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Results 201 - 250 of 1628
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Mikami Shin-ichi - - 2009
The thermodynamic properties of the redox potentials (E(m)) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c(551) (PA) and its mutants possessing a variety of pK(a) values for the heme 17-propionic acid side chain, which ranged from approximately 5 to approximately 8, have been investigated to elucidate the role of ionization of the heme ...
Dereddy Narendra R - - 2009
Inborn errors of fatty acid metabolism are important causes of reversible cardiomyopathy in infancy. Disorders in long chain fatty acid oxidation can lead to cardiomyopathy, as fatty acid beta oxidation is the major source of myocardial energy after birth. We present 2 cases of such disorders with cardiac manifestations during ...
Morgan Noel G - - 2009
It is increasingly clear that some of the effects of both free and derivatised long chain fatty acids in pancreatic beta-cells are mediated by a group of G-protein coupled receptors. Some of these display close structural homology while others are more divergent. This Commentary reviews the expression and functional roles ...
Seamen Emylie - - 2009
Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are essential for Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development. To identify factors acting downstream of mmBCFAs for their function in growth regulation, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the L1 arrest that occurs in animals depleted of the 17-carbon mmBCFA C17ISO. Three of the ...
Ashby Richard D - - 2009
Pseudomonas resinovorans, a known medium-chain-length (mcl-) poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) producer, was grown on 13-methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTDA) and a mixture of isostearic acid (IA) isomers to produce methyl-branched mcl-PHA polymers. Shake-flask experiments revealed polymer productivities (the percent of the cell mass that is polymer) of 31 +/- 1% (n = 3) and ...
Nagase Tsuyoshi - - 2009
Long chain fatty acid elongase 6 (ELOVL6) catalyzes the elongation of long chain fatty acyl-CoAs and is a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. The ultrahigh throughput screen of our corporate chemical collections resulted in the identification of a novel 3-sulfonyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane class of ELOVL6 inhibitor 1a. Optimization of ...
Luckner Sylvia R SR Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Biomedicine, Institute for Structural Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, - - 2009
Mycobacteria have a unique cell wall consisting of mycolic acids, very-long-chain lipids that provide protection and allow the bacteria to persist within human macrophages. Inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis is fatal for the organism and a starting point for the discovery and development of novel antibiotics. We determined the crystal ...
König Gerhard - - 2009
Using molecular dynamics based free energy simulations, we computed relative solvation free energies for pairs of N-acetyl-methylamide amino acids (Ala-Ser, Val-Thr, Phe-Tyr, Val-Ala, Thr-Ser, Phe-Ala, and Tyr-Ser) and compared the results with the relative solvation free energies of the corresponding pairs of side chain analogs. We observed differences in (relative) ...
Rooney Alejandro P - - 2009
Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to use complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are reduced and then undergo a variety of chain-shortening and ...
Karlsson Caroline - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the microbial change in the intestinal microbiota in patients, with cardiovascular disease, consuming a drink with high numbers of live Lactobacillus plantarum. METHODS: Sixteen males, with atherosclerotic plaque on the carotid wall, were randomly selected from a larger cohort and included in this double ...
Awasthy Disha - - 2009
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway in bacteria. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains four genes (ilvB1, ilvB2, ilvG and ilvX) coding for the large catalytic subunit of AHAS, whereas only one gene (ilvN or ilvH) coding for the ...
Cetin Irene - - 2009
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for a healthy diet. The different kinds consumed by the mother during gestation and lactation may influence pregnancy, fetal and also neonatal outcome. The amount of fatty acids transferred from mother to fetus depends not only on maternal metabolism but also on ...
Compagnon Vincent - - 2009
Suberin composition of various plants including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has shown the presence of very long chain fatty acid derivatives C20 in addition to the C16 and C18 series. Phylogenetic studies and plant genome mining have led to the identification of putative aliphatic hydroxylases belonging to the CYP86B subfamily of ...
Joffre C - - 2009
AIM: The composition of the meibum of blepharitis patients is characterised by increased levels of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) that return to normal values in patients treated with cyclins and lid hygiene. The aim of this study was to determine if BCFAs had toxic effects on conjunctival cells related to ...
Redman Janet E - - 2009
Tuberculosis has been a scourge of humans over many millennia, but questions remain regarding its evolution and epidemiology. Fossil biomarkers, such as DNA and long-chain mycolic acids, can be detected in ancient skeletal and other materials. The phthiocerol dimycocerosate waxes are also robust biomarkers for tuberculosis and sensitive methods are ...
Fang Lei - - 2009
A versatile synthetic strategy, which was conceived and employed to prepare doubly threaded, bistable [c2]daisy chain compounds, is described. Propargyl and 1-pentenyl groups have been grafted onto the stoppers of [c2]daisy chain molecules obtained using a template-directed synthetic protocol. Such [c2]daisy chain molecules undergo reversible extension and contraction upon treatment ...
Cardelle-Cobas Alejandra - - 2009
Bifidogenic effect and stimulation of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by fractions of oligosaccharides with a DP> or =3 and Gal beta(1-6) linkages synthesised from lactose or lactulose by Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Lactozym 3000 L HP G were evaluated in human faecal slurries. Results were compared with those ...
Wang Yong-Hong - - 2010
4''-O-isovalerylspiramycins are the major components of bitespiramycin complex consisting of a group of 4''-O-acylated spiramycins. The availability of isovaleryl group, usually in vivo derived from leucine, one of the branched-chain amino acids, affects the content of isovaleryispiramycin significantly. In this study, the effect of glucose on the activity of branched-chain ...
Defoirdt Tom - - 2009
Because of the risk of antibiotic resistance development, there is a growing awareness that antibiotics should be used more carefully in animal production. However, a decreased use of antibiotics could result in a higher frequency of pathogenic bacteria, which in its turn could lead to a higher incidence of infections. ...
Rayne Sierra - - 2009
Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated for all congeners in each of the C(4) through C(8) homologue groups for perfluorinated alkylsulfonic acids (PFSAs) and alkylcarboxylic acids (PFCAs). Predictive equations were developed between molecular areas and volumes using optimized gas-phase geometries from the AM1 and PM3 semiempirical computational basis sets and previously ...
Spiekerkoetter U - - 2009
Published data on treatment of fatty acid oxidation defects are scarce. Treatment recommendations have been developed on the basis of observations in 75 patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects from 18 metabolic centres in Central Europe. Recommendations are based on expert practice and are suggested to be the basis ...
Shimamura Ken - - 2009
Long-chain fatty acid elongases reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and are responsible for the rate-limiting step of the elongation of long-chain fatty acids. The elongase of long-chain fatty acids (ELOVL) family 6 (ELOVL6) is involved in the elongation of saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. Increased expression of ELOVL6 in ob/ob ...
Zöllner Andy - - 2009
Overexpression of human CYP4Z1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, has been correlated with poor prognosis in human cancer. However, its catalytic properties are not yet known. We expressed this P450 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate by whole-cell biotransformation assays CYP4Z1-dependent in-chain hydroxylation of lauric and myristic acid, which in both cases ...
Pan Xiao-dong - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to clarify effects of selected oligosaccharides on concentrations of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total large bowel wet weight and wall weight, and cecal microbiota levels in mice. Mice were respectively given gavage of selected fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and chitooligosaccharides (COS) ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2009
Very long chain fatty acids (FAs) are important components of different classes of lipids in all organisms from bacteria to man. They include also, usually as minor components, odd-numbered FAs. These have so far been given little attention because of technical difficulties inherent in their detection and identification. Current modern ...
Kanazu T - - 2009
Substrate specificities for the carnitine and glycine conjugates of branched side-chain and cyclic side-chain carboxylic acids were examined using dog, rabbit, cynomolgus monkey, and squirrel monkey hepatocytes and kidney slices. For all tested samples, the substrate specificity for carnitine or glycine conjugation showed a similar tendency to those for rat ...
Denis Claire - - 2009
The phospholipid fatty acid composition of the North-East Atlantic sponge Polymastia penicillus (South Brittany, France) was investigated. Sixty fatty acids (FA) were identified as methyl esters (FAME) and N-acyl pyrrolidides (NAP) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), including eight Delta5,9 unsaturated FA and three long-chain 2-hydroxylated FA. The major phospholipid FA ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2009
A combination of TLC, ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS was used to identify unusual molecular species of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines containing very-long-chain anteiso branched fatty acids (VLCFAs) from Calothrix sp. collected in Antarctica and determine their component VLCFA up to 33-methyltetratriacontanoic acid as picolinyl ester derivatives using GC-MS.
Staab Claudia A - - 2009
Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) has emerged as an important regulator of protein S-nitrosation in its function as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase. GSNO depletion is associated with various disease conditions, emphasizing the potential value of a specific ADH3 inhibitor. The present study investigated inhibition of ADH3-mediated GSNO reduction by various substrate analogues, ...
Sandin Anna - - 2009
AIM: To investigate whether functional changes of the gut flora over time were related to sensitization and allergic symptoms at four years of age. METHODS: The levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in faecal samples at one (n = 139) and four (n = 53) years of age were ...
Butcher Rebecca A RA Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2009
To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant ...
Bossola Maurizio - - 2009
Anorexia, defined as the loss of the desire to eat, is relatively common in hemodialysis patients, occurring in one third of such cases. The pathogenesis is essentially unknown. It has been proposed that uremic toxins such as middle molecules, inflammation, altered amino acid pattern, leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y are ...
Ahn John H - - 2009
Sailing the seven 'C's: 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane (triptane) selectively forms from dimethyl ether at low temperatures on acid zeolites. Selective methylation at less-substituted carbons, relative rates of methylation to hydrogen transfer as a function of chain size, slow skeletal isomerization, and beta-scission cracking of triptyl chains and their precursors are intrinsic properties ...
Chen Chin-Nung - - 2009
The infection and virulence functions of diverse plant and animal pathogens that possess quorum sensing systems are regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) acting as signal molecules. AHL-acylase is a quorum quenching enzyme and degrades AHLs by removing the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone ring of AHLs. This ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2009
There is increasing evidence supporting an oral chemosensory detection system for free fatty acids (FFA). The presumptive transduction mechanisms have different ligand specificities. Psychophysical studies with FFA varying in chain length and saturation may aid in identifying the presence and functionality of these mechanisms in humans. Oral detection thresholds were ...
Smith Benjamin E - - 2008
The rapid expansion of the oil sands industry has seen a concomitant expansion of the production of associated waste containing toxic naphthenic acids (NAs). Bioremediation of such waste is thus an important goal, but the mechanisms of biodegradation are still poorly understood, despite recent advances. Many oil sands NAs are ...
Zhang Kechun - - 2008
Nature uses a limited set of metabolites to perform all of the biochemical reactions. To increase the metabolic capabilities of biological systems, we have expanded the natural metabolic network, using a nonnatural metabolic engineering approach. The branched-chain amino acid pathways are extended to produce abiotic longer chain keto acids and ...
Söderberg Lars - - 2009
Low aqueous solubility of lipophilic agents, such as free fatty acids, hampers proper in vitro demonstration of biological effects, yielding an ambiguous in vitro-in vivo correlation. We have therefore developed a method for evaluating the acute effects of lipophilic substances on the shape of erythrocytes and estimated EC(50) and Hill ...
Li Jinxi - - 2008
This laboratory has introduced a chemical method for residue-specific protein cleavage and has provided a preliminary assessment of the suitability of microwave accelerated acid cleavage as a proteomic tool. This report is a continuing assessment of the fate of common protein modifications in microwave-accelerated acid cleavage. We have examined the ...
Chambellon Emilie - - 2009
Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases of lactic acid bacteria, which catalyze the stereospecific reduction of branched-chain 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids, are of interest in a variety of fields, including cheese flavor formation via amino acid catabolism. In this study, we used both targeted and random mutagenesis to identify the genes responsible for the ...
Liberska Aleksandra - - 2009
The long chain saturated fatty acids, arachidic (C20) and lignoceric (C24), are found as components of phospholipids within mammalian cellular membranes. Although these lipids have rarely been used as components of transfection reagents, we recently demonstrated that elongation of the fatty tail beyond C18 provide a means of increasing the ...
Xu Ying - - 2009
Eleven strains of Streptomyces isolated from deep-sea sediments were screened for anti-larval settlement activity and all were active. Among those strains, Streptomyces sp. UST040711-290 was chosen for the isolation of bioactive antifouling compounds through bioassay-guided isolation procedure. A branched-chain fatty acid, 12-methyltetradecanoid acid (12-MTA) was purified, and it strongly inhibited ...
Bazzocco Sarah - - 2008
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in apples are condensed tannins comprised mostly of (-)-epicatechin units with some terminal (+)-catechins. PAs, especially those having a long chain-length, are absorbed in the upper intestine only to a small extent and are passed to the colon. In the colon they are subjected to microbial metabolism by ...
Stirrett Karen - - 2009
Polyketide antibiotics are among the most important therapeutics used in human and animal health care. Type II polyketides are composed primarily of acetate-derived thioesters, and the subunits for the PKS are contained in a single module that includes a ketosynthase, acyl carrier protein, chain-length factor and sometimes a keto-reductase, aromatase, ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2008
A method is described for the enrichment of odd very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) by means of RP-HPLC and argentation TLC from total fatty acids of the dinoflagellate A. carterae and their identification as picolinyl esters by means of microbore liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS/APCI). The ...
Fukuoka Tokuma - - 2008
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These compounds show not only excellent surface-active properties, but also versatile biochemical actions. During a survey of new MEL producers, we found that a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma crassa, extracellularly produces three glycolipids. When glucose and ...
Debois Delphine - - 2008
Surfactins are a family of heptacyclopeptides in which the C-terminal carbonyl is linked with the beta-hydroxy group of a fatty acid acylating the N-terminal function of a glutamic acid residue. The fatty acyl chain is 12-16 carbon atoms long. These compounds, which are secreted by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis ...
Hashizume Hideki - - 2008
Branched chain amino acids are often utilized as the precursors of many lipid-containing bacterial secondary metabolites. The effect of isoleucine on the composition of the mixture of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics, tripropeptins from Lysobacter sp. BMK333-48F3 was evaluated. As expected, a novel tripropeptin analog with an anteiso-branched fatty acid was produced. ...
Kniazeva Marina - - 2008
Growth and development of multicellular organisms are controlled by signaling systems that sense nutrition availability and metabolic status. We report a novel and surprising factor in Caenorhabditis elegans development, the monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO, a product of leucine catabolism. We show here that C17ISO is an essential constituent in ...
Neves L - - 2009
A method for long chain fatty acids (LCFA) extraction, identification and further quantification by gas chromatography was developed and its application to liquid and solid samples collected from anaerobic digesters was demonstrated. After validation, the usefulness of this method was demonstrated in a cow manure digester receiving pulses of an ...
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