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Results 351 - 400 of 1597
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Sohn Ho-Yong - - 2005
Autonomous ultradian metabolic oscillation (T approximately or =50 min) was detected in an aerobic chemostat culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A pulse injection of GSH (a reduced form of glutathione) into the culture induced a perturbation in metabolic oscillation, with respiratory inhibition caused by H2S burst production. As the production of ...
Grove Mette - - 2005
Simulated intestinal media (SIM) containing bile salt (BS) and phospholipids (PL) with and without medium chain lipolytic products (MC-LP) or long chain lipolytic products (LC-LP) were developed to study the solubility of seocalcitol. Both MC-LP and LC-LP were studied in order to investigate the influence of fatty acid chain length ...
Mineo Hitoshi - - 2005
We examined short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with 1 (C1) to 5 (C5) carbon atoms for osmotic fragility (OF) in isolated red blood cells (RBCs) in rats. The RBCs were used as prototypical plasma membrane model. The dense packed RBC was incubated in a phosphate-NaCl buffer solution containing each SCFA at ...
Chakraborty Kajal - - 2005
Induction of male sterility by deployment of chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) holds immense potential in heterosis breeding of wheat. A total of 21 anilides having different aromatic substitutions and side-chain variation were synthesized and screened as CHAs on three genotypes of wheat viz., PBW 343, HW 2046, and HD 2733, ...
Horvatovich Péter - - 2005
The 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are formed from triglycerides by irradiation treatment and may be used as markers for this type of food processing. This paper describes a detection method for the analysis of monounsaturated alkyl side chain 2-ACBs, which is formed upon irradiation from monounsaturated fatty acids which frequently are the ...
Hrabálek Alexandr - - 2005
In order to investigate the effect of branching and cyclization in the hydrophobic part of skin permeation enhancers, 17 novel branched-chain and cyclic 6-aminohexanoic acid esters were prepared. Their permeation enhancing activity was evaluated in vitro using human skin and theophylline as a model drug, and compared to that of ...
Ohata Atsushi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Involvement of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) on cellular differentiation or apoptosis induced by butyrate has been reported recently, but the effect on tight junction (TJ) permeability has not been reported. One major activity of butyrate and, to a lesser extent, propionate is to modulate gene transcription via histone ...
Tsuzuki Wakako - - 2005
Ten kinds of lipases were examined as biocatalysts for the incorporation of short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) into triolein in order to produce one kind of reduced-calorie structured lipids. Trans-esterification (acidolysis) was successfully done in n-hexane by several microbial lipases. Among them, lipase from Aspergillus oryzae was ...
Cravo-Laureau Cristiana - - 2005
The alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T, recently isolated from marine sediments, was investigated for n-alkane metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain had predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms (C odd) when the strain was grown on a C-odd alkane (pentadecane) and even numbers of carbon ...
Ademuyiwa O - - 2005
In order to investigate the toxic effects of lead during occupational exposure to this metal, the activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and the concentrations of erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) were determined in blood of various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria and these were related to blood lead levels. ALAD activity in ...
Abe Akihisa - - 2005
We examined the anti-tumor activity and structure-activity requirements of omega-hydroxy fatty acids (omega-HFAs) on the human melanoma cell line G361. The omega-hydroxystearic acid (omega-HSA) had strong growth-inhibiting and cytotoxic activity. Although omega-hydroxypalmitic acid (omega-HPA) also had growth-inhibiting and cytotoxic activity, these effects were relatively low. The effects of both these ...
Hutson Susan M - - 2005
There are several features of the metabolism of the indispensable BCAAs that set them apart from other indispensable amino acids. BCAA catabolism involves 2 initial enzymatic steps that are common to all 3 BCAAs; therefore, the dietary intake of an individual BCAA impacts on the catabolism of all 3. The ...
Duffy Dorothy M - - 2005
Self-assembled monolayers of long-chain carboxylic acids are often used as substrates to promote the growth of oriented crystals. Recent work has shown that the length of the chain (odd or even number of carbon atoms) determines whether oriented growth is observed. We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate whether the ...
Gaigg Barbara - - 2005
The proton pumping H(+)-ATPase, Pma1p, is an abundant and very long-lived polytopic protein of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane. Pma1p constitutes a major cargo of the secretory pathway and thus serves as an excellent model to study plasma membrane biogenesis. We have previously shown that newly synthesized Pma1p is mistargeted ...
Jones Karen J - - 2005
Staphylococcus epidermidis causes infections associated with medical devices including central venous catheters, orthopaedic prosthetic joints and artificial heart valves. This coagulase-negative staphylococcus produces a conventional cellular lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and also releases a short-glycerophosphate-chain-length form of LTA (previously termed lipid S) into the medium during growth. The relative pro-inflammatory activities ...
Muchembled Jérôme - - 2005
The total fatty acids (FA) composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, was analyzed as a function of their age. A total of 19 FA (C12-C24 saturated and unsaturated) and unusual methoxylated fatty acids (mFA) were detected in young, intermediate and old conidia. ...
Bianchi Giampaolo - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have a peculiar role in whole-body nitrogen metabolism. BCAAs are a substrate for protein synthesis, and have been used to conserve or restore muscle mass in advanced liver disease. In addition, the competitive action of BCAAs on amino acid transport across the blood-brain ...
Domergue Frédéric - - 2005
Three recent reports (Baoxiu Qi et al., Amine Abbadi et al. and Anthony J. Kinney et al.) describe the production of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic plants. This might lead to a sustainable source of these valuable fatty acids for use in human food and animal feed. At ...
Zou Bo - - 2005
STM investigations of three N-alkyl fatty acid amide molecules have been carried out to get information of their molecular arrangement on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. With variable positions of amide along the alkyl chain, complex lattices with different lattice constants were observed. Besides the lattices with a repeat ...
Oz Murat - - 2005
The effects of saturated long-chain (C: 16-22) N-acylethanolamines and a series of saturated fatty acids with the same length of carbon chains were investigated on depolarization-induced (45)Ca(2+) fluxes mediated by voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in transverse tubule membrane vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle. Vesicles were loaded with (45)Ca(2+) and membrane potentials ...
DiRusso Concetta C - - 2005
The fatty acid transport protein (FATP) family is a group of proteins that are predicted to be components of specific fatty acid trafficking pathways. In mammalian systems, six different isoforms have been identified, which function in the import of exogenous fatty acids or in the activation of very long-chain fatty ...
Beck Hans C - - 2005
Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from the amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine, and required the short branched chain ...
Park Myong-Ok - - 2005
Alkane biosynthesis in the bacterium Vibrio furnissii M1 involves the synthesis of long-chain alkanes via 1-alcohol. Evidence for this novel pathway are the following. (i) Both even- and odd-carbon-number n-alkanes were produced from glucose, while only even-carbon-number fatty acids were produced in V. furnissii M1. This result cannot be explained ...
Nishi Yoshihiro - - 2005
Ghrelin, an acylated brain and gut peptide, is primarily produced by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa for secretion into the circulation. The major active form of ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide containing an n-octanoyl modification at serine that is essential for activity. Studies have identified multiple physiological functions for ...
Schneider Katja - - 2005
Arabidopsis thaliana contains a large number of genes that encode carboxylic acid-activating enzymes, including nine long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases, four 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CL), and 25 4CL-like proteins of unknown biochemical function. Because of their high structural and sequence similarity with bona fide 4CLs and their highly hydrophobic putative substrate-binding pockets, ...
Heldt K - - 2005
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a genetic metabolic disorder resulting from the defective activity of branched-chain 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Due to the metabolic block, high concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, valine, isoleucine, and allo-isoleucine as well as their corresponding branched-chain 2-keto acids accumulate in patients on ...
Rodríguez Yanik - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Associations have been described between insulin action and long-chain omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle and erythrocytes of healthy individuals. We evaluated whether there was an association between insulin resistance and long-chain omega6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocyte phospholipids of type 2 diabetics. METHODS: Erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid ...
Sprusansky Ondrej - - 2005
Products from the degradation of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine contribute to the production of a number of important cellular metabolites, including branched-chain fatty acids, ATP and other energy production, cell-cell signaling for morphological development, and the synthesis of precursors for polyketide antibiotics. The first nonreversible reactions ...
Browning M F - - 2005
We report two infants identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of neonatal blood spot acylcarnitines and confirmed by molecular genetic analysis to have long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects. In both cases, acylcarnitine concentrations in confirmatory plasma samples were normal. None the less, molecular testing identified trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency (McKusick ...
Nemes Péter - - 2005
The association properties of natural and non-natural amino acids were studied in detail using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results show a highly diverse cluster formation behavior of amino acids. There are differences regarding the degree of clustering (average cluster size), the presence or absence of one or several 'magic' ...
Hirotsu Ken - - 2005
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases reversibly catalyzes the transamination reaction in which the alpha-amino group of amino acid 1 is transferred to the 2-oxo acid of amino acid 2 (usually 2-oxoglutarate) to produce the 2-oxo acid of amino acid 1 and amino acid 2 (glutamate). An aminotransferase must thus be able to ...
Maggio-Hall Lori A - - 2004
Beta-oxidation (beta-ox) occurs exclusively in the peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts, leading to the supposition that fungi lack mitochondrial beta-ox. Here we present unequivocal evidence that the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans houses both peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-ox. While growth of a peroxisomal beta-ox disruption mutant (DeltafoxA) was eliminated ...
Itrich Nina R - - 2004
Batch activated-sludge die-away studies were conducted with various pure homologs to determine the effect of ethoxylate number and alkyl chain length on the kinetics of primary and ultimate biodegradation of linear alcohol ethoxylates. The 14C-(ethoxylate) homologs C14E1, C14E3, C14E6, and C14E9 were used to investigate the effect of ethoxylate number, ...
Terzi Cem - - 2004
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of preoperative rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids on irradiated colonic anastomosis in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control group, n = 15) underwent left colon resection and primary anastomosis. Group II (Short-chain fatty acids pretreatment group, ...
Shimomura Yoshiharu - - 2004
Significant evidence of the pharmacological and physiological effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has accumulated, attracting the interest of not only clinicians but also basic medical researchers. We summarize here the characteristic features of BCAA catabolism, focusing on the initial two enzymes in the pathway, branched-chain aminotransferase and branched-chain alpha-keto ...
Inoue Tohru - - 2004
Solid-liquid phase behavior of binary mixtures of oleic acid (OA)/capric acid (C10A) and OA/caprylic acid (C8A) were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction. The phase diagram of OA/C10A mixture constructed from the DSC results suggested that a molecular compound with ...
Greffe Lionel - - 2005
A novel class of nonionic, carbohydrate-based surfactants has been synthesized from the plant polysaccharide xyloglucan. Enzymatic hydrolysis of xyloglucan yielded a series of well-defined, highly branched oligosaccharides that, following reductive amination, were readily conjugated with fatty acids bearing C8 to C18 chains under mild conditions. The critical micelle concentration, determined ...
Aoki Ken'ichi - - 2004
[reaction: see text] Starting from diactylene diacarboxylic acids, we have synthesized a series of photopolymerizable organogelators that possess simple amide structures, different alkylene chain lengths, and either optically active or racemic 3,7-dimethyl-1-octylamine units. The alkylene chain length of these compounds exhibits a prominent odd/even effect with respect to the photopolymerization ...
Venos Erik S - - 2004
Tuberculosis remains a major world-wide health threat which demands the discovery and characterisation of new drug targets in order to develop future antimycobacterials. The regeneration of methionine consumed during polyamine biosynthesis is an important pathway present in many microorganisms. The final step of this pathway, the conversion of ketomethiobutyrate to ...
Tanji Mikio - - 2004
Cerebrosides were found in ten lactose-assimilating yeasts. Representative component ceramide moieties of cerebrosides from nine of these yeasts contained 9-methyl-4-trans, 8-trans-sphingadienine, and 2-hydroxy fatty acid with carbon chain lengths of 16 or 18. The major ceramide moieties in Brettanomyces anomalus, however, differed from those in other yeasts, and were predominately ...
Wanten Geert J - - 2004
From a nutritional standpoint, saturated triglycerides with a medium (6 to 12) carbon chain length (MCT) have traditionally been regarded as biologically inert substances, merely serving as a source of fuel calories that is relatively easily accessible for metabolic breakdown compared with long chain triglycerides (LCT). This quality of MCT ...
Miller Steven J - - 2004
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) have multiple in vivo and in vitro effects including cell cycle arrest and induction of protein synthesis, differentiation, and apoptosis. Butyrate or derivatives have promise for treating inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Genomic and proteomic analysis have generated new knowledge on function and applications ...
Cox James E - - 2004
We have found that jejunal infusions of long-chain fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and oleic acid (OA), and gastric infusions of a fatty acid ethyl ester, ethyl oleate (EO), produce long-lasting suppression of total caloric intake. This effect is not seen in response to jejunal infusions of medium-chain fatty acids ...
Meija Juris - - 2004
A series of homologous omega-phenylalkanoic acids and omega-phenylalkenoic acids were isolated from seed lipids of various genera of the subfamily Aroideae of Araceae (the Jack-in-the-Pulpit family) and characterized. Besides the major acids, 11-phenylundecanoic acid, 13-phenyltridecanoic acid and 15-phenylpentadecanoic acid, all other homologous odd carbon number omega-phenylalkanoic acids from C7 to ...
Nickel M - - 2004
Recently it has been demonstrated that the ptb - bcd - buk - lpdV - bkdAA - bkdAB - bkdB operon ( bkdoperon) of Bacillus subtilis, which encodes the enzymes that catalyze the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, is inducible by a temperature downshift from 37 to 18 degrees C. ...
Auer Frank - - 2004
The reversible self-assembly of a series of bipolar amphiphiles, alpha,omega-bis(3- or 4-amidinophenoxy)alkanes (chain length n = 5-12), on mercaptoalkanoic acid-functionalized gold surfaces (chain length n = 10, 11, 14, 15) has been studied by in-situ ellipsometry, IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The layer order, amphiphile ...
Aron Zachary D - - 2004
Twenty three side chain analogs of the crambescidin alkaloids were prepared from the corresponding pentacyclic zwitterionic core acid. In the crambescidin 800 and 657 series, potency increased with increasing chain length. In addition, substantial variations in tumor selectivity with structure were seen. Crambescidin analogs having short, nonpolar side chains were ...
Jolly Robert A - - 2004
Hepatotoxicity characterized by microvesicular steatosis (MVS) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of numerous small cytoplasmic lipid droplets in hepatocytes. Fulminant or progressive cases of microvesicular steatosis may lead to liver failure and death. Experimentally, short-chain carboxylic acids are known to induce microvesicular steatosis. The identification of gene changes that ...
Matsumoto G I - - 2004
Endolithic microbial communities inhabiting porous rocks in the cold, dry mountainous regions of Antarctica have been studied extensively as examples of life's adaptations to extreme environments. Here, we examine hydrocarbons and fatty acids occurring in these communities in order to clarify their biogeochemical features with respect to source organisms, microbial ...
Röckendorf Niels - - 2004
Natural glycopeptides and glycoproteins exhibit a large structural diversity, which can be mimicked by synthetic glycopeptide derivatives to assist the investigation of biological functions and structure-activity relationships. Here, dendronized saccharides were synthesized to provide glycosyl amino acids, equipped with a branching element for the preparation of branched glycopeptide mimetics. An ...
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