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Results 251 - 300 of 1597
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Riezman Howard - - 2007
The multienzyme complex that synthesizes very long chain fatty acids is embedded in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. In this issue, Denic and Weissman (2007) describe the reconstitution of this complex in liposomes and reveal how elongase proteins (Elops) determine the final length of the fatty acyl CoA chain.
Trimpin Sarah - - 2007
In numerous studies charge remote fragmentation (CRF) has been shown to be a powerful technique for determination of primary structure by allowing location of double bonds, various functional groups, and branching in a variety of compound types directly by mass spectrometry. Instrumentation and ionization methods traditionally used for CRF, however, ...
Sortino Maximiliano - - 2008
N-Phenyl and N-phenylalkyl maleimides (alkyl chain=(CH(2))n; n=0-4) and their respective open derivatives (maleamic acids) were evaluated against Candida spp. with the microbroth dilution method following the guidelines of CLSI (formely NCCLS). MIC values of maleimides without pre-incubation and submitted to different pre-incubation times into the growth media, time-to-kill studies as ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2007
The phospholipid fatty acid composition of the Caribbean sponge Erylus goffrilleri is described for the first time. A total of 70 fatty acids with chain lengths between 13 and 29 carbons were identified in the sponge. Methyl-branched fatty acids predominated in E. goffrilleri suggesting the presence of a considerable number ...
Ribeiro César A - - 2008
In the present work we investigated the in vitro effect of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) accumulating in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) on some parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of rats. 14CO2 production from [1-14C]acetate, [1-5-14C]citrate and [U-14C]glucose, as well as glucose uptake by the brain were ...
Hazen Kevin C - - 2007
The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans produces large N-glycans with outer regions containing only mannose residues. The outer region comprises a primary branch with multiple secondary and tertiary branches. Tertiary branches are linked to secondary branches by phosphodiester bridges. In the current model of outer chain elongation in the genetically related ...
Vo Minh Tri - - 2007
The fadBA operon in the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway of P. putida KCTC1639 was blocked to induce a metabolic flux of the intermediates to the biosynthesis of medium chain-length PHA (mcl-PHA). Succinate at 150 mg l(-1) stimulated cell growth and also the biosynthesis of medium chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoate. pH-stat fed-batch cultivation of ...
Yin Xueqiang - - 2007
(3aS,4S,6R,6aR)-Tetrahydro-2,2-dimethyl-6-vinyl-3aH-cyclopenta[d][1,3]-dioxol-4-ol, itself available from ribose, provided a convenient entry point for an 18-step preparation of carbocyclic sinefungin. This procedure is adaptable to a number of carbocyclic sinefungin analogs with diversity of heterocyclic base and in the amino acid bearing side chain.
Mietkiewska Elzbieta - - 2007
A genomic fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) clone was isolated from Crambe abyssinica. The genomic clone corresponds to a 1521-bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 507 amino acids. In yeast cells expression of CrFAE led to production of new very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids such as ...
Kaya Ekrem - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effects of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine on diseased colonic mucosa, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, are not well described. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of L-glutamine and short-chain fatty acids, both via enema and oral administration, on mucosal healing in experimental ...
Hyduke Daniel R - - 2007
Nitric oxide (NO) is used by mammalian immune systems to counter microbial invasions and is produced by bacteria during denitrification. As a defense, microorganisms possess a complex network to cope with NO. Here we report a combined transcriptomic, chemical, and phenotypic approach to identify direct NO targets and construct the ...
Khanna Sudeep - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ample evidence that patients with liver disease have an ongoing energy and protein catabolism. Nutritional management in these patients must receive high priority. The administration of branched-chain amino acids to patients with liver disease has been a controversial subject. This review is an update on ...
Morant Marc - - 2007
CYP703 is a cytochrome P450 family specific to land plants. Typically, each plant species contains a single CYP703. Arabidopsis thaliana CYP703A2 is expressed in the anthers of developing flowers. Expression is initiated at the tetrad stage and restricted to microspores and to the tapetum cell layer. Arabidopsis CYP703A2 knockout lines ...
Buist Peter H - - 2007
Many biotransformations of mid- to long chain fatty acyl derivatives are intrinsically interesting because of their high selectivity and novel mechanisms. These include one carbon transfer, hydration, isomerization, hydrogenation, ladderane and hydrocarbon formation, thiolation and various oxidative transformations such as epoxidation, hydroxylation and desaturation. In addition, hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty ...
Hwang Jungyeon - - 2007
Polymers with reactive side chains and narrow molecular weight distributions were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and the potential to utilize these polymers to prepare drug carriers was demonstrated. p-Nitrophenyl methacrylate (NPMA) and diethoxypropyl methacrylate (DEPMA) were polymerized utilizing cumyl dithiobenzoate (CDB) as the chain transfer agent ...
Xu Zhongli - - 2007
The entire gene locus encoding the biosynthesis of the potent glutathione-S-transferase inhibitors and apoptosis inducers benastatin A and B has been cloned and sequenced. The cluster identity was unequivocally proven by deletion of flanking regions and heterologous expression in S. albus and S. lividans. Inactivation and complementation experiments revealed that ...
Kamata Y - - 2007
It has been shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachinonic and docosahexanoic acids but not monounsaturated and saturated long-chain fatty acids promote basal and nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite extension of PC12 cells, a line derived from a rat pheochromocytoma. On the other hand, short-chain fatty acids and valproic ...
Senet P - - 2007
By using the exact density functional theory, one demonstrates that the value of the local electronic softness of a molecular fragment is directly related to the polarization charge (Coulomb hole) induced by a test electron removed (or added) from (at) the fragment. Our finding generalizes to a chemical group a ...
Hayes B - - 2007
Mitochondrial beta oxidation plays a major role in energy production. Long chain fatty acid oxidation defects include deficiency of the trifunctional protein (rare) or more commonly defects of the long chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme (LCHAD). These long chain defects have variable presentations, they may present in the neonate or ...
D'Arrigo Paola - - 2007
Glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) is transformed into the cyclic stannylene derivatives, which are selectively acylated to 1-acyl-2-lyso-glycerophosphocholines. The reaction is effective using C-2 to C-16 acid chlorides in 2-propanol. After solvent replacement the lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) is subjected to a second acylation using acid anhydrides in methylene chloride. A series of 1(2)-short-2(1)-long-diacyl-glycerophosphocholines are ...
Watford Malcolm - - 2007
Excess circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), as seen in maple syrup urine disease, result in severe neuropathology. A new mouse model, deficient in the kinase that controls BCAA catabolism, shows that very low circulating levels of BCAA are also associated with neuropathology, including the development of epileptic seizures. ...
Park Seong-Chan - - 2007
Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to measure the fraction of N2O5 molecules that are converted to HNO3 after colliding with 72 wt % H2SO4 containing 1-hexanol or 1-butanol at 216 K. These alcohols segregate to the surface of the acid, with saturation coverages estimated to be 60% of a close-packed ...
Schiffrin Agustin - - 2007
The engineering of complex architectures from functional molecules on surfaces provides new pathways to control matter at the nanoscale. In this article, we present a combined study addressing the self-assembly of the amino acid L-methionine on Ag(111). Scanning tunneling microscopy data reveal spontaneous ordering in extended molecular chains oriented along ...
Portois L - - 2007
Second generation rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids display several features of the metabolic syndrome, including visceral obesity, liver steatosis, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. In the framework of an extensive study on such metabolic, hormonal and functional perturbations, the phospholipid fatty acid pattern and ex vivo ...
Islam Mohammad Mainul - - 2007
The catabolic pathways of branched-chain amino acids have two common steps. The first step is deamination catalyzed by the vitamin B(6)-dependent branched-chain aminotransferase isozymes (BCATs) to produce branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs). The second step is oxidative decarboxylation of the BCKAs mediated by the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKD ...
Maeda Yusuke - - 2007
Whereas most of the cellular phosphatidylinositol (PI) contain unsaturated fatty chains and are excluded from rafts, GPI-anchored proteins (APs) unusually contain two saturated fatty chains in their PI moiety, and they are typically found within lipid rafts. However, the origin of the saturated chains and whether they are essential for ...
Mineo Hitoshi - - 2007
We examined the role of the chemical specificity of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their derivatives in increasing osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Except for formic acid, normal SCFAs with 2 to 8 carbons increased the OF in rat RBCs with increasing number of hydrocarbons in ...
Barofsky Alexandra - - 2007
The diatom Thalassiosira rotula releases polyunsaturated short chain aldehydes (PUA) such as 2E,4Z,7-octatrienal (7a) and 2E,4Z,7Z-decatrienal (3a) upon wounding. Using labeling experiments and synthetic standards, we demonstrate that the mechanism of fatty acid transformation does not follow established lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase pathways known from higher plants or mammals but rather relies ...
Leclercq-Perlat Marie-Noëlle - - 2007
Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, ...
Chang Jaeeon - - 2007
The solvation free energies of amino acids and their side-chain analogues in water and cyclohexane are calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The molecular interactions are described by the OPLS-AA force field for the amino acids and the TIP4P model for water, and the free energies are determined by using ...
Mizushige Takafumi - - 2007
Fatty foods are very palatable. Most mammals, including humans, prefer high-fat food to low-fat food. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, which are related to the hedonic or aversive response in the brain, are released after a basic tastant (i.e., sweet, sour, salty, bitter or umami) is accepted by the taste receptors in ...
Williams André A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To measure the antimicrobial activities of three series of homologous, dendritic tricarboxylato (three-headed) amphiphiles against a battery of bacteria and fungi. METHODS: Three series of homologous dendritic amphiphiles were synthesized containing C13 to C22 fatty chains. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant ...
Yang Shi-Zhong - - 2007
A GC-EIMS method to determine the structure of the fatty acid chains in cyclic lipopeptides is described. The structure of the fatty acid chains can be determined by the characteristic peaks of the MS spectrogram according to the fact that the alpha cleavage predominates the MS of a fatty acid ...
Vasireddy Vidyullatha - - 2007
Mutations in elongation of very long-chain fatty acid-4 (ELOVL4) are associated with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular degeneration (STGD3), with a five base-pair (5 bp) deletion mutation resulting in the loss of 51 carboxy-terminal amino acids and truncation of the protein. In addition to the retina, Elovl4 is expressed in a ...
Veierskov Bjarke - - 2007
Main branches of Abies nordmanniana Spach. were examined through their first growth season from subapical buds around the leader bud to fully expanded shoots. Plagiotropism was evident in branch orientation, which was almost horizontal, as well as in the orientation of buds developing on the branches. Auxin transport capacity was ...
Gbabode Gabin - - 2007
Crystal structures of the high-temperature phases of odd-numbered fatty acids (C(n)H(2n-1)OOH) from tridecanoic acid (C(13)H(25)OOH) to tricosanoic acid (C(23)H(45)OOH) are presented in this article. They have been determined from high-quality X-ray powder-diffraction patterns. Two types of high-temperature phases are adopted: one monoclinic A2/a with Z=8 for the fatty acids with ...
Fioravanti Emanuela - - 2007
Intense synchrotron radiation produces specific structural and chemical damage to crystalline proteins even at 100 K. Carboxyl groups of acidic residues (Glu, Asp) losing their definition is one of the major effects observed. Here, the susceptibilities to X-ray damage of acidic residues in tetrameric malate dehydrogenase from Haloarcula marismortui are ...
Robert Stanley - - 2007
Long-chain (> or = C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are nutritionally important and provide protection against cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Structural variants of these compounds may have the potential to be used as pharmaceuticals. Marine microalgae are the key producers of long-chain polyunsaturated ...
Ramamurthi Kumaran S - - 2006
Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis involves the formation of a thick, proteinaceous shell or coat that is assembled around a specialized membrane known as the outer forespore membrane. Here we present evidence that the assembling coat is tethered to the outer forespore membrane by a 26-amino-acid peptide called SpoVM, which ...
Bartke Nana - - 2006
Ceramides and glucocerebrosides of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) were analyzed using RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Ceramides and glucocerebrosides containing the three different long-chain bases 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2(delta4,delta8)), 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine (t18:1(delta8)), and 8-sphingenine (d18:1(delta8)) acylated to saturated and unsaturated hydroxy- and nonhydroxy fatty acids with 16-26 carbon atoms were ...
Jayasimhulu Koka - - 2007
Bacteriovorax stolpii is a predator of larger gram-negative bacteria and lives as a parasite in the intraperiplasmic space of the host cell. This bacterium is unusual among prokaryotes in that sphingolipids comprise a large proportion of its lipids. We here report the presence of 18 molecular species of B. stolpii ...
Barman S - - 2006
The melting of alkyl chains in the saturated fatty acid zinc soaps of different chain lengths, Zn(C(n)H(2n+1)COO)(2); n = 11, 13, 15, and 17, have been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and vibrational spectroscopy. These compounds have a layer structure with the alkyl chains arranged as tilted ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2007
The first total syntheses for the (Z)-15-methyl-10-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-13-methyl-8-tetradecenoic acid were accomplished in seven steps and in 31-32% overall yields. The (trimethylsilyl)acetylene was the key reagent in both syntheses. It is proposed that the best synthetic strategy towards monounsaturated iso methyl-branched fatty acids with double bonds close to ...
Covington D K - - 2006
Recent deorphanization efforts have paired the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR40, GPR41 and GPR43 with fatty acids as endogenous ligands. While carboxylic acids have been historically known to serve as fuel sources and biomarkers of disease, these studies demonstrate that fatty acids can act as signalling molecules at the cell-surface level. This ...
Wagner Trevor K - - 2006
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of a necrotizing hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia in swine. In this study, we investigate the possibility that the limitation of branched-chain amino acids is a stimulus that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during infection and will respond to by up-regulation of genes involved in branched-chain amino acid ...
Agascioglu Eda - - 2007
A depletion in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids may affect fuel homeostasis. In such a perspective, the present study deals mainly with the in vitro fate of D-[U-(14)C]glucose in hemidiaphragms, stretched soleus and plantaris muscle pieces obtained from normal and omega3-depleted rats (second generation) and incubated in the absence or ...
Burdock George A - - 2007
Myristic acid is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient. It is found widely distributed in fats throughout the plant and animal kingdom, including common human foodstuffs, such as nutmeg. Myristic acid (a 14-carbon, straight-chain saturated fatty acid) has been shown to have a low order of acute ...
Jackson Mary - - 2007
The cell envelope of pathogenic mycobacteria is highly distinctive in that it contains a number of lipids esterified with structurally related long-chain multi-methyl-branched fatty acids. These lipids have long been thought to play important roles in the cell envelope structure as well as in the pathogenicity of the tubercle bacillus. ...
Gaigg Barbara - - 2006
The proton-pumping H+-ATPase, Pma1p, is an abundant and very long lived polytopic protein of the yeast plasma membrane. Pma1p constitutes a major cargo of the secretory pathway and thus serves as a model to study plasma membrane biogenesis. Pma1p associates with detergent-resistant membrane domains (lipid "rafts") already in the ER, ...
Wang Jinghong - - 2006
Free fatty acids (FFAs) play important physiological roles in many tissues as an energy source and as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Elevated levels of circulating FFAs are associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Here we show that GPR84, a previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, functions as a receptor ...
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