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Du Qi-Shi - - 2006
Heuristic molecular lipophilicity potential (HMLP) is applied in the study of lipophilicity and hydrophilicity of 20 natural amino acids side chains. The HMLP parameters, surface area S(i), lipophilic indices L(i), and hydrophilic indices H(i) of amino acid side chains are derived from lipophilicity potential L(r). The parameters are correlated with ...
Freire Carmen S R - - 2006
The topochemistry of the controlled heterogeneous esterification of cellulose fibers with fatty acid chlorides of different chain length, both in swelling and non-swelling media, was assessed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and contact angle measurements. On the one hand, the results provided by the ...
Truksa Martin - - 2006
Very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) are essential for human health and well-being. However, the current sources of these valuable compounds are limited and may not be sustainable in the long term. Recently, considerable progress has been made in identifying genes involved in the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs. The co-expression of ...
Isaac Giorgis - - 2006
Glycosphingolipids are located in cell membranes and the brain is especially enriched. We speculated that the subcellular location of glycosphingolipids depends on their fatty acid chain length because their sugar residues are constant, whereas fatty acid chain length can vary within the same molecule. To test this hypothesis we analysed ...
Ferdinandusse S - - 2006
In this report, we describe the first known patient with a deficiency of sterol carrier protein X (SCPx), a peroxisomal enzyme with thiolase activity, which is required for the breakdown of branched-chain fatty acids. The patient presented with torticollis and dystonic head tremor as well as slight cerebellar signs with ...
Katsuwon Karuna - - 2006
The linear free energy of solution (DeltaG) relationship (DeltaG=DeltaGo+zdeltaG) for compounds of different carbon atoms (z) in the same homologous series is expanded and modified to cover compounds with two different hydrocarbon side chains. The expanded equation is successfully used to predict the retention times (tR) of standard esters of ...
Porter K - - 2006
Cell function is influenced by surface structure and molecules. Molecules that enhance cellular differentiation can be applied to tissue scaffold surfaces to stimulate endogenous tissue regeneration. The application of this approach to bone implants yields surfaces coated with factors (proteins, peptides, etc...) that promote the differentiation of osteoblasts, the cells ...
Aldai N - - 2006
The optimisation and validation of a gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method using direct saponification with KOH/methanol followed by a derivatization with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane was carried out trying to overcome all the difficulties posed by the analysis of complex mixtures of fatty acids (FAs) in animal fat tissues. The presented method allowed sensitive, ...
le Roux Carel - - 2006
The clinical problems, dietary management and biochemical monitoring over a 40-year period of the longest-surviving patient with maple syrup urine disease are described. Her case illustrates that a good outcome can be obtained with early diagnosis and institution of a diet restricted in branched-chain amino acids. Changes in dietary supplementation ...
Lazrak Ahmed - - 2006
WNK kinases are serine-threonine kinases with an atypical placement of the catalytic lysine. Intronic deletions with increased expression of a ubiquitous long WNK1 transcript cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 (PHA II), characterized by hypertension and hyperkalemia. Here, we report that long WNK1 inhibited ROMK1 by stimulating its endocytosis. Inhibition of ROMK ...
Douliez Jean-Paul - - 2006
Long-chain fatty acids are insoluble in aqueous solution and form crystal precipitates. It is then of particular importance to determine the physicochemical parameters allowing their dispersion in water to improve their bioavailability and their utilization as surfactants. Herein, we report a study on salt-free catanionic systems in aqueous solution made ...
Costantino Valeria - - 2006
Two families of unique glycolipids, clathrosides A-C (2a-4a) and isoclathrosides A-C (5a-7a) were isolated from the Caribbean sponge Agelas clathrodes. Clathrosides and isoclathrosides are glycosides of a very-long-chain alcohol derived from fatty acids, a new class of glycolipids that appears to be characteristic of marine sponges. The six compounds differ ...
Homanics Gregg E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. MSUD has several clinical phenotypes depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. Current treatments are not satisfactory and require new approaches to combat this disease. A major hurdle in ...
Chen Jing-Yu - - 2006
A polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene phaC2 (Ps) from Pseudomonas stutzeri strain 1317 was introduced into a PHA synthase gene phbC (Re) negative mutant, Ralstonia eutropha PHB(-)4. It conferred on the host strain the ability to synthesize PHA, the monomer compositions of which varied widely when grown on different carbon sources. ...
Takasu Akinori - - 2006
Direct dehydration polycondensation of dicarboxylic acids and alcohols was carried out by surfactant-combined Brønsted and Lewis acids. This procedure did not require the removal of water, because the esterification was established at the interface of the emulsion in water. Emulsion polycondensations of 1,9-nonanediol (1,9-ND) and dodecanedioic acid (DDA) (the molar ...
Petroski Matthew D - - 2005
Ubiquitin chains linked via lysine 48 (K48) of ubiquitin mediate recognition of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome. However, the mechanisms underlying polymerization of this targeting signal on a substrate are unknown. Here we dissect this process using the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and its ubiquitination by the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase ...
You Chang-Cheng - - 2005
[chemical structure: see text]. A series of L-amino acid functionalized gold nanoparticles with oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) tethers of varying length are prepared. These studies show that the hydrophobic side chains of amino acids facilitate the structural retention of alpha-chymotrypsin (ChT) but the interior alkyl chains promote its denaturation. An 80-fold ...
Ojha Anil - - 2005
Mycobacteria are unusual in encoding two GroEL paralogs, GroEL1 and GroEL2. GroEL2 is essential--presumably providing the housekeeping chaperone functions--while groEL1 is nonessential, contains the attB site for phage Bxb1 integration, and encodes a putative chaperone with unusual structural features. Inactivation of the Mycobacterium smegmatis groEL1 gene by phage Bxb1 integration ...
Zhu Kun - - 2005
Previous studies have demonstrated that the branched-chain fatty acid anteiso-C15:0 plays a critical role in the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at low temperatures by ensuring sufficient membrane fluidity. Studies utilizing a chemically defined minimal medium revealed that the anteiso fatty acid precursor isoleucine largely determined the fatty acid profile and ...
Roe D S - - 2006
The differentiation of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CACT) from carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II deficiency (CPT-II) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency from mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency (MTP) continues to be ambiguous using current acylcarnitine profiling techniques either from plasma or blood spots, or in the intact cell system (fibroblasts/amniocytes). Currently, enzyme ...
Stewart Gavin - - 2006
Several orphan G protein-coupled receptors, including GPR40, have recently been shown to be responsive to fatty acids. Although previous reports have suggested GPR40 detects medium- and long-chain fatty acids, it has been reported to be unresponsive to short chain fatty acids. In this study, we have heterologously expressed mouse GPR40 ...
Nilsson Ulf - - 2005
The contents of short-chain fatty acids were investigated in rats fed lactitol, lactulose and four fructo-oligosaccharides of different degree of polymerisation and solubility. Fructo-oligosaccharides with a low degree of polymerisation (2-8) generated the highest levels of butyric acid all along the hindgut, whereas fructo-oligosaccharides with a high degree of polymerisation ...
O'Toole D - - 2005
Various forms of status spongiosus occur in neonatal cattle, the best characterized of which is due to mutations of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD), resulting in bovine maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, branched-chain ketoaciduria). A distinctive neurological syndrome was identified between 1998 and 2003 in 9 calves in ...
Srichuwong Sathaporn - - 2005
Acid-resistant residues (lintnerized starches, Ls) were prepared from starches showing A-, B- and C- X-ray diffraction patterns. Ls retained the same X-ray crystalline type as their native counterparts with an improvement in diffraction intensity. Fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis (FACE) study indicated that structural characteristics of Ls were associated with X-ray diffraction ...
Kitagawa Shuji - - 2005
In this study, we examined the effects of the food antioxidants, alkyl gallates, on the function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and elucidated the importance of alkyl chains and gallic acid moieties on the activity of P-gp. We examined the effects of three alkyl (n-butyl, n-octyl and n-dodecyl) gallates and their related ...
Tobin Karen M - - 2005
A number of Pseudomonas strains accumulated polyhdroxyalkanoate (PHA) from a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons. In many strains the level of PHA accumulation was dependent on the side chain length of the phenylalkanoic acid provided for growth. 4 of the 8 strains accumulated increased levels of PHA as the side chain ...
Mersey Benjamin D - - 2005
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) play critical roles in cell and tissue functions in addition to being important components of protein structure. The multifunctional roles speak to the need for maintaining tight control of their concentration within cells. As the BCAA cannot be made de novo in mammals, their cellular ...
Shinohara Hisami - - 2005
In our previous studies, medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT), randomly interesterified triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids in the same glycerol molecule, significantly reduced body fat accumulation in humans and rats. To clarify mechanism(s) for this effect of MLCT, we measured energy expenditure and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in ...
Salis Andrea - - 2005
Oleic acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) were synthesised by biocatalysis in solvent-free conditions. Different commercial immobilised lipases, namely Candida antarctica B, Rizhomucor miehei, and Pseudomonas cepacia, were tested towards the reaction between triolein and butanol to produce butyl oleate. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase resulted to be the most active enzyme reaching 100% ...
Schulze-Bergkamen Andrea - - 2005
Organic acid (OAD) and fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD) are inborn errors of metabolism often presenting with life-threatening metabolic decompensation followed by (irreversible) organ failure, and even death during catabolic state. Most of these diseases are considered as treatable, and metabolic decompensations can be avoided by early diagnosis and start ...
Hada Noriyasu - - 2005
The synthesis of an asymmetric glycocluster 1 has been achieved using two glycocluster units 12 and 13, prepared by coupling the cluster chain unit 4 with each omega-amino acid (beta-alanine and 6-aminocapronic acid) trichloroethyl ester, and peptidic C-terminal block glycocluster 16, prepared by coupling the bifunctional linker 14 with sugar ...
Sohn Ho-Yong - - 2005
Autonomous ultradian metabolic oscillation (T approximately or =50 min) was detected in an aerobic chemostat culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A pulse injection of GSH (a reduced form of glutathione) into the culture induced a perturbation in metabolic oscillation, with respiratory inhibition caused by H2S burst production. As the production of ...
Grove Mette - - 2005
Simulated intestinal media (SIM) containing bile salt (BS) and phospholipids (PL) with and without medium chain lipolytic products (MC-LP) or long chain lipolytic products (LC-LP) were developed to study the solubility of seocalcitol. Both MC-LP and LC-LP were studied in order to investigate the influence of fatty acid chain length ...
Mineo Hitoshi - - 2005
We examined short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with 1 (C1) to 5 (C5) carbon atoms for osmotic fragility (OF) in isolated red blood cells (RBCs) in rats. The RBCs were used as prototypical plasma membrane model. The dense packed RBC was incubated in a phosphate-NaCl buffer solution containing each SCFA at ...
Chakraborty Kajal - - 2005
Induction of male sterility by deployment of chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) holds immense potential in heterosis breeding of wheat. A total of 21 anilides having different aromatic substitutions and side-chain variation were synthesized and screened as CHAs on three genotypes of wheat viz., PBW 343, HW 2046, and HD 2733, ...
Horvatovich Péter - - 2005
The 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are formed from triglycerides by irradiation treatment and may be used as markers for this type of food processing. This paper describes a detection method for the analysis of monounsaturated alkyl side chain 2-ACBs, which is formed upon irradiation from monounsaturated fatty acids which frequently are the ...
Hrabálek Alexandr - - 2005
In order to investigate the effect of branching and cyclization in the hydrophobic part of skin permeation enhancers, 17 novel branched-chain and cyclic 6-aminohexanoic acid esters were prepared. Their permeation enhancing activity was evaluated in vitro using human skin and theophylline as a model drug, and compared to that of ...
Ohata Atsushi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Involvement of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) on cellular differentiation or apoptosis induced by butyrate has been reported recently, but the effect on tight junction (TJ) permeability has not been reported. One major activity of butyrate and, to a lesser extent, propionate is to modulate gene transcription via histone ...
Tsuzuki Wakako - - 2005
Ten kinds of lipases were examined as biocatalysts for the incorporation of short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) into triolein in order to produce one kind of reduced-calorie structured lipids. Trans-esterification (acidolysis) was successfully done in n-hexane by several microbial lipases. Among them, lipase from Aspergillus oryzae was ...
Cravo-Laureau Cristiana - - 2005
The alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T, recently isolated from marine sediments, was investigated for n-alkane metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain had predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms (C odd) when the strain was grown on a C-odd alkane (pentadecane) and even numbers of carbon ...
Ademuyiwa O - - 2005
In order to investigate the toxic effects of lead during occupational exposure to this metal, the activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and the concentrations of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) were determined in blood of various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria and these were related to blood lead levels. ALAD activity in ...
Abe Akihisa - - 2005
We examined the anti-tumor activity and structure-activity requirements of omega-hydroxy fatty acids (omega-HFAs) on the human melanoma cell line G361. The omega-hydroxystearic acid (omega-HSA) had strong growth-inhibiting and cytotoxic activity. Although omega-hydroxypalmitic acid (omega-HPA) also had growth-inhibiting and cytotoxic activity, these effects were relatively low. The effects of both these ...
Hutson Susan M - - 2005
There are several features of the metabolism of the indispensable BCAAs that set them apart from other indispensable amino acids. BCAA catabolism involves 2 initial enzymatic steps that are common to all 3 BCAAs; therefore, the dietary intake of an individual BCAA impacts on the catabolism of all 3. The ...
Duffy Dorothy M - - 2005
Self-assembled monolayers of long-chain carboxylic acids are often used as substrates to promote the growth of oriented crystals. Recent work has shown that the length of the chain (odd or even number of carbon atoms) determines whether oriented growth is observed. We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate whether the ...
Gaigg Barbara - - 2005
The proton pumping H(+)-ATPase, Pma1p, is an abundant and very long-lived polytopic protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane. Pma1p constitutes a major cargo of the secretory pathway and thus serves as an excellent model to study plasma membrane biogenesis. We have previously shown that newly synthesized Pma1p is mistargeted ...
Jones Karen J - - 2005
Staphylococcus epidermidis causes infections associated with medical devices including central venous catheters, orthopaedic prosthetic joints and artificial heart valves. This coagulase-negative staphylococcus produces a conventional cellular lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and also releases a short-glycerophosphate-chain-length form of LTA (previously termed lipid S) into the medium during growth. The relative pro-inflammatory activities ...
Muchembled Jérôme - - 2005
The total fatty acids (FA) composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, was analyzed as a function of their age. A total of 19 FA (C12-C24 saturated and unsaturated) and unusual methoxylated fatty acids (mFA) were detected in young, intermediate and old conidia. ...
Bianchi Giampaolo - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have a peculiar role in whole-body nitrogen metabolism. BCAAs are a substrate for protein synthesis, and have been used to conserve or restore muscle mass in advanced liver disease. In addition, the competitive action of BCAAs on amino acid transport across the blood-brain ...
Domergue Frédéric - - 2005
Three recent reports (Baoxiu Qi et al., Amine Abbadi et al. and Anthony J. Kinney et al.) describe the production of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants. This might lead to a sustainable source of these valuable fatty acids for use in human food and animal feed. At ...
Zou Bo - - 2005
STM investigations of three N-alkyl fatty acid amide molecules have been carried out to get information of their molecular arrangement on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. With variable positions of amide along the alkyl chain, complex lattices with different lattice constants were observed. Besides the lattices with a repeat ...
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