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van Werven Jochem R - - 2011
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of in vivo assessment of hepatic lipid composition using 3.0-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in a steatotic rat model and compare it to histopathological and biochemical assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic steatosis was induced by feeding rats with a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 1, ...
Mazoit Jean-Xavier - - 2012
Local anesthetics (LA) block propagation of impulses along nerve fibers by inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, which initiate action potentials (1). They act on the cytosolic side of phospholipid membranes. Two main chemical compounds are used, amino esters and amino amides. Amino esters are degraded by pseudocholinesterases in plasma. Amino ...
Borengasser Sarah J - - 2012
Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA) supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): (1) remained sedentary (SED), (2) access to running ...
Patterson Andrew D - - 2011
There has been limited analysis of the effects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on liver metabolism and circulating endogenous metabolites. Here, we report the findings of a plasma metabolomic investigation of HCC patients by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS), random forests machine learning algorithm, and multivariate data analysis. ...
Uldam Henriette Kold - - 2011
This article describes the biosynthesis and identification of a new class of metabolites, a piperazine N-oxide/N-glucuronide metabolite 4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-1-β-D-glucuronic acid-piperazine 1-oxide (4). The metabolite was found in urine and plasma from humans and animals dosed with 1-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazine hydrobromide (Lu AA21004, 1), as a novel multimodal antidepressant under development for treatment of ...
Kuwahata Masashi - - 2012
We examined whether continuous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6, a downstream effector of mammalian target of rapamycin, and improves hypoalbuminemia of rats with chronic liver disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a casein diet (control group) or a branched-chain amino acid-supplemented casein diet (branched-chain amino acid group) ...
Fuhrmann Valentin - - 2011
Pruritus can occur as a severe complication of cholestasis. Several hypotheses suggest an important role for the accumulation of bile acids, endogenous opioids and - mire recently - lysophosphatidic acid. Bile acid sequestrants are the first-line therapeutic agents. In refractory cases, a stepwise approach using rifampicin, oral opiate antagonists and ...
Szuster-Ciesielska Agnieszka - - 2011
Liver fibrosis has been reported to be inhibited in vivo by oleanolic and ursolic acids; however, the activity of other triterpenes like betulin and betulinic acid has not been examined. Butein has also been reported to prevent and partly reverse liver fibrosis in vivo, although its mechanism of action is ...
Kelly Gregory S - - 2011
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that was identified in 1933, isolated and extracted from liver in 1938, and first synthesized in 1940. This monograph discusses its dietary sources, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, studies on dietary deficiency, clinical applications, and drug-nutrient interactions.
Hofacer Rylon - - 2011
This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger ...
He Jinhan J Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2011
The fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 belongs to the class B scavenger receptor family. In addition to the known functions of CD36 in the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by macrophages and uptake of fatty acids by adipose tissues, skeletal muscle and heart, emerging evidence has pointed to an equally important ...
Lu Xiaoyan - - 2011
Three doses of (+)-usnic acid (100, 200, and 240 mg/kg per d) were administered orally to Wistar rats for 8 days, and metabonomic characterization of (+)-usnic acid-induced liver injury based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiles was evaluated. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations were simultaneously performed. The liver/body weight ...
Popović T - - 2011
In the present study, we examined the effects of fish oil supplementation in 3 months old male Wistar rats on changes in plasma and liver lipid metabolism and oxidative stress parameters. Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals: control group and intervention group, treated for 6 weeks ...
Minakata Katsuyuki - - 2011
In order to clarify the mechanism by polyphenols of protective effects against oxidative damage or by quinolinic acid of its neurotoxic and inflammatory actions, effects of polyphenols or quinolinic acid on the radical formation were examined. The ESR measurements showed that some polyphenols such as caffeic acid, catechol, gallic acid, ...
Mei Shuang - - 2011
Fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic liver disease. Saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on cell death and steatosis, but the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not known. Using cultured HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes, we found that ...
Clugston Robin D - - 2011
Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with fatty liver disease in mammals. The object of this study was to gain an understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in alcohol-fed C57BL/6 mice using a targeted lipidomic approach. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze several lipid classes, including free fatty acids, ...
Chattopadhyay Sandip - - 2011
The present study elucidated the protective role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats. Ingestion of sodium-arsenite- contaminated water [0.4 ppm/100 g body weight (b.w.)/day] in combination with vitamin B(12) plus folic acid (0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w./day) for 24 days to Wistar rats offered a ...
Osawa Yosuke Y Departments of Informative Clinical Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1194, Japan. - - 2011
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common liver diseases. L-tryptophan and its metabolite serotonin are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unclear whether L-tryptophan promotes hepatic steatosis. To explore this issue, we examined the role of L-tryptophan in mouse hepatic steatosis by using ...
Ason Brandon - - 2011
The association between hypercholesterolemia and elevated serum apolipoprotein B (APOB) has generated interest in APOB as a therapeutic target for patients at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In the clinic, mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) APOB inhibitor, was associated with a trend toward increased hepatic triglycerides, and liver steatosis remains ...
Xu Jie - - 2011
Cerebrosides are a kind of important bioactive substance in sea cucumber. A novel cerebroside, AMC-2, was purified from the less-polar lipid fraction of the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides by repeated column chromatography. The major structure of AMC-2 was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectra. The amide-linked fatty acid unit was confirmed ...
Assy Nimer - - 2011
Fatty liver is the most common liver disease worldwide. Patients with fatty liver disease die primarily from cardiovascular disease and not from chronic liver diseases. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia induce lipogenesis, thereby increasing the hepatic pool of fatty acids. This pool is also increased by increased delivery of fatty acids through ...
Parente Thiago E M - - 2011
The Amazon catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Loricariidae, Siluriformes) is closely related to the loricariid genus Hypostomus, in which at least two species lack detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, typically catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) enzymes. Pterygoplichthys sp. liver microsomes also lacked EROD, as well as activity with other substituted resorufins, but ...
Kaur Gunveen - - 2011
Previous studies have shown that Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) exhibit triacylglycerol (TAG) lowering effect in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating the Sterol Regulating Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c) and reducing the expression levels of lipogenic genes. However, there is no evidence on the effect of Docosapentaenoic Acid ...
Manna Soumen K - - 2011
Since the development and prognosis of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) vary significantly with genetic background, identification of a genetic background-independent noninvasive ALD biomarker would significantly improve screening and diagnosis. This study explored the effect of genetic background on the ALD-associated urinary metabolome using the Ppara-null mouse model on two different ...
Weiss Kathrin - - 2011
Nuclear hormone receptors are transcription factors that can be activated by nutrition-derived ligands and alter the expression of various specific target genes. Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase (SCD1) converts palmitic acid (16:0) to palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) as well as stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1n-9). At the same time, elongase 6 ...
Zhang Di - - 2011
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and its incidence is rising worldwide. We compared the antioxidant capacity of seventeen flavonoids with their inhibitory effects on oleic acid-induced triglyceride (TG) over-accumulation in HepG2 cells. The results showed significant correlations (P < 0.01) between the inhibition of intracellular TG ...
Hirose Akihiko - - 2011
The effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (clofibric acid) on the formation of oleic acid (18:1) from stearic acid (18:0) and utilization of the 18:1 formed for phosphatidylcholine (PC) formation in endoplasmic reticulum in the liver of rats were studied in vivo. [(14)C]18:0 was intravenously injected into control Wistar male rats and ...
Song Peizhen - - 2011
Feeding bile acids (BAs) to rodents has been used to study BA signaling and toxicity in vivo. However, little is known about the effect of feeding BAs on the concentrations of BAs in serum and liver as well as the dose of the fed BAs that causes liver toxicity. The ...
Sharma Ashwani - - 2011
We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for ...
Alberici Luciane C - - 2011
Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used to interrogate the hepatic lipid profiles of hypertriglyceridemic and control normotriglyceridemic mice. The analyses of ex vivo complex lipid mixtures were made directly with EASI-MS without accompanying separation steps. Intense ions for phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols were observed in the positive ion ...
Peeters Annelies - - 2011
Peroxisome deficiency in liver causes hepatosteatosis both in patients and in mice. Here, we studied the mechanisms that contribute to this lipid accumulation and to activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) by using liver-specific Pex5(-/-) mice (L-Pex5(-/-) mice). Surprisingly, steatosis was accompanied both by increased mitochondrial β-oxidation capacity, ...
Kim Say-June - - 2011
Background/Aims: Even though solutions of high branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are known to be beneficial to patients with hepatic encephalopathy, data on the effects of BCAA on liver regeneration are limited. Methodology: Two groups of young adult rats were utilized in this study: standard total parenteral nutrition solutions were administered ...
Armstrong Christopher - - 2011
Abstract During arousal from hibernation, body temperature (T(b)) increases by ∼30°C and liver mitochondrial respiration increases threefold in as little as 2 h. We analyzed liver mitochondria purified from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to see whether membrane phospholipids were remodeled during spontaneous arousal. Cardiolipin content did not change among animals ...
Rohman Abdul - - 2011
This study aimed to authenticate cod liver oil (CLO) from beef fat (BF) by determining the level of BF as a fat adulterant in CLO. Two instrumental techniques, namely GC-FID for fatty acid analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, were exploited for such authentication. The decreased level of some ...
Soroka Carol J - - 2011
Bile acid homeostasis is tightly maintained through interactions between the liver, intestine, and kidney. During cholestasis, the liver is incapable of properly clearing bile acids from the circulation, and alternative excretory pathways are utilized. In obstructive cholestasis, urinary elimination is often increased, and this pathway is further enhanced after bile ...
Trottier J J Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Molecular Endocrinology and Oncology Research Center, CHUQ Research Center, Quebec, Quebec, - - 2011
Fenofibrate belongs to the group of hypolipidemic fibrates that act as activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), which is a regulator of bile acid synthesis, metabolism, and transport. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of fenofibrate on the circulating bile acid profile in humans. A study population ...
Gómez-Zorita S - - 2012
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common manifestations of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of resveratrol on liver fat accumulation, as well as on the activity of those enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation ...
Moriya Aya - - 2011
Prolonged starvation changes energy metabolism; therefore, the metabolic response to starvation is divided into three phases according to changes in glucose, lipid and protein utilisation. B-group vitamins are involved in energy metabolism via metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids. To determine how changes in energy metabolism alter B-group ...
Alhazzaa Ramez - - 2011
The limited activity of Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (FAD6) on α-linolenic (ALA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic (LA, 18:2n-6) acids in marine fish alters the long-chain (≥C<sub>20</sub>) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) concentration in fish muscle and liver when vegetable oils replace fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds. Echium oil (EO), rich in stearidonic ...
Ridruejo Ezequiel - - 2011
OBJECTIVE To report a case of severe cholestatic hepatitis caused by thioctic acid in a patient with diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy and mild chronic renal failure. CASE SUMMARY A 63-year-old man with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and stage 2 chronic renal failure was referred to the outpatient liver clinic with ...
Aubert J - - 2011
Due to the worldwide surge in obesity and type 2 diabetes, the increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major concern for the public health. Indeed, NAFLD encompasses a large spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can progress to cirrhosis in ...
Landry France - - 2011
A positive correlation between stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)1 expression and metabolic diseases has been reported in rodents and humans. These findings indicate that SCD1 is a promising therapeutic target for the chronic treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. The SCD1 enzyme is expressed at high levels in several human tissues and is ...
Hill J M - - 2011
Uric acid was used as a test for liver disease before the advent of enzymology. Three old studies criticised uric acid as a test of liver function. Uric acid, as an end-product of purine metabolism in the liver, deserved re-evaluation as a liver function test. Serum totalbile acids are widely ...
Doolaege Evelyne H A - - 2011
The absorption, distribution and elimination of carnosic acid, the main antioxidant found in rosemary was studied, in vivo, in rats. Therefore, carnosic acid was administrated in a single dose, intravenously (20.5 ± 4.2 mg/kg) and orally (64.3 ± 5.8 mg/kg), to four and nine rats, respectively. Blood samples were collected at different time points, and plasma ...
Prawitt Janne - - 2011
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing health problem worldwide, but the currently available strategies for therapy and prevention are insufficient. Recent observations indicate that bile acid homeostasis is altered in T2D. Bile acids are metabolic regulators that act as signaling molecules through receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. The most prominent ...
Dyck Martin C - - 2011
In the past number of years, the anticancer activities of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) as well as Vitamin D have been intensively studied, but separately. Supplementation of Vitamin D and omega-3 PUFA via cod-liver oil, one of few natural sources of both of these molecules, may have additive and ...
Gao Fei - - 2011
The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), are critical for health. These PUFAs can be synthesized in liver from their plant-derived precursors, α-linolenic acid (α-LNA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6). Vegetarians and vegans may have suboptimal long-chain ...
Chen Qiang - - 2011
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty ...
Kawaguchi Takumi - - 2011
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are a group of essential amino acids comprising valine, leucine, and isoleucine. Low plasma BCAAs/aromatic amino acids ratio is a physiological hallmark of liver cirrhosis and BCAA supplementation was originally devised with the intention of normalizing amino acid profiles and nutritional status. However, recent studies on ...
Qiu Jiang - - 2011
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic. The ionization constants of daptomycin have not been individually elucidated. The objective of this research is to determine the sequence-specific ionization constants of daptomycin in the monomeric state. The pH titrations of daptomycin were performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The sequence-specific pKa ...
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