in aqueous environment, interact with avidin and be efficiently incorporated into hepatocyte cells, suggesting their potential as a drug delivery system against liver diseases.
Münch A - - 2011
Background  Patients with collagenous colitis have an impaired mucosal barrier. Moreover, collagenous colitis is associated with bile acid malabsorption. Bile acids can increase bacterial mucosal uptake in humans. Mucosal barrier function was investigated by exposing colonic biopsies to chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or deoxycholic acid (DCA) in Ussing chamber experiments. Aim  ...
Ortsäter Henrik - - 2011
Saturated fatty acids are toxic to pancreatic β-cells. By inducing apoptosis, they contribute to a decrease in β-cell mass, a hallmark of Type 2 diabetes. In the present issue of Clinical Science, Keane and co-workers show that the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid protects the β-cell against the toxic effects ...
Keane Deirdre C - - 2011
Chronic exposure of pancreatic β-cells to saturated non-esterified fatty acids can lead to inhibition of insulin secretion and apoptosis. Several previous studies have demonstrated that saturated fatty acids such as PA (palmitic acid) are detrimental to β-cell function compared with unsaturated fatty acids. In the present study, we describe the ...
Miura Ryo R Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2011
  Urinary bile acids are mainly conjugated with sulfuric acid. In a previous work, we demonstrated that the levels of urinary sulfated bile acids (USBA) and serum total bile acids (TBA) were correlated very well and also that USBA was considered to be a more useful indicator of hepatic fibrosis ...
Woods Angela A Cellular Stress Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College, London, U.K. - - 2011
LKB1 is a 'master' protein kinase implicated in the regulation of metabolism, cell proliferation, cell polarity and tumorigenesis. However, the long-term role of LKB1 in hepatic function is unknown. In the present study, it is shown that hepatic LKB1 plays a key role in liver cellular architecture and metabolism. We ...
Li Tiangang T Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeastern Ohio University's Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Rootstown, OH, - - 2011
We reported previously that mice overexpressing cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1; Cyp7a1-tg mice) are protected against high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and insulin resistance. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism of bile acid signaling in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in Cyp7a1-tg mice. Cyp7a1-tg mice had two-fold higher Cyp7a1 activity and bile acid ...
Christian Nadeau - - 2011
The highly enantioselective catalytic asymmetric addition of aryl and alkenylboronic acids to N-benzylnicotinate salt 1 is described. The dihydropyridine 2 reaction products can be converted to synthetically useful piperidines. Application of the methodology to the preparation of enantioenriched quaternary chiral centers is also discussed.
Williams Diane Keith - - 2011
The chemistry of children's latent fingerprint residues was investigated as a function of time and temperature by non-destructive spectrochemical analysis. Latent fingerprints from children, ranging in age from 2 to 11 years, were deposited onto aluminum-coated glass slides and were analyzed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy. The results revealed that there ...
Davidson Michael H - - 2011
Exogenous cholesterol uptake involves a complex process in the intestines for the absorption of cholesterol and bile acids. This process is regulated by intestinal nuclear transcription factors such as LXR that affect sterol transporters NPC1L1, ABCG5/G8, and ABCG1, and enzymes such as ACAT-2. Plant sterol/stanols, ezetimibe, and bile acid sequestrants ...
Li Zhaoyu Z Department of Biochemistry and Group on the Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2, - - 2011
Intrahepatic cholestasis eventually leads to liver failure. We report here a condition that decreases liver damage in intrahepatic cholestasis based on a mouse model that lacks multiple drug resistant protein 2 (ABCB4). We found that lack of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) decreased liver damage in Abcb4(-/-) mice caused by exposure of ...
Batchu S N SN Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, - - 2011
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid that are metabolized into dihydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The current investigations were performed to examine the cardioprotective effects of UA-8 (13-(3-propylureido)tridec-8-enoic acid), a synthetic compound that possesses both EET-mimetic and sEH inhibitory properties, against ischaemia-reperfusion ...
Davidson Michael H - - 2011
Familial hypercholesterolemia, which arises as a result of a mutation in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, is characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), regardless of dietary and lifestyle modifications. Pharmacological therapy is often required to adequately control the elevated LDL-C levels associated with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, ...
Marion Tracy L TL Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7270, - - 2011
Inhibition of bile acid (BA) transport may contribute to the hepatotoxicity of troglitazone (TRO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist. Typically, studies use taurocholic acid (TCA) as a model substrate to investigate effects of xenobiotics on BA disposition. However, TRO may differentially affect the transport of individual BAs, potentially causing ...
Hamauzu Yasunori - - 2011
The cell wall components and the food functions of alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) of Chinese quince, quince, hawthorn, apple, pear and blueberry fruits were analyzed. Chinese quince contained characteristically high contents of cellulose, lignin, and non-extractable procyanidins (NEPCs). On the other hand, the quince AIS contained the highest proportion of NEPCs, ...
Clayton Peter Theodore - - 2011
Inborn errors of bile acid synthesis can produce life-threatening cholestatic liver disease (which usually presents in infancy) and progressive neurological disease presenting later in childhood or in adult life. Both types of disease can often be treated very effectively with bile acid replacement therapy and it is therefore important to ...
Kubitz Ralf - - 2011
The bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11) is the major transporter protein for the excretion of bile salts into bile. Here we describe a spectrum of BSEP-dependent effects on the course of liver diseases, and present two mutations that differentially affect total bile acid output and the biliary bile acid ...
Marschall Hanns-Ulrich - - 2011
Bile acids have recently been identified as major integrators of hepatic fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism. We explored potential mechanism(s) of action of ursodeoxycholic acid (20 mg/kg/day in 3 weeks) in 40 morbidly obese patients (mean BMI >40 kg/m(2)) with suggested fatty liver disease awaiting bariatric surgery. At follow-up half ...
Kępka Alina - - 2011
Alcoholism is one of the most frequent dependences among people, leading to damage of the liver and death of the person. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases fatty acid oxidation by interfering with carnitine metabolism and citric acid cycle activity. Block in activity of the citric acid cycle caused by alcohol and ...
Maitra Uday - - 2011
Two bile acid derived molecules containing basic amino groups are reported to be efficient and unusual gelators of organic and aqueous solvents.
Kongo-Dia-Moukala Jauricque Ursulla - - 2011
Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and ...
Wang Xin - - 2011
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of abnormal liver function. Because fatty acids can damage biological membranes, fatty acid accumulation in the liver may be partially responsible for the functional and morphological changes that are observed in nonalcoholic liver disease. The aim of this ...
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