Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1614
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Ruettinger A - - 2008
The influence of the chain length of the free fatty acid (FFA) in a stratum corneum (SC) lipid model membrane composed of N-(alpha-hydroxyoctadecanoyl)-phytosphingosine (CER [AP]), cholesterol (Ch), FFA and cholesterol sulphate (ChS) was investigated by neutron diffraction. The internal nanostructure of the SC lipid membrane in addition to the water ...
Ribechini Erika - - 2008
A combination of gas chromatographic (GC) and mass spectrometric (MS) techniques, including direct exposure-MS (DE-MS), high-temperature GC-MS (HTGC-MS) and GC-MS of neutral and acid fractions, was employed to study the composition and recognise origin of the organic materials used to manufacture balm residues surviving in a series of glass unguentaria ...
Atsumi Shota - - 2008
Global energy and environmental problems have stimulated increased efforts towards synthesizing biofuels from renewable resources. Compared to the traditional biofuel, ethanol, higher alcohols offer advantages as gasoline substitutes because of their higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. In addition, branched-chain alcohols have higher octane numbers compared with their straight-chain counterparts. ...
Hernández-Montes Georgina - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Twenty amino acids comprise the universal building blocks of proteins. However, their biosynthetic routes do not appear to be universal from an Escherichia coli-centric perspective. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand their origin and evolution in a global context, that is, to include more 'model' species and alternative routes ...
Soini Jaakko - - 2008
Norvaline is an unusual non-proteinogenic branched-chain amino acid which has been of interest especially during the early enzymological studies on regulatory mutants of the branched-chain amino acid pathway in Serratia marcescens. Only recently norvaline and other modified amino acids of the branched-chain amino acid synthesis pathway got attention again when ...
Hutson Susan M - - 2008
The human branched chain aminotransferase enzymes are key regulators of glutamate metabolism in the brain and are among a growing number of redox-sensitive proteins. Studies that use thiol-specific reagents and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry demonstrate that the mitochondrial BCAT enzyme has a redox-active CXXC center, which on oxidation forms a ...
Kuhlmann Matthias - - 2008
A new polymorph of dimesitylborinic acid (or hydroxy-dimesitylborane), C(18)H(23)BO, showcasing different crystal packing and symmetry, complements the previously reported polymorph [Weese, Bartlett, Murray, Olmstead & Power (1987 ▶). Inorg. Chem.26, 2409-2413; Entwistle, Batsanov & Marder (2007 ▶). Acta Cryst. E63, o2639-o2641]. The structure of the title compound contains only one ...
Joffre C - - 2008
AIMS: To evaluate the differences in meibomian fatty acid composition in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from meibomian gland dysfunction or aqueous-deficient dry eye. METHODS: We collected meibomian oil using a sterile Schirmer paper in healthy individuals (n = 20), dry eye patients (aqueous-deficient) (n = 32) and meibomian ...
Teixeira Leandro - - 2008
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of Light Coke, phosphoric acid, and citric acid on the force decline pattern of two types of elastomeric chains. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred sixty gray colored elastomeric chain modules, 80 Chainette (GAC) and 80 Sunburst (GAC) ...
Takeuchi Hiroyuki - - 2008
The bulk of fatty acids found in our diets consists of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), which are molecules containing 12 or more carbon atoms. In contrast, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are composed of 8-10 carbon atoms, and are found in palm kernel oil, among other types of foods. MCFA have ...
Tsai Chung-Jyi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Various saturated fatty acids have different effects on blood lipids and insulin secretion in experiments. The effect of long-term consumption of specific and different classes of saturated fatty acids on the risk of gallstone disease in humans is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied consumption of saturated fatty acids and ...
Khodadadi Iraj - - 2008
The link between dietary fat and coronary heart disease has attracted much attention since the effect of long-chain fatty acids on gene transcription has been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-chain fatty acids and clofibrate on mRNA levels of specific lipid metabolism-related genes ...
Parton M - - 2008
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease, is a progressive neuromuscular disease that causes disability and eventual death. Various amino acid preparations, the three branched-chain amino acids (L-leucine, L-valine and L-isoleucine) or, alternatively, L-threonine have been used as experimental therapy. To examine the efficacy of amino acid therapies ...
Knill Tanja - - 2008
In Arabidopsis thaliana, transamination steps in the leucine biosynthetic and catabolic pathways and the methionine (Met) chain elongation cycle of aliphatic glucosinolate formation are catalyzed by branched-chain aminotransferases (BCATs) that are encoded by a small gene family of six members. One member of this family, the plastid-located BCAT3, was shown ...
Ai Hongqi - - 2007
The side-chain effects of metalated and protonated dipeptides, including GGH(+)M(+), GAH(+)M(+), AGH(+)M(+), AAH(+)M(+), GWH(+)M(+), GSH(+)M(+), GTH(+)M(+), GFH(+)M(+), GYH(+)M(+), and GVH(+)M(+) (G = glycine, A = alanine, W = tryptophan, S = serine, T = threonine, F = phenylalanine, and V = valine; M = Li, Na, and K), are theoretically ...
Grossi Vincent - - 2007
The alkane- and alkene-degrading, marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803(T), known to oxidize n-alkanes anaerobically by fumarate addition at C-2, was investigated for its 1-alkene metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain were predominantly C-(even number) (C-even) when it was grown on C-even 1-alkenes and predominantly C-(odd ...
Saerens K - - 2008
Lipases and esterases are frequently used in dairy production processes to enhance the buttery flavour of the end product. Short chain fatty acids, and especially butanoic acid, play a key role in this and different enzymes with specificity towards short chain fatty acids are commercially available as potent flavouring tools. ...
Riezman Howard - - 2007
The multienzyme complex that synthesizes very long chain fatty acids is embedded in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. In this issue, Denic and Weissman (2007) describe the reconstitution of this complex in liposomes and reveal how elongase proteins (Elops) determine the final length of the fatty acyl CoA chain.
Trimpin Sarah - - 2007
In numerous studies charge remote fragmentation (CRF) has been shown to be a powerful technique for determination of primary structure by allowing location of double bonds, various functional groups, and branching in a variety of compound types directly by mass spectrometry. Instrumentation and ionization methods traditionally used for CRF, however, ...
Sortino Maximiliano - - 2008
N-Phenyl and N-phenylalkyl maleimides (alkyl chain=(CH(2))n; n=0-4) and their respective open derivatives (maleamic acids) were evaluated against Candida spp. with the microbroth dilution method following the guidelines of CLSI (formely NCCLS). MIC values of maleimides without pre-incubation and submitted to different pre-incubation times into the growth media, time-to-kill studies as ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2007
The phospholipid fatty acid composition of the Caribbean sponge Erylus goffrilleri is described for the first time. A total of 70 fatty acids with chain lengths between 13 and 29 carbons were identified in the sponge. Methyl-branched fatty acids predominated in E. goffrilleri suggesting the presence of a considerable number ...
Ribeiro César A - - 2008
In the present work we investigated the in vitro effect of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) accumulating in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) on some parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex of rats. 14CO2 production from [1-14C]acetate, [1-5-14C]citrate and [U-14C]glucose, as well as glucose uptake by the brain were ...
Hazen Kevin C - - 2007
The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans produces large N-glycans with outer regions containing only mannose residues. The outer region comprises a primary branch with multiple secondary and tertiary branches. Tertiary branches are linked to secondary branches by phosphodiester bridges. In the current model of outer chain elongation in the genetically related ...
Vo Minh Tri - - 2007
The fadBA operon in the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway of P. putida KCTC1639 was blocked to induce a metabolic flux of the intermediates to the biosynthesis of medium chain-length PHA (mcl-PHA). Succinate at 150 mg l(-1) stimulated cell growth and also the biosynthesis of medium chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoate. pH-stat fed-batch cultivation of ...
Yin Xueqiang - - 2007
(3aS,4S,6R,6aR)-Tetrahydro-2,2-dimethyl-6-vinyl-3aH-cyclopenta[d][1,3]-dioxol-4-ol, itself available from ribose, provided a convenient entry point for an 18-step preparation of carbocyclic sinefungin. This procedure is adaptable to a number of carbocyclic sinefungin analogs with diversity of heterocyclic base and in the amino acid bearing side chain.
Mietkiewska Elzbieta - - 2007
A genomic fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) clone was isolated from Crambe abyssinica. The genomic clone corresponds to a 1521-bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 507 amino acids. In yeast cells expression of CrFAE led to production of new very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids such as ...
Kaya Ekrem - - 2007
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effects of short-chain fatty acids and glutamine on diseased colonic mucosa, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, are not well described. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of L-glutamine and short-chain fatty acids, both via enema and oral administration, on mucosal healing in experimental ...
Hyduke Daniel R - - 2007
Nitric oxide (NO) is used by mammalian immune systems to counter microbial invasions and is produced by bacteria during denitrification. As a defense, microorganisms possess a complex network to cope with NO. Here we report a combined transcriptomic, chemical, and phenotypic approach to identify direct NO targets and construct the ...
Khanna Sudeep - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ample evidence that patients with liver disease have an ongoing energy and protein catabolism. Nutritional management in these patients must receive high priority. The administration of branched-chain amino acids to patients with liver disease has been a controversial subject. This review is an update on ...
Morant Marc - - 2007
CYP703 is a cytochrome P450 family specific to land plants. Typically, each plant species contains a single CYP703. Arabidopsis thaliana CYP703A2 is expressed in the anthers of developing flowers. Expression is initiated at the tetrad stage and restricted to microspores and to the tapetum cell layer. Arabidopsis CYP703A2 knockout lines ...
Buist Peter H - - 2007
Many biotransformations of mid- to long chain fatty acyl derivatives are intrinsically interesting because of their high selectivity and novel mechanisms. These include one carbon transfer, hydration, isomerization, hydrogenation, ladderane and hydrocarbon formation, thiolation and various oxidative transformations such as epoxidation, hydroxylation and desaturation. In addition, hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty ...
Hwang Jungyeon - - 2007
Polymers with reactive side chains and narrow molecular weight distributions were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and the potential to utilize these polymers to prepare drug carriers was demonstrated. p-Nitrophenyl methacrylate (NPMA) and diethoxypropyl methacrylate (DEPMA) were polymerized utilizing cumyl dithiobenzoate (CDB) as the chain transfer agent ...
Xu Zhongli - - 2007
The entire gene locus encoding the biosynthesis of the potent glutathione-S-transferase inhibitors and apoptosis inducers benastatin A and B has been cloned and sequenced. The cluster identity was unequivocally proven by deletion of flanking regions and heterologous expression in S. albus and S. lividans. Inactivation and complementation experiments revealed that ...
Kamata Y - - 2007
It has been shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachinonic and docosahexanoic acids but not monounsaturated and saturated long-chain fatty acids promote basal and nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite extension of PC12 cells, a line derived from a rat pheochromocytoma. On the other hand, short-chain fatty acids and valproic ...
Senet P - - 2007
By using the exact density functional theory, one demonstrates that the value of the local electronic softness of a molecular fragment is directly related to the polarization charge (Coulomb hole) induced by a test electron removed (or added) from (at) the fragment. Our finding generalizes to a chemical group a ...
Hayes B - - 2007
Mitochondrial beta oxidation plays a major role in energy production. Long chain fatty acid oxidation defects include deficiency of the trifunctional protein (rare) or more commonly defects of the long chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme (LCHAD). These long chain defects have variable presentations, they may present in the neonate or ...
D'Arrigo Paola - - 2007
Glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) is transformed into the cyclic stannylene derivatives, which are selectively acylated to 1-acyl-2-lyso-glycerophosphocholines. The reaction is effective using C-2 to C-16 acid chlorides in 2-propanol. After solvent replacement the lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) is subjected to a second acylation using acid anhydrides in methylene chloride. A series of 1(2)-short-2(1)-long-diacyl-glycerophosphocholines are ...
Watford Malcolm - - 2007
Excess circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), as seen in maple syrup urine disease, result in severe neuropathology. A new mouse model, deficient in the kinase that controls BCAA catabolism, shows that very low circulating levels of BCAA are also associated with neuropathology, including the development of epileptic seizures. ...
Park Seong-Chan - - 2007
Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to measure the fraction of N2O5 molecules that are converted to HNO3 after colliding with 72 wt % H2SO4 containing 1-hexanol or 1-butanol at 216 K. These alcohols segregate to the surface of the acid, with saturation coverages estimated to be 60% of a close-packed ...
Schiffrin Agustin - - 2007
The engineering of complex architectures from functional molecules on surfaces provides new pathways to control matter at the nanoscale. In this article, we present a combined study addressing the self-assembly of the amino acid L-methionine on Ag(111). Scanning tunneling microscopy data reveal spontaneous ordering in extended molecular chains oriented along ...
Portois L - - 2007
Second generation rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids display several features of the metabolic syndrome, including visceral obesity, liver steatosis, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. In the framework of an extensive study on such metabolic, hormonal and functional perturbations, the phospholipid fatty acid pattern and ex vivo ...
Islam Mohammad Mainul - - 2007
The catabolic pathways of branched-chain amino acids have two common steps. The first step is deamination catalyzed by the vitamin B(6)-dependent branched-chain aminotransferase isozymes (BCATs) to produce branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs). The second step is oxidative decarboxylation of the BCKAs mediated by the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKD ...
Maeda Yusuke - - 2007
Whereas most of the cellular phosphatidylinositol (PI) contain unsaturated fatty chains and are excluded from rafts, GPI-anchored proteins (APs) unusually contain two saturated fatty chains in their PI moiety, and they are typically found within lipid rafts. However, the origin of the saturated chains and whether they are essential for ...
Mineo Hitoshi - - 2007
We examined the role of the chemical specificity of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their derivatives in increasing osmotic fragility (OF) in rat red blood cells (RBCs). Except for formic acid, normal SCFAs with 2 to 8 carbons increased the OF in rat RBCs with increasing number of hydrocarbons in ...
Barofsky Alexandra - - 2007
The diatom Thalassiosira rotula releases polyunsaturated short chain aldehydes (PUA) such as 2E,4Z,7-octatrienal (7a) and 2E,4Z,7Z-decatrienal (3a) upon wounding. Using labeling experiments and synthetic standards, we demonstrate that the mechanism of fatty acid transformation does not follow established lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase pathways known from higher plants or mammals but rather relies ...
Leclercq-Perlat Marie-Noëlle - - 2007
Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, ...
Chang Jaeeon - - 2007
The solvation free energies of amino acids and their side-chain analogues in water and cyclohexane are calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. The molecular interactions are described by the OPLS-AA force field for the amino acids and the TIP4P model for water, and the free energies are determined by using ...
Mizushige Takafumi - - 2007
Fatty foods are very palatable. Most mammals, including humans, prefer high-fat food to low-fat food. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, which are related to the hedonic or aversive response in the brain, are released after a basic tastant (i.e., sweet, sour, salty, bitter or umami) is accepted by the taste receptors in ...
Williams André A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To measure the antimicrobial activities of three series of homologous, dendritic tricarboxylato (three-headed) amphiphiles against a battery of bacteria and fungi. METHODS: Three series of homologous dendritic amphiphiles were synthesized containing C13 to C22 fatty chains. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant ...
Yang Shi-Zhong - - 2007
A GC-EIMS method to determine the structure of the fatty acid chains in cyclic lipopeptides is described. The structure of the fatty acid chains can be determined by the characteristic peaks of the MS spectrogram according to the fact that the alpha cleavage predominates the MS of a fatty acid ...
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