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Results 401 - 450 of 1616
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Maggio-Hall Lori A - - 2004
Beta-oxidation (beta-ox) occurs exclusively in the peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, leading to the supposition that fungi lack mitochondrial beta-ox. Here we present unequivocal evidence that the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans houses both peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-ox. While growth of a peroxisomal beta-ox disruption mutant (DeltafoxA) was eliminated ...
Itrich Nina R - - 2004
Batch activated-sludge die-away studies were conducted with various pure homologs to determine the effect of ethoxylate number and alkyl chain length on the kinetics of primary and ultimate biodegradation of linear alcohol ethoxylates. The 14C-(ethoxylate) homologs C14E1, C14E3, C14E6, and C14E9 were used to investigate the effect of ethoxylate number, ...
Terzi Cem - - 2004
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of preoperative rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids on irradiated colonic anastomosis in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control group, n = 15) underwent left colon resection and primary anastomosis. Group II (Short-chain fatty acids pretreatment group, ...
Shimomura Yoshiharu - - 2004
Significant evidence of the pharmacological and physiological effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has accumulated, attracting the interest of not only clinicians but also basic medical researchers. We summarize here the characteristic features of BCAA catabolism, focusing on the initial two enzymes in the pathway, branched-chain aminotransferase and branched-chain alpha-keto ...
Inoue Tohru - - 2004
Solid-liquid phase behavior of binary mixtures of oleic acid (OA)/capric acid (C10A) and OA/caprylic acid (C8A) were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction. The phase diagram of OA/C10A mixture constructed from the DSC results suggested that a molecular compound with ...
Greffe Lionel - - 2005
A novel class of nonionic, carbohydrate-based surfactants has been synthesized from the plant polysaccharide xyloglucan. Enzymatic hydrolysis of xyloglucan yielded a series of well-defined, highly branched oligosaccharides that, following reductive amination, were readily conjugated with fatty acids bearing C8 to C18 chains under mild conditions. The critical micelle concentration, determined ...
Aoki Ken'ichi - - 2004
[reaction: see text] Starting from diactylene diacarboxylic acids, we have synthesized a series of photopolymerizable organogelators that possess simple amide structures, different alkylene chain lengths, and either optically active or racemic 3,7-dimethyl-1-octylamine units. The alkylene chain length of these compounds exhibits a prominent odd/even effect with respect to the photopolymerization ...
Venos Erik S - - 2004
Tuberculosis remains a major world-wide health threat which demands the discovery and characterisation of new drug targets in order to develop future antimycobacterials. The regeneration of methionine consumed during polyamine biosynthesis is an important pathway present in many microorganisms. The final step of this pathway, the conversion of ketomethiobutyrate to ...
Tanji Mikio - - 2004
Cerebrosides were found in ten lactose-assimilating yeasts. Representative component ceramide moieties of cerebrosides from nine of these yeasts contained 9-methyl-4-trans, 8-trans-sphingadienine, and 2-hydroxy fatty acid with carbon chain lengths of 16 or 18. The major ceramide moieties in Brettanomyces anomalus, however, differed from those in other yeasts, and were predominately ...
Wanten Geert J - - 2004
From a nutritional standpoint, saturated triglycerides with a medium (6 to 12) carbon chain length (MCT) have traditionally been regarded as biologically inert substances, merely serving as a source of fuel calories that is relatively easily accessible for metabolic breakdown compared with long chain triglycerides (LCT). This quality of MCT ...
Miller Steven J - - 2004
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) have multiple in vivo and in vitro effects including cell cycle arrest and induction of protein synthesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Butyrate or derivatives have promise for treating inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Genomic and proteomic analysis have generated new knowledge on function and applications ...
Cox James E - - 2004
We have found that jejunal infusions of long-chain fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and oleic acid (OA), and gastric infusions of a fatty acid ethyl ester, ethyl oleate (EO), produce long-lasting suppression of total caloric intake. This effect is not seen in response to jejunal infusions of medium-chain fatty acids ...
Meija Juris - - 2004
A series of homologous omega-phenylalkanoic acids and omega-phenylalkenoic acids were isolated from seed lipids of various genera of the subfamily Aroideae of Araceae (the Jack-in-the-Pulpit family) and characterized. Besides the major acids, 11-phenylundecanoic acid, 13-phenyltridecanoic acid and 15-phenylpentadecanoic acid, all other homologous odd carbon number omega-phenylalkanoic acids from C7 to ...
Nickel M - - 2004
Recently it has been demonstrated that the ptb - bcd - buk - lpdV - bkdAA - bkdAB - bkdB operon ( bkdoperon) of Bacillus subtilis, which encodes the enzymes that catalyze the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, is inducible by a temperature downshift from 37 to 18 degrees C. ...
Auer Frank - - 2004
The reversible self-assembly of a series of bipolar amphiphiles, alpha,omega-bis(3- or 4-amidinophenoxy)alkanes (chain length n = 5-12), on mercaptoalkanoic acid-functionalized gold surfaces (chain length n = 10, 11, 14, 15) has been studied by in-situ ellipsometry, IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The layer order, amphiphile ...
Aron Zachary D - - 2004
Twenty three side chain analogs of the crambescidin alkaloids were prepared from the corresponding pentacyclic zwitterionic core acid. In the crambescidin 800 and 657 series, potency increased with increasing chain length. In addition, substantial variations in tumor selectivity with structure were seen. Crambescidin analogs having short, nonpolar side chains were ...
Jolly Robert A - - 2004
Hepatotoxicity characterized by microvesicular steatosis (MVS) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of numerous small cytoplasmic lipid droplets in hepatocytes. Fulminant or progressive cases of microvesicular steatosis may lead to liver failure and death. Experimentally, short-chain carboxylic acids are known to induce microvesicular steatosis. The identification of gene changes that ...
Matsumoto G I - - 2004
Endolithic microbial communities inhabiting porous rocks in the cold, dry mountainous regions of Antarctica have been studied extensively as examples of life's adaptations to extreme environments. Here, we examine hydrocarbons and fatty acids occurring in these communities in order to clarify their biogeochemical features with respect to source organisms, microbial ...
Röckendorf Niels - - 2004
Natural glycopeptides and glycoproteins exhibit a large structural diversity, which can be mimicked by synthetic glycopeptide derivatives to assist the investigation of biological functions and structure-activity relationships. Here, dendronized saccharides were synthesized to provide glycosyl amino acids, equipped with a branching element for the preparation of branched glycopeptide mimetics. An ...
van den Berg Bert - - 2004
The mechanisms by which hydrophobic molecules, such as long-chain fatty acids, enter cells are poorly understood. In Gram-negative bacteria, the lipopolysaccharide layer in the outer membrane is an efficient barrier for fatty acids and aromatic hydrocarbons destined for biodegradation. We report crystal structures of the long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL ...
Schönfeld Peter - - 2004
The inner membrane of freshly isolated mammalian mitochondria is poorly permeable to Cl(-). Low, nonlytic concentrations (< or =30 microM) of long-chain fatty acids or their branched-chain derivatives increase permeation of Cl(-) as indicated from rapid large-scale swelling of mitochondria suspended in slightly alkaline KCl medium (supplemented with valinomycin). Myristic, ...
Morgan Kimyata - - 2004
Central administration of the long-chain fatty acid oleic acid inhibits food intake and glucose production in rats. Here we examined whether short term changes in nutrient availability can modulate these metabolic and behavioral effects of oleic acid. Rats were divided in three groups receiving a highly palatable energy-dense diet at ...
Smirnov V Yu - - 2004
We studied the effect of a mixture containing branched-chain amino acids and taurine on the pool of free amino acids and their derivatives during chronic phenobarbital poisoning. Subchronic barbiturate poisoning produced by daily intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital caused imbalance in the content of some amino acids in blood plasma and ...
Kang S W - - 2004
Penicillic acid was isolated from a culture filtrate of Aspergillus sclerotiorum. It had a high in vitro antifungal activity against Phytophthora spp., which has not been previously reported. MICs of penicillic acid were from 1 to 25 microg ml(-1) against Phytophthora spp. Penicillic acid induced abnormal branch formation, apical branching, ...
Scaglia Fernando - - 2004
Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism caused by the loss of enzymatic activities that mediate the transfer of nitrogen from ammonia to urea. These disorders often result in life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. A combination of sodium phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylacetate/benzoate is used in ...
Poon R T-P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma have advanced tumour or severe cirrhosis and frequently have associated protein-calorie malnutrition. The role of nutritional supplements for such patients is unclear. AIM: To investigate, in a randomized controlled trial, any benefit of the long-term administration of branched chain amino acids in ...
Wongtangtintharn Sawitree - - 2004
This paper describes the antitumoral activity of branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) in human breast cancer cells with an emphasis on its effect on fatty acid biosynthesis. First, the relationship between chain-length and antitumoral activity was studied. The highest activity was observed with iso-16:0, and the activity decreased with increase or ...
Hu Yiding - - 2004
Asukamycin (2), a metabolite of Streptomyces nodosus ssp. asukaensis ATCC 29757 and a member of the manumycin family of antibiotics, is assembled from three components, an "upper" polyketide chain initiated by cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a "lower" polyketide chain initiated by the novel starter unit, 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-AHBA), and a cyclized 5-aminolevulinic ...
Alvaro Mercedes - - 2004
Preparation of hybrid organic-inorganic MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas functionalized with perfluoroalkylsulfonic acid groups has been achieved in a single step by reacting the mesoporous silicas with 1,2,2-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-1-trifluoromethylethane sulfonic acid beta-sultone; the catalysts showed higher activity than commercial Nafion-silica composite for the esterification of long chain fatty acids with ethanol.
Zhao Cheng-Hua - - 2004
Biosynthesis of the sex pheromone components (Z)-5-dodecenol and (Z,E)-5,7-dodecadienol in Dendrolimus punctatus was studied by topical application of deuterium-labeled fatty acids to pheromone glands and subsequent analysis of fatty acyl groups and pheromone components by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our studies suggest that both (Z)-5-dodecenol and (Z,E)-5,7-dodecadienol can be biosynthetically derived ...
Puleo A - - 2004
Lipophilic conjugates of idebenone (IDE) with short-chain alkylamino acids were previously synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant properties. In this study, their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Results indicated that these derivatives release the parent drug quantitatively via enzymatic hydrolysis by serum and liver esterases, ...
Geal-Dor Miriam - - 2004
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease due to deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down branched chain amino acids. Lack of the enzyme causes accumulation of these amino acids and, if untreated, causes severe neurological damage. A case study of a 10-day old female infant, born ...
Magata Yasuhiro - - 2004
C-11- and I-123-labeled long chain fatty acid derivatives have been reported as useful radiopharmaceuticals for the estimation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. We have reported that Tc-99m-labeled N-[[[(2-mercaptoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-6-aminohexanoic acid ([(99m)Tc]MAMA-HA), a medium chain fatty acid derivative, is metabolized by beta-oxidation in the liver and that the MAMA ligand is useful ...
Riazi Roya - - 2004
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the mitochondrial multienzyme complex branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD; EC 1.2.4.4), responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain ketoacids (BCKA) derived from the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, valine, and isoleucine. Deficiency of the enzyme ...
Wu Jer-Yuarn - - 2004
Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect derangements in the pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-treated (ENU-treated) mice. We identified mice with marked elevation of blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), ketoaciduria, and clinical features resembling human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a severe genetic metabolic disorder ...
Jones Patricia M - - 2004
The treatment for patients with genetic disorders of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation is directed toward providing sufficient sources of energy for normal growth and development, and at the same time preventing the adverse effects that precipitate or result from metabolic decompensation. Standard of care treatment has focused on preventing ...
Wood William F - - 2004
Using GC-MS analysis, 11 major volatile compounds were found in the preorbital gland secretion from a female sika deer, Cervus nippon. These compounds are the C14 through C18 straight-chain fatty acids, (ZZ)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 12-methyltridecanoic acid, 13-methyltetradecanoic acid, 14-methylpentadecanoic acid, 14-methylhexadecanoic acid, and 15-methylhexadecanoic acid. The five branched-chain acids make up ...
Muroi Hisae - - 2004
The synergistic effects of 6-alk(en)ylsalcylic acids, also known as anacardic acids, in combination with methicillin against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA) was investigated. The double bond in C15-anacardic acids is not essential in eliciting the antibacterial activity but is associated with increasing the activity. The synergistic effects decreased with increasing ...
Rousseaux M Cecilia - - 2004
We examined the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant-insect interactions in Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S), Argentina, an area strongly affected by ozone depletion because of its proximity to Antarctica. Solar UV-B under Nothofagus antarctica branches was manipulated using a polyester plastic film to attenuate UV-B (uvb-) ...
Ahn Jung-Mo - - 2004
In our ongoing efforts to develop new methods for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detoxification, we have screened lipase/esterase libraries for the ability to deacylate the 2'- and 3'-fatty acid chains from lipid A: the most active esterases were successfully employed to inactivate LPSs in a crude concentrated cell supernatant of E. Coli ...
Tomiya Tomoaki - - 2004
Amino acids can serve as regulatory molecules that modulate numerous cellular functions. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are known to exert influences on cellular metabolism, amino acid transport, protein turn over, and gene expression. However, the mechanisms involved in the specific effect of BCAAs have not been clarified. BCAA supplementation ...
Tansey W - - 2004
Polymeric drug delivery systems are used not only to improve aqueous solubility of drug molecules but also to achieve desirable pharmacokinetics and an enhanced therapeutic index. New biodegradable polymers are needed to improve the biodistribution and targeting-ability of polymeric carriers. In this study, the synthesis and characterization of branched poly(L-glutamic ...
Petranovic Dina - - 2004
The changes in intracellular pool of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) regulate different physiological processes in bacteria. Up to date, the only available photometric test for measuring BCAA concentration was adapted for blood and plasma samples in diagnostic purposes. We have modified this method for use on bacterial cells, and tested ...
Ganesan Balasubramanian - - 2004
The objective of this study was to determine the role of a lactococcal branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase gene, ilvE, in the production of branched-chain fatty acids. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and an ilvE deletion mutant, JLS450, produced branched-chain fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids at levels above alpha-keto ...
Beck H C - - 2004
AIMS: Staphylococcus xylosus is an important starter culture in the production of flavours from the branched-chain amino acids leucine, valine and isoleucine in fermented meat products. The sensorially most important flavour compounds are the branched-chain aldehydes and acids derived from the corresponding amino acids and this paper intends to perspectivate ...
Lin J - - 2004
Nenatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease mainly affects premature infants. It is well known that prematurity, enteral formula feeding, and bacterial colonization are three major risk factors for NEC. Acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid are short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced mainly in the colon ...
Paggi R A - - 2004
The addition of 100-300 mmol/L of acetic, propionic, butyric or lactic acids (short-chain acids), or of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids (volatile fatty acids, VFA) mixtures increased the degradation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by R. albus (7.5 to 46 and 6 to 39 %, respectively). Differences among individual acids were ...
Wood William F - - 2003
GC-MS analysis of the metatarsal gland secretion from a female sika deer, Cervus nippon, showed 35 major volatile compounds that included 13 straight-chain carboxylic acids, a single branched-chain carboxylic acid, 9 straight-chain aldehydes, 3 monounsaturated aldehydes, 5 long-chain alcohols, a ketone, and cholesterol. The four most abundant compounds were heptanal, ...
Suzuki Yoshikatsu - - 2003
A previously unspecified "starter" unit in the predicted biosynthesis pathway of 5-alkylresorcinols has now identified as a fatty acid or its equivalent, using an efficient 5-alkylresorcinol production system of etiolated rice seedlings. Feeding saturated, odd-carbon fatty acid ester substrates from C11 to C19 specifically and markedly increased the amount of ...
Bashir Sajid - - 2003
Dihydroxybenzoic acid was modified to three analogues (M2, M4 and M6). The analogues exhibited specific properties that resulted in enhancement of analyte signal intensity with or without addition of iodine compared to the underivatized parent. Addition of iodine to M2, an ester of dihydroxybenzoic acid that had a terminal double ...
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