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Results 301 - 350 of 1597
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Klimentová Jana - - 2006
In order to investigate the effect of terminal chain branching in the skin permeation enhancers, seven alcohols and seven acids with the chain length of 8-12 carbons and terminal methyl or ethyl branching were prepared. Their transdermal permeation-enhancing activities were evaluated in vitro using theophylline as a model permeant and ...
Juárez M P - - 2007
Triatomine insects (Hemiptera) are the vectors of Chagas disease. Their cuticular surface is covered by a thin layer of lipids, mainly hydrocarbons, wax esters, fatty alcohols, and free or esterified fatty acids. These lipids play a major role in preventing a lethal desiccation, altering the absorption of chemicals and microorganism ...
Cronan John E - - 2006
In this issue of Cell, Lee et al. (2006) report that the parasite Trypanosoma brucei synthesizes fatty acids in an unconventional way. T. brucei and two other trypanosomes use enzymes called elongases to synthesize myristate, a fourteen carbon (C14) fatty acid essential for pathogenesis. This is an unexpected finding as ...
Guthmuller J - - 2006
The linear and nonlinear optical responses of the three aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine have been investigated by time-dependent density functional theory. The effect of the peptidic chain on the polarizabilities and the first hyperpolarizabilities is addressed by substituting different groups to the chromophores indole, phenol, and benzene. ...
Braga Dario - - 2006
The supramolecular macrocyclic adducts of general formula {[Fe(eta5-C5H4-C5H4N)2].[HOOC(CH2)nCOOH]}2 with n = 4 (adipic acid), n = 6 (suberic acid), n = 7 (azelaic acid) and n = 8 (sebacic acid) have been obtained quantitatively by kneading powdered samples of the crystalline organometallic and organic reactants with drops of MeOH (for ...
Jambor de Sousa Ulrike L - - 2006
In several human and animal studies, medium-chain triglycerides decreased food intake more than did long-chain triglycerides. It is possible that faster uptake and metabolism of medium-chain fatty acids in the liver is responsible for this difference. To test this hypothesis we compared the feeding effects of hepatic portal vein (HPV) ...
Amakura Yoshiaki - - 2006
As part of an investigation on the chemical constituents and contaminants of the basidiomycete Pleurocybella porrigens (Japanese name: Sugihiratake), we analyzed the UV-detected constituents of this mushroom using HPLC. One of the major UV peaks detected was isolated and identified as a-eleostearic acid, a long-chain fatty acid with a conjugated ...
Bode Helge B - - 2006
Inactivation of the MXAN_0853 gene blocked the production in Myxococcus xanthus of straight-chain fatty acids which otherwise represent 30% of total fatty acids. Despite this drastic change in the fatty acid profile, no change in phenotype could be observed, which contrasts with previous interpretations of the role of straight-chain fatty ...
Kamp Frits - - 2006
Opposing views exist as to how unesterified fatty acids (FA) enter and leave cells. It is commonly believed that for short- and medium-chain FA free diffusion suffices whereas it is questioned whether proteins are required to facilitate transport of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA). Furthermore, it is unclear whether these proteins ...
Vistisen Bodil - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Consumption of specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium chain fatty acid, L = long chain fatty acid), delivers fast energy and long chain fatty acids to the organism. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study was to compare lymphatic absorption of (13)C-labeled MLM and (13)C-labeled ...
Bossola M - - 2006
Anorexia, defined as the loss of the desire to eat, is relatively common in hemodialysis (HD) patients, occurring in one-third of cases. The pathogenesis is essentially unknown. It has been proposed that uremic toxins as middle molecules, inflammation, altered amino-acid pattern, leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y are involved. Anorexia reduces ...
Van Immerseel F - - 2006
Salmonella is a human pathogen that is commonly found in poultry products. It is possible to decrease chicken carcass and egg contaminations by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. Medium-chain fatty acids are more antibacterial against Salmonella than short-chain fatty acids. The antibacterial effect ...
Zhang Hanxing - - 2006
Wild-type Escherichia coli can utilize exogenous long-chain fatty acids (C>12) as a sole carbon source for growth, but it cannot grow on medium-chain fatty acids. However, when the fadD gene from E. coli MG1655 was expressed in E. coli DH5alpha, the latter strain was found to utilize medium-chain fatty acids ...
Jones Patricia M - - 2006
Although mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) is considered to be well understood, further elucidation of the pathway continues through evaluation of patients with FAO defects. The FAO pathway can be examined by measuring the 3-hydroxy-fatty acid (3-OHFA) intermediates. We present a unique finding in the study of this pathway: the ...
Kinman Renée P - - 2006
A new chronic treatment for inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation involves administering up to one-third of dietary calories as triheptanoin, a medium-odd-chain triglyceride (Roe CR, Sweetman L, Roe DS, David F, and Brunengraber H. J Clin Invest 110: 259-269, 2002). Heptanoate and C(5)-ketone bodies derived from its partial ...
Grossfield Alan - - 2006
Recent NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have indicated that rhodopsin is preferentially solvated by omega-3 fatty acids compared to saturated chains. However, to date no physical theory has been advanced to explain this phenomenon. The present work presents a novel thermodynamic explanation for this preferential solvation based on statistical ...
Muchembled Jérôme - - 2006
Treatment of wheat leaves with heptanoyl salicylic acid (HS) and trehalose at concentrations of 0.1 and 15 g l(-1), prior to fungal inoculation, resulted in 40% and 60% protection, respectively, against powdery mildew. The total lipid composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery ...
Ovodova R G - - 2006
Galacturonan, the main constituent of the backbone (core) of the comaruman macromolecule, a pectin from the marsh cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., was obtained on partial acid hydrolysis of the pectin. Using atomic force microscopy and methylation analysis of the galacturonan, the backbone of the comaruman macromolecule was shown to contain ...
Bohacek Regine - - 2006
Pharmacologic reinduction of the developmentally silenced fetal (gamma) globin genes has been achieved in hemoglobinopathy patients using short chain fatty acid derivatives, with therapeutic effects. However, higher-potency inducers than are available in currently identified short chain fatty acid derivatives are desirable for long-term use. Using several short-chain fatty acids with ...
Du Qi-Shi - - 2006
Heuristic molecular lipophilicity potential (HMLP) is applied in the study of lipophilicity and hydrophilicity of 20 natural amino acids side chains. The HMLP parameters, surface area S(i), lipophilic indices L(i), and hydrophilic indices H(i) of amino acid side chains are derived from lipophilicity potential L(r). The parameters are correlated with ...
Freire Carmen S R - - 2006
The topochemistry of the controlled heterogeneous esterification of cellulose fibers with fatty acid chlorides of different chain length, both in swelling and non-swelling media, was assessed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and contact angle measurements. On the one hand, the results provided by the ...
Truksa Martin - - 2006
Very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) are essential for human health and well-being. However, the current sources of these valuable compounds are limited and may not be sustainable in the long term. Recently, considerable progress has been made in identifying genes involved in the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs. The co-expression of ...
Isaac Giorgis - - 2006
Glycosphingolipids are located in cell membranes and the brain is especially enriched. We speculated that the subcellular location of glycosphingolipids depends on their fatty acid chain length because their sugar residues are constant, whereas fatty acid chain length can vary within the same molecule. To test this hypothesis we analysed ...
Ferdinandusse S - - 2006
In this report, we describe the first known patient with a deficiency of sterol carrier protein X (SCPx), a peroxisomal enzyme with thiolase activity, which is required for the breakdown of branched-chain fatty acids. The patient presented with torticollis and dystonic head tremor as well as slight cerebellar signs with ...
Katsuwon Karuna - - 2006
The linear free energy of solution (DeltaG) relationship (DeltaG=DeltaGo+zdeltaG) for compounds of different carbon atoms (z) in the same homologous series is expanded and modified to cover compounds with two different hydrocarbon side chains. The expanded equation is successfully used to predict the retention times (tR) of standard esters of ...
Porter K - - 2006
Cell function is influenced by surface structure and molecules. Molecules that enhance cellular differentiation can be applied to tissue scaffold surfaces to stimulate endogenous tissue regeneration. The application of this approach to bone implants yields surfaces coated with factors (proteins, peptides, etc...) that promote the differentiation of osteoblasts, the cells ...
Aldai N - - 2006
The optimisation and validation of a gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method using direct saponification with KOH/methanol followed by a derivatization with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane was carried out trying to overcome all the difficulties posed by the analysis of complex mixtures of fatty acids (FAs) in animal fat tissues. The presented method allowed sensitive, ...
le Roux Carel - - 2006
The clinical problems, dietary management and biochemical monitoring over a 40-year period of the longest-surviving patient with maple syrup urine disease are described. Her case illustrates that a good outcome can be obtained with early diagnosis and institution of a diet restricted in branched-chain amino acids. Changes in dietary supplementation ...
Lazrak Ahmed - - 2006
WNK kinases are serine-threonine kinases with an atypical placement of the catalytic lysine. Intronic deletions with increased expression of a ubiquitous long WNK1 transcript cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 (PHA II), characterized by hypertension and hyperkalemia. Here, we report that long WNK1 inhibited ROMK1 by stimulating its endocytosis. Inhibition of ROMK ...
Douliez Jean-Paul - - 2006
Long-chain fatty acids are insoluble in aqueous solution and form crystal precipitates. It is then of particular importance to determine the physicochemical parameters allowing their dispersion in water to improve their bioavailability and their utilization as surfactants. Herein, we report a study on salt-free catanionic systems in aqueous solution made ...
Costantino Valeria - - 2006
Two families of unique glycolipids, clathrosides A-C (2a-4a) and isoclathrosides A-C (5a-7a) were isolated from the Caribbean sponge Agelas clathrodes. Clathrosides and isoclathrosides are glycosides of a very-long-chain alcohol derived from fatty acids, a new class of glycolipids that appears to be characteristic of marine sponges. The six compounds differ ...
Homanics Gregg E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. MSUD has several clinical phenotypes depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. Current treatments are not satisfactory and require new approaches to combat this disease. A major hurdle in ...
Chen Jing-Yu - - 2006
A polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene phaC2 (Ps) from Pseudomonas stutzeri strain 1317 was introduced into a PHA synthase gene phbC (Re) negative mutant, Ralstonia eutropha PHB(-)4. It conferred on the host strain the ability to synthesize PHA, the monomer compositions of which varied widely when grown on different carbon sources. ...
Takasu Akinori - - 2006
Direct dehydration polycondensation of dicarboxylic acids and alcohols was carried out by surfactant-combined Brønsted and Lewis acids. This procedure did not require the removal of water, because the esterification was established at the interface of the emulsion in water. Emulsion polycondensations of 1,9-nonanediol (1,9-ND) and dodecanedioic acid (DDA) (the molar ...
Petroski Matthew D - - 2005
Ubiquitin chains linked via lysine 48 (K48) of ubiquitin mediate recognition of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome. However, the mechanisms underlying polymerization of this targeting signal on a substrate are unknown. Here we dissect this process using the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and its ubiquitination by the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase ...
You Chang-Cheng - - 2005
[chemical structure: see text]. A series of L-amino acid functionalized gold nanoparticles with oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) tethers of varying length are prepared. These studies show that the hydrophobic side chains of amino acids facilitate the structural retention of alpha-chymotrypsin (ChT) but the interior alkyl chains promote its denaturation. An 80-fold ...
Ojha Anil - - 2005
Mycobacteria are unusual in encoding two GroEL paralogs, GroEL1 and GroEL2. GroEL2 is essential--presumably providing the housekeeping chaperone functions--while groEL1 is nonessential, contains the attB site for phage Bxb1 integration, and encodes a putative chaperone with unusual structural features. Inactivation of the Mycobacterium smegmatis groEL1 gene by phage Bxb1 integration ...
Zhu Kun - - 2005
Previous studies have demonstrated that the branched-chain fatty acid anteiso-C15:0 plays a critical role in the growth of Listeria monocytogenes at low temperatures by ensuring sufficient membrane fluidity. Studies utilizing a chemically defined minimal medium revealed that the anteiso fatty acid precursor isoleucine largely determined the fatty acid profile and ...
Roe D S - - 2006
The differentiation of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CACT) from carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II deficiency (CPT-II) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency from mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency (MTP) continues to be ambiguous using current acylcarnitine profiling techniques either from plasma or blood spots, or in the intact cell system (fibroblasts/amniocytes). Currently, enzyme ...
Stewart Gavin - - 2006
Several orphan G protein-coupled receptors, including GPR40, have recently been shown to be responsive to fatty acids. Although previous reports have suggested GPR40 detects medium- and long-chain fatty acids, it has been reported to be unresponsive to short chain fatty acids. In this study, we have heterologously expressed mouse GPR40 ...
Nilsson Ulf - - 2005
The contents of short-chain fatty acids were investigated in rats fed lactitol, lactulose and four fructo-oligosaccharides of different degree of polymerisation and solubility. Fructo-oligosaccharides with a low degree of polymerisation (2-8) generated the highest levels of butyric acid all along the hindgut, whereas fructo-oligosaccharides with a high degree of polymerisation ...
O'Toole D - - 2005
Various forms of status spongiosus occur in neonatal cattle, the best characterized of which is due to mutations of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD), resulting in bovine maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, branched-chain ketoaciduria). A distinctive neurological syndrome was identified between 1998 and 2003 in 9 calves in ...
Srichuwong Sathaporn - - 2005
Acid-resistant residues (lintnerized starches, Ls) were prepared from starches showing A-, B- and C- X-ray diffraction patterns. Ls retained the same X-ray crystalline type as their native counterparts with an improvement in diffraction intensity. Fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis (FACE) study indicated that structural characteristics of Ls were associated with X-ray diffraction ...
Kitagawa Shuji - - 2005
In this study, we examined the effects of the food antioxidants, alkyl gallates, on the function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and elucidated the importance of alkyl chains and gallic acid moieties on the activity of P-gp. We examined the effects of three alkyl (n-butyl, n-octyl and n-dodecyl) gallates and their related ...
Tobin Karen M - - 2005
A number of Pseudomonas strains accumulated polyhdroxyalkanoate (PHA) from a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons. In many strains the level of PHA accumulation was dependent on the side chain length of the phenylalkanoic acid provided for growth. 4 of the 8 strains accumulated increased levels of PHA as the side chain ...
Mersey Benjamin D - - 2005
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) play critical roles in cell and tissue functions in addition to being important components of protein structure. The multifunctional roles speak to the need for maintaining tight control of their concentration within cells. As the BCAA cannot be made de novo in mammals, their cellular ...
Shinohara Hisami - - 2005
In our previous studies, medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT), randomly interesterified triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids in the same glycerol molecule, significantly reduced body fat accumulation in humans and rats. To clarify mechanism(s) for this effect of MLCT, we measured energy expenditure and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in ...
Salis Andrea - - 2005
Oleic acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) were synthesised by biocatalysis in solvent-free conditions. Different commercial immobilised lipases, namely Candida antarctica B, Rizhomucor miehei, and Pseudomonas cepacia, were tested towards the reaction between triolein and butanol to produce butyl oleate. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase resulted to be the most active enzyme reaching 100% ...
Schulze-Bergkamen Andrea - - 2005
Organic acid (OAD) and fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD) are inborn errors of metabolism often presenting with life-threatening metabolic decompensation followed by (irreversible) organ failure, and even death during catabolic state. Most of these diseases are considered as treatable, and metabolic decompensations can be avoided by early diagnosis and start ...
Hada Noriyasu - - 2005
The synthesis of an asymmetric glycocluster 1 has been achieved using two glycocluster units 12 and 13, prepared by coupling the cluster chain unit 4 with each omega-amino acid (beta-alanine and 6-aminocapronic acid) trichloroethyl ester, and peptidic C-terminal block glycocluster 16, prepared by coupling the bifunctional linker 14 with sugar ...
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