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Das Undurti N - - 2011
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a low-grade systemic inflammatory condition, since liver and adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and TNF receptor 1 transcripts and serum TNF-α levels are increased and IL-6(-/-) mice are less prone to NAFLD. Fatty liver damage caused by high-fat diets is associated with the ...
Park Han-Sol HS Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736, - - 2011
Methionine and choline-deficient diet (MCD)-induced fatty liver is one of the best-studied animal models of fatty liver disease. The present study was performed to clarify the relative contributions of individual lipid metabolic pathways to the pathogenesis of MCD-induced fatty liver. Hepatic lipogenesis mediated by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1c) ...
Hassan Ammar Ali - - 2011
Objectives. To acquire new knowledge on the nutritional composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.) and their nutritional value for humans. The results could be useful in updating the Norwegian Food Composition Database, whose current data on reindeer is limited. Study design. Cross-sectional study on population of semi-domesticated reindeer ...
Kunde Sachin S - - 2011
Fructose-sweetened liquid consumption is associated with fatty liver and oxidative stress. In rodent models of fructose-mediated fatty liver, protein consumption is decreased. Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. Studies were designed to test whether oxidative stress in fructose-sweetened liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by ...
Xu Ziwei - - 2011
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) complicates the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Some studies have shown omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have favorable effects in treating PNALD in children. We, therefore, investigate the effects of ω-3 PUFAs supplemented intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) on ...
Fordahl Steve S Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170, - - 2012
Overexposure to waterborne manganese (Mn) is linked with cognitive impairment in children and neurochemical abnormalities in other experimental models. In order to characterize the threshold between Mn-exposure and altered neurochemistry, it is important to identify biomarkers that positively correspond with brain Mn-accumulation. The objective of this study was to identify ...
Valenzuela Rodrigo - - 2011
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most important cause of chronic liver disease that is characterized by hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation (steatosis), which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis, and cirrhosis (steatohepatitis). Overnutrition triggers the onset of oxidative stress in the liver due to higher availability and oxidation of fatty acids ...
Powell David A - - 2011
An in vitro screening protocol was used to transform a systemically-distributed SCD inhibitor into a liver-targeted compound. Incorporation of a key nicotinic acid moiety enables molecular recognition by OATP transporters, as demonstrated by uptake studies in transfected cell lines, and likely serves as a critical component of the observed liver-targeted ...
Anstee Q M QM Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. - - 2012
Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (also known as NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty ...
Zhang Youcai Y Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, - - 2012
Cholestatic liver diseases can be caused by genetic defects, drug toxicities, hepatobiliary malignancies or obstruction of the biliary tract. Cholestasis leads to accumulation of bile acids (BAs) in hepatocytes. Direct toxicity of BAs is currently the most accepted hypothesis for cholestatic liver injury. However, information on which bile acids are ...
Ince Sinan - - 2011
The protective effect of boric acid against liver damage was evaluated by its attenuation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Male albino mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with boric acid (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) or silymarin daily for 7 days and received 0.2% CCl(4) in olive oil (10 mL/kg, i.p.) ...
Liu Yixiang - - 2011
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide and is closely associated with metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), also called simple steatosis, is the initial phase of NAFLD, which is accompanied the characteristic pathological over-accumulation ...
Morash Andrea J - - 2011
Abstract Periods of fasting, in most animals, are fueled principally by fatty acids, and changes in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation must exist to meet this change in metabolic substrate use. We examined the regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I, to help explain changes in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation ...
Benninghoff Abby D - - 2012
Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple ...
Jensen-Urstad Anne P L AP Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2012
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) catalyzes the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In the liver, FAS has long been categorized as a housekeeping protein, producing fat for storage of energy when nutrients are present in excess. Most previous studies of FAS regulation have focused on the control of gene expression. ...
Ling Pei-Ra - - 2011
This study examined fatty acid profiles, triene-tetraene ratios (20:3n9/20:4n6), and nutritional and inflammatory markers in rats fed an essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) diet provided as 2% hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) alone for 2 weeks or with 1.3 mg of arachidonic acid (AA) and 3.3 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (AA ...
van Werven Jochem R - - 2011
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of in vivo assessment of hepatic lipid composition using 3.0-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in a steatotic rat model and compare it to histopathological and biochemical assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic steatosis was induced by feeding rats with a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 1, ...
Mazoit Jean-Xavier - - 2012
Local anesthetics (LA) block propagation of impulses along nerve fibers by inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, which initiate action potentials (1). They act on the cytosolic side of phospholipid membranes. Two main chemical compounds are used, amino esters and amino amides. Amino esters are degraded by pseudocholinesterases in plasma. Amino ...
Borengasser Sarah J - - 2012
Background and Aims. This study examined if exercise and omega-3 fatty acid (n3PUFA) supplementation is an effective treatment for hepatic steatosis in obese, hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Methods. Male OLETF rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): (1) remained sedentary (SED), (2) access to running ...
Patterson Andrew D - - 2011
There has been limited analysis of the effects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on liver metabolism and circulating endogenous metabolites. Here, we report the findings of a plasma metabolomic investigation of HCC patients by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS), random forests machine learning algorithm, and multivariate data analysis. ...
Uldam Henriette Kold - - 2011
This article describes the biosynthesis and identification of a new class of metabolites, a piperazine N-oxide/N-glucuronide metabolite 4-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-1-β-D-glucuronic acid-piperazine 1-oxide (4). The metabolite was found in urine and plasma from humans and animals dosed with 1-[2-(2,4-dimethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-phenyl]-piperazine hydrobromide (Lu AA21004, 1), as a novel multimodal antidepressant under development for treatment of ...
Kuwahata Masashi - - 2012
We examined whether continuous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6, a downstream effector of mammalian target of rapamycin, and improves hypoalbuminemia of rats with chronic liver disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a casein diet (control group) or a branched-chain amino acid-supplemented casein diet (branched-chain amino acid group) ...
Fuhrmann Valentin - - 2011
Pruritus can occur as a severe complication of cholestasis. Several hypotheses suggest an important role for the accumulation of bile acids, endogenous opioids and - mire recently - lysophosphatidic acid. Bile acid sequestrants are the first-line therapeutic agents. In refractory cases, a stepwise approach using rifampicin, oral opiate antagonists and ...
Szuster-Ciesielska Agnieszka - - 2011
Liver fibrosis has been reported to be inhibited in vivo by oleanolic and ursolic acids; however, the activity of other triterpenes like betulin and betulinic acid has not been examined. Butein has also been reported to prevent and partly reverse liver fibrosis in vivo, although its mechanism of action is ...
Kelly Gregory S - - 2011
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that was identified in 1933, isolated and extracted from liver in 1938, and first synthesized in 1940. This monograph discusses its dietary sources, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, studies on dietary deficiency, clinical applications, and drug-nutrient interactions.
He Jinhan J Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2011
The fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 belongs to the class B scavenger receptor family. In addition to the known functions of CD36 in the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by macrophages and uptake of fatty acids by adipose tissues, skeletal muscle and heart, emerging evidence has pointed to an equally important ...
Hofacer Rylon R Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45219-0516, - - 2011
This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger ...
Lu Xiaoyan - - 2011
Three doses of (+)-usnic acid (100, 200, and 240 mg/kg per d) were administered orally to Wistar rats for 8 days, and metabonomic characterization of (+)-usnic acid-induced liver injury based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic profiles was evaluated. Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations were simultaneously performed. The liver/body weight ...
Popović T - - 2011
In the present study, we examined the effects of fish oil supplementation in 3 months old male Wistar rats on changes in plasma and liver lipid metabolism and oxidative stress parameters. Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals: control group and intervention group, treated for 6 weeks ...
Minakata Katsuyuki - - 2011
In order to clarify the mechanism by polyphenols of protective effects against oxidative damage or by quinolinic acid of its neurotoxic and inflammatory actions, effects of polyphenols or quinolinic acid on the radical formation were examined. The ESR measurements showed that some polyphenols such as caffeic acid, catechol, gallic acid, ...
Clugston Robin D - - 2011
Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with fatty liver disease in mammals. The object of this study was to gain an understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism in alcohol-fed C57BL/6 mice using a targeted lipidomic approach. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze several lipid classes, including free fatty acids, ...
Mei Shuang S Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160, - - 2011
Fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic liver disease. Saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on cell death and steatosis, but the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not known. Using cultured HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes, we found that ...
Chattopadhyay Sandip - - 2011
The present study elucidated the protective role of vitamin B(12) with folic acid against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in female rats. Ingestion of sodium-arsenite- contaminated water [0.4 ppm/100 g body weight (b.w.)/day] in combination with vitamin B(12) plus folic acid (0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w./day) for 24 days to Wistar rats offered a ...
Osawa Yosuke Y Departments of Informative Clinical Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1194, Japan. - - 2011
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common liver diseases. L-tryptophan and its metabolite serotonin are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unclear whether L-tryptophan promotes hepatic steatosis. To explore this issue, we examined the role of L-tryptophan in mouse hepatic steatosis by using ...
Ason Brandon - - 2011
The association between hypercholesterolemia and elevated serum apolipoprotein B (APOB) has generated interest in APOB as a therapeutic target for patients at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In the clinic, mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) APOB inhibitor, was associated with a trend toward increased hepatic triglycerides, and liver steatosis remains ...
Xu Jie - - 2011
Cerebrosides are a kind of important bioactive substance in sea cucumber. A novel cerebroside, AMC-2, was purified from the less-polar lipid fraction of the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides by repeated column chromatography. The major structure of AMC-2 was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectra. The amide-linked fatty acid unit was confirmed ...
Assy Nimer N Liver Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Ziv Medical Center, Safed 13100, Israel. - - 2011
Fatty liver is the most common liver disease worldwide. Patients with fatty liver disease die primarily from cardiovascular disease and not from chronic liver diseases. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia induce lipogenesis, thereby increasing the hepatic pool of fatty acids. This pool is also increased by increased delivery of fatty acids through ...
Parente Thiago E M TE Lab. Biologia Molecular Ambiental, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, - - 2011
The Amazon catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Loricariidae, Siluriformes) is closely related to the loricariid genus Hypostomus, in which at least two species lack detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, typically catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) enzymes. Pterygoplichthys sp. liver microsomes also lacked EROD, as well as activity with other substituted resorufins, but ...
Kaur Gunveen - - 2011
Previous studies have shown that Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) exhibit triacylglycerol (TAG) lowering effect in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating the Sterol Regulating Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c) and reducing the expression levels of lipogenic genes. However, there is no evidence on the effect of Docosapentaenoic Acid ...
Manna Soumen K - - 2011
Since the development and prognosis of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) vary significantly with genetic background, identification of a genetic background-independent noninvasive ALD biomarker would significantly improve screening and diagnosis. This study explored the effect of genetic background on the ALD-associated urinary metabolome using the Ppara-null mouse model on two different ...
Weiss Kathrin - - 2011
Nuclear hormone receptors are transcription factors that can be activated by nutrition-derived ligands and alter the expression of various specific target genes. Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase (SCD1) converts palmitic acid (16:0) to palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) as well as stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1n-9). At the same time, elongase 6 ...
Zhang Di - - 2011
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and its incidence is rising worldwide. We compared the antioxidant capacity of seventeen flavonoids with their inhibitory effects on oleic acid-induced triglyceride (TG) over-accumulation in HepG2 cells. The results showed significant correlations (P < 0.01) between the inhibition of intracellular TG ...
Hirose Akihiko - - 2011
The effects of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (clofibric acid) on the formation of oleic acid (18:1) from stearic acid (18:0) and utilization of the 18:1 formed for phosphatidylcholine (PC) formation in endoplasmic reticulum in the liver of rats were studied in vivo. [(14)C]18:0 was intravenously injected into control Wistar male rats and ...
Song Peizhen - - 2011
Feeding bile acids (BAs) to rodents has been used to study BA signaling and toxicity in vivo. However, little is known about the effect of feeding BAs on the concentrations of BAs in serum and liver as well as the dose of the fed BAs that causes liver toxicity. The ...
Sharma Ashwani - - 2011
We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for ...
Alberici Luciane C - - 2011
Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used to interrogate the hepatic lipid profiles of hypertriglyceridemic and control normotriglyceridemic mice. The analyses of ex vivo complex lipid mixtures were made directly with EASI-MS without accompanying separation steps. Intense ions for phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols were observed in the positive ion ...
Peeters Annelies - - 2011
Peroxisome deficiency in liver causes hepatosteatosis both in patients and in mice. Here, we studied the mechanisms that contribute to this lipid accumulation and to activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) by using liver-specific Pex5(-/-) mice (L-Pex5(-/-) mice). Surprisingly, steatosis was accompanied both by increased mitochondrial β-oxidation capacity, ...
Kim Say-June - - 2011
Background/Aims: Even though solutions of high branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are known to be beneficial to patients with hepatic encephalopathy, data on the effects of BCAA on liver regeneration are limited. Methodology: Two groups of young adult rats were utilized in this study: standard total parenteral nutrition solutions were administered ...
Armstrong Christopher - - 2011
Abstract During arousal from hibernation, body temperature (T(b)) increases by ∼30°C and liver mitochondrial respiration increases threefold in as little as 2 h. We analyzed liver mitochondria purified from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to see whether membrane phospholipids were remodeled during spontaneous arousal. Cardiolipin content did not change among animals ...
Rohman Abdul - - 2011
This study aimed to authenticate cod liver oil (CLO) from beef fat (BF) by determining the level of BF as a fat adulterant in CLO. Two instrumental techniques, namely GC-FID for fatty acid analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, were exploited for such authentication. The decreased level of some ...
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