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Results 301 - 350 of 1624
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Portois L - - 2007
Second generation rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids display several features of the metabolic syndrome, including visceral obesity, liver steatosis, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. In the framework of an extensive study on such metabolic, hormonal and functional perturbations, the phospholipid fatty acid pattern and ex vivo ...
Islam Mohammad Mainul - - 2007
The catabolic pathways of branched-chain amino acids have two common steps. The first step is deamination catalyzed by the vitamin B(6)-dependent branched-chain aminotransferase isozymes (BCATs) to produce branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs). The second step is oxidative decarboxylation of the BCKAs mediated by the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKD ...
Maeda Yusuke - - 2007
Whereas most of the cellular phosphatidylinositol (PI) contain unsaturated fatty chains and are excluded from rafts, GPI-anchored proteins (APs) unusually contain two saturated fatty chains in their PI moiety, and they are typically found within lipid rafts. However, the origin of the saturated chains and whether they are essential for ...
Mineo Hitoshi - - 2007
We examined the role of the chemical specificity of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their derivatives in increasing osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Except for formic acid, normal SCFAs with 2 to 8 carbons increased the OF in rat RBCs with increasing number of hydrocarbons in ...
Barofsky Alexandra - - 2007
The diatom Thalassiosira rotula releases polyunsaturated short chain aldehydes (PUA) such as 2E,4Z,7-octatrienal (7a) and 2E,4Z,7Z-decatrienal (3a) upon wounding. Using labeling experiments and synthetic standards, we demonstrate that the mechanism of fatty acid transformation does not follow established lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase pathways known from higher plants or mammals but rather relies ...
Leclercq-Perlat Marie-Noëlle - - 2007
Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, ...
Chang Jaeeon - - 2007
The solvation free energies of amino acids and their side-chain analogues in water and cyclohexane are calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The molecular interactions are described by the OPLS-AA force field for the amino acids and the TIP4P model for water, and the free energies are determined by using ...
Mizushige Takafumi - - 2007
Fatty foods are very palatable. Most mammals, including humans, prefer high-fat food to low-fat food. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, which are related to the hedonic or aversive response in the brain, are released after a basic tastant (i.e., sweet, sour, salty, bitter or umami) is accepted by the taste receptors in ...
Williams André A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To measure the antimicrobial activities of three series of homologous, dendritic tricarboxylato (three-headed) amphiphiles against a battery of bacteria and fungi. METHODS: Three series of homologous dendritic amphiphiles were synthesized containing C13 to C22 fatty chains. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant ...
Yang Shi-Zhong - - 2007
A GC-EIMS method to determine the structure of the fatty acid chains in cyclic lipopeptides is described. The structure of the fatty acid chains can be determined by the characteristic peaks of the MS spectrogram according to the fact that the alpha cleavage predominates the MS of a fatty acid ...
Vasireddy Vidyullatha V Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, - - 2007
Mutations in elongation of very long-chain fatty acid-4 (ELOVL4) are associated with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular degeneration (STGD3), with a five base-pair (5 bp) deletion mutation resulting in the loss of 51 carboxy-terminal amino acids and truncation of the protein. In addition to the retina, Elovl4 is expressed in a ...
Veierskov Bjarke - - 2007
Main branches of Abies nordmanniana Spach. were examined through their first growth season from subapical buds around the leader bud to fully expanded shoots. Plagiotropism was evident in branch orientation, which was almost horizontal, as well as in the orientation of buds developing on the branches. Auxin transport capacity was ...
Gbabode Gabin - - 2007
Crystal structures of the high-temperature phases of odd-numbered fatty acids (C(n)H(2n-1)OOH) from tridecanoic acid (C(13)H(25)OOH) to tricosanoic acid (C(23)H(45)OOH) are presented in this article. They have been determined from high-quality X-ray powder-diffraction patterns. Two types of high-temperature phases are adopted: one monoclinic A2/a with Z=8 for the fatty acids with ...
Fioravanti Emanuela - - 2007
Intense synchrotron radiation produces specific structural and chemical damage to crystalline proteins even at 100 K. Carboxyl groups of acidic residues (Glu, Asp) losing their definition is one of the major effects observed. Here, the susceptibilities to X-ray damage of acidic residues in tetrameric malate dehydrogenase from Haloarcula marismortui are ...
Robert Stanley - - 2007
Long-chain (> or = C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are nutritionally important and provide protection against cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Structural variants of these compounds may have the potential to be used as pharmaceuticals. Marine microalgae are the key producers of long-chain polyunsaturated ...
Ramamurthi Kumaran S - - 2006
Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis involves the formation of a thick, proteinaceous shell or coat that is assembled around a specialized membrane known as the outer forespore membrane. Here we present evidence that the assembling coat is tethered to the outer forespore membrane by a 26-amino-acid peptide called SpoVM, which ...
Bartke Nana - - 2006
Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were ...
Jayasimhulu Koka - - 2007
Bacteriovorax stolpii is a predator of larger gram-negative bacteria and lives as a parasite in the intraperiplasmic space of the host cell. This bacterium is unusual among prokaryotes in that sphingolipids comprise a large proportion of its lipids. We here report the presence of 18 molecular species of B. stolpii ...
Barman S - - 2006
The melting of alkyl chains in the saturated fatty acid zinc soaps of different chain lengths, Zn(C(n)H(2n+1)COO)(2); n = 11, 13, 15, and 17, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and vibrational spectroscopy. These compounds have a layer structure with the alkyl chains arranged as tilted ...
Carballeira Néstor M NM Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 23346, San Juan, PR 00931-3346, USA. - - 2007
The first total syntheses for the (Z)-15-methyl-10-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-13-methyl-8-tetradecenoic acid were accomplished in seven steps and in 31-32% overall yields. The (trimethylsilyl)acetylene was the key reagent in both syntheses. It is proposed that the best synthetic strategy towards monounsaturated iso methyl-branched fatty acids with double bonds close to ...
Covington D K - - 2006
Recent deorphanization efforts have paired the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR40, GPR41 and GPR43 with fatty acids as endogenous ligands. While carboxylic acids have been historically known to serve as fuel sources and biomarkers of disease, these studies demonstrate that fatty acids can act as signalling molecules at the cell-surface level. This ...
Wagner Trevor K - - 2006
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of a necrotizing hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia in swine. In this study, we investigate the possibility that the limitation of branched-chain amino acids is a stimulus that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during infection and will respond to by up-regulation of genes involved in branched-chain amino acid ...
Agascioglu Eda - - 2007
A depletion in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids may affect fuel homeostasis. In such a perspective, the present study deals mainly with the in vitro fate of D-[U-(14)C]glucose in hemidiaphragms, stretched soleus and plantaris muscle pieces obtained from normal and omega3-depleted rats (second generation) and incubated in the absence or ...
Burdock George A - - 2007
Myristic acid is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient. It is found widely distributed in fats throughout the plant and animal kingdom, including common human foodstuffs, such as nutmeg. Myristic acid (a 14-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) has been shown to have a low order of acute ...
Jackson Mary - - 2007
The cell envelope of pathogenic mycobacteria is highly distinctive in that it contains a number of lipids esterified with structurally related long-chain multi-methyl-branched fatty acids. These lipids have long been thought to play important roles in the cell envelope structure as well as in the pathogenicity of the tubercle bacillus. ...
Gaigg Barbara - - 2006
The proton-pumping H+-ATPase, Pma1p, is an abundant and very long lived polytopic protein of the yeast plasma membrane. Pma1p constitutes a major cargo of the secretory pathway and thus serves as a model to study plasma membrane biogenesis. Pma1p associates with detergent-resistant membrane domains (lipid "rafts") already in the ER, ...
Wang Jinghong - - 2006
Free fatty acids (FFAs) play important physiological roles in many tissues as an energy source and as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Elevated levels of circulating FFAs are associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Here we show that GPR84, a previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, functions as a receptor ...
Klimentová Jana - - 2006
In order to investigate the effect of terminal chain branching in the skin permeation enhancers, seven alcohols and seven acids with the chain length of 8-12 carbons and terminal methyl or ethyl branching were prepared. Their transdermal permeation-enhancing activities were evaluated in vitro using theophylline as a model permeant and ...
Juárez M P - - 2007
Triatomine insects (Hemiptera) are the vectors of Chagas disease. Their cuticular surface is covered by a thin layer of lipids, mainly hydrocarbons, wax esters, fatty alcohols, and free or esterified fatty acids. These lipids play a major role in preventing a lethal desiccation, altering the absorption of chemicals and microorganism ...
Cronan John E JE Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801, USA. - - 2006
In this issue of Cell, Lee et al. (2006) report that the parasite Trypanosoma brucei synthesizes fatty acids in an unconventional way. T. brucei and two other trypanosomes use enzymes called elongases to synthesize myristate, a fourteen carbon (C14) fatty acid essential for pathogenesis. This is an unexpected finding as ...
Guthmuller J - - 2006
The linear and nonlinear optical responses of the three aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine have been investigated by time-dependent density functional theory. The effect of the peptidic chain on the polarizabilities and the first hyperpolarizabilities is addressed by substituting different groups to the chromophores indole, phenol, and benzene. ...
Braga Dario - - 2006
The supramolecular macrocyclic adducts of general formula {[Fe(eta5-C5H4-C5H4N)2].[HOOC(CH2)nCOOH]}2 with n = 4 (adipic acid), n = 6 (suberic acid), n = 7 (azelaic acid) and n = 8 (sebacic acid) have been obtained quantitatively by kneading powdered samples of the crystalline organometallic and organic reactants with drops of MeOH (for ...
Jambor de Sousa Ulrike L - - 2006
In several human and animal studies, medium-chain triglycerides decreased food intake more than did long-chain triglycerides. It is possible that faster uptake and metabolism of medium-chain fatty acids in the liver is responsible for this difference. To test this hypothesis we compared the feeding effects of hepatic portal vein (HPV) ...
Amakura Yoshiaki - - 2006
As part of an investigation on the chemical constituents and contaminants of the basidiomycete Pleurocybella porrigens (Japanese name: Sugihiratake), we analyzed the UV-detected constituents of this mushroom using HPLC. One of the major UV peaks detected was isolated and identified as a-eleostearic acid, a long-chain fatty acid with a conjugated ...
Bode Helge B - - 2006
Inactivation of the MXAN_0853 gene blocked the production in Myxococcus xanthus of straight-chain fatty acids which otherwise represent 30% of total fatty acids. Despite this drastic change in the fatty acid profile, no change in phenotype could be observed, which contrasts with previous interpretations of the role of straight-chain fatty ...
Kamp Frits - - 2006
Opposing views exist as to how unesterified fatty acids (FA) enter and leave cells. It is commonly believed that for short- and medium-chain FA free diffusion suffices whereas it is questioned whether proteins are required to facilitate transport of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA). Furthermore, it is unclear whether these proteins ...
Vistisen Bodil - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Consumption of specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium chain fatty acid, L = long chain fatty acid), delivers fast energy and long chain fatty acids to the organism. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study was to compare lymphatic absorption of (13)C-labeled MLM and (13)C-labeled ...
Bossola M - - 2006
Anorexia, defined as the loss of the desire to eat, is relatively common in hemodialysis (HD) patients, occurring in one-third of cases. The pathogenesis is essentially unknown. It has been proposed that uremic toxins as middle molecules, inflammation, altered amino-acid pattern, leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y are involved. Anorexia reduces ...
Van Immerseel F - - 2006
Salmonella is a human pathogen that is commonly found in poultry products. It is possible to decrease chicken carcass and egg contaminations by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. Medium-chain fatty acids are more antibacterial against Salmonella than short-chain fatty acids. The antibacterial effect ...
Zhang Hanxing - - 2006
Wild-type Escherichia coli can utilize exogenous long-chain fatty acids (C>12) as a sole carbon source for growth, but it cannot grow on medium-chain fatty acids. However, when the fadD gene from E. coli MG1655 was expressed in E. coli DH5alpha, the latter strain was found to utilize medium-chain fatty acids ...
Jones Patricia M - - 2006
Although mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) is considered to be well understood, further elucidation of the pathway continues through evaluation of patients with FAO defects. The FAO pathway can be examined by measuring the 3-hydroxy-fatty acid (3-OHFA) intermediates. We present a unique finding in the study of this pathway: the ...
Kinman Renée P - - 2006
A new chronic treatment for inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation involves administering up to one-third of dietary calories as triheptanoin, a medium-odd-chain triglyceride (Roe CR, Sweetman L, Roe DS, David F, and Brunengraber H. J Clin Invest 110: 259-269, 2002). Heptanoate and C(5)-ketone bodies derived from its partial ...
Grossfield Alan - - 2006
Recent NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have indicated that rhodopsin is preferentially solvated by omega-3 fatty acids compared to saturated chains. However, to date no physical theory has been advanced to explain this phenomenon. The present work presents a novel thermodynamic explanation for this preferential solvation based on statistical ...
Muchembled Jérôme - - 2006
Treatment of wheat leaves with heptanoyl salicylic acid (HS) and trehalose at concentrations of 0.1 and 15 g l(-1), prior to fungal inoculation, resulted in 40% and 60% protection, respectively, against powdery mildew. The total lipid composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery ...
Ovodova R G - - 2006
Galacturonan, the main constituent of the backbone (core) of the comaruman macromolecule, a pectin from the marsh cinquefoil Comarum palustre L., was obtained on partial acid hydrolysis of the pectin. Using atomic force microscopy and methylation analysis of the galacturonan, the backbone of the comaruman macromolecule was shown to contain ...
Bohacek Regine - - 2006
Pharmacologic reinduction of the developmentally silenced fetal (gamma) globin genes has been achieved in hemoglobinopathy patients using short chain fatty acid derivatives, with therapeutic effects. However, higher-potency inducers than are available in currently identified short chain fatty acid derivatives are desirable for long-term use. Using several short-chain fatty acids with ...
Du Qi-Shi - - 2006
Heuristic molecular lipophilicity potential (HMLP) is applied in the study of lipophilicity and hydrophilicity of 20 natural amino acids side chains. The HMLP parameters, surface area S(i), lipophilic indices L(i), and hydrophilic indices H(i) of amino acid side chains are derived from lipophilicity potential L(r). The parameters are correlated with ...
Freire Carmen S R - - 2006
The topochemistry of the controlled heterogeneous esterification of cellulose fibers with fatty acid chlorides of different chain length, both in swelling and non-swelling media, was assessed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and contact angle measurements. On the one hand, the results provided by the ...
Truksa Martin - - 2006
Very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) are essential for human health and well-being. However, the current sources of these valuable compounds are limited and may not be sustainable in the long term. Recently, considerable progress has been made in identifying genes involved in the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs. The co-expression of ...
Isaac Giorgis - - 2006
Glycosphingolipids are located in cell membranes and the brain is especially enriched. We speculated that the subcellular location of glycosphingolipids depends on their fatty acid chain length because their sugar residues are constant, whereas fatty acid chain length can vary within the same molecule. To test this hypothesis we analysed ...
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