Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1597
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Bossola Maurizio - - 2009
Anorexia, defined as the loss of the desire to eat, is relatively common in hemodialysis patients, occurring in one third of such cases. The pathogenesis is essentially unknown. It has been proposed that uremic toxins such as middle molecules, inflammation, altered amino acid pattern, leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y are ...
Ahn John H - - 2009
Sailing the seven 'C's: 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane (triptane) selectively forms from dimethyl ether at low temperatures on acid zeolites. Selective methylation at less-substituted carbons, relative rates of methylation to hydrogen transfer as a function of chain size, slow skeletal isomerization, and beta-scission cracking of triptyl chains and their precursors are intrinsic properties ...
Chen Chin-Nung - - 2009
The infection and virulence functions of diverse plant and animal pathogens that possess quorum sensing systems are regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) acting as signal molecules. AHL-acylase is a quorum quenching enzyme and degrades AHLs by removing the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone ring of AHLs. This ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2009
There is increasing evidence supporting an oral chemosensory detection system for free fatty acids (FFA). The presumptive transduction mechanisms have different ligand specificities. Psychophysical studies with FFA varying in chain length and saturation may aid in identifying the presence and functionality of these mechanisms in humans. Oral detection thresholds were ...
Smith Benjamin E - - 2008
The rapid expansion of the oil sands industry has seen a concomitant expansion of the production of associated waste containing toxic naphthenic acids (NAs). Bioremediation of such waste is thus an important goal, but the mechanisms of biodegradation are still poorly understood, despite recent advances. Many oil sands NAs are ...
Zhang Kechun - - 2008
Nature uses a limited set of metabolites to perform all of the biochemical reactions. To increase the metabolic capabilities of biological systems, we have expanded the natural metabolic network, using a nonnatural metabolic engineering approach. The branched-chain amino acid pathways are extended to produce abiotic longer chain keto acids and ...
Söderberg Lars - - 2009
Low aqueous solubility of lipophilic agents, such as free fatty acids, hampers proper in vitro demonstration of biological effects, yielding an ambiguous in vitro-in vivo correlation. We have therefore developed a method for evaluating the acute effects of lipophilic substances on the shape of erythrocytes and estimated EC(50) and Hill ...
Li Jinxi - - 2008
This laboratory has introduced a chemical method for residue-specific protein cleavage and has provided a preliminary assessment of the suitability of microwave accelerated acid cleavage as a proteomic tool. This report is a continuing assessment of the fate of common protein modifications in microwave-accelerated acid cleavage. We have examined the ...
Chambellon Emilie - - 2009
Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases of lactic acid bacteria, which catalyze the stereospecific reduction of branched-chain 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids, are of interest in a variety of fields, including cheese flavor formation via amino acid catabolism. In this study, we used both targeted and random mutagenesis to identify the genes responsible for the ...
Liberska Aleksandra - - 2009
The long chain saturated fatty acids, arachidic (C20) and lignoceric (C24), are found as components of phospholipids within mammalian cellular membranes. Although these lipids have rarely been used as components of transfection reagents, we recently demonstrated that elongation of the fatty tail beyond C18 provide a means of increasing the ...
Xu Ying - - 2009
Eleven strains of Streptomyces isolated from deep-sea sediments were screened for anti-larval settlement activity and all were active. Among those strains, Streptomyces sp. UST040711-290 was chosen for the isolation of bioactive antifouling compounds through bioassay-guided isolation procedure. A branched-chain fatty acid, 12-methyltetradecanoid acid (12-MTA) was purified, and it strongly inhibited ...
Bazzocco Sarah - - 2008
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in apples are condensed tannins comprised mostly of (-)-epicatechin units with some terminal (+)-catechins. PAs, especially those having a long chain-length, are absorbed in the upper intestine only to a small extent and are passed to the colon. In the colon they are subjected to microbial metabolism by ...
Stirrett Karen - - 2009
Polyketide antibiotics are among the most important therapeutics used in human and animal health care. Type II polyketides are composed primarily of acetate-derived thioesters, and the subunits for the PKS are contained in a single module that includes a ketosynthase, acyl carrier protein, chain-length factor and sometimes a keto-reductase, aromatase, ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2008
A method is described for the enrichment of odd very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) by means of RP-HPLC and argentation TLC from total fatty acids of the dinoflagellate A. carterae and their identification as picolinyl esters by means of microbore liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS/APCI). The ...
Fukuoka Tokuma - - 2008
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These compounds show not only excellent surface-active properties, but also versatile biochemical actions. During a survey of new MEL producers, we found that a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma crassa, extracellularly produces three glycolipids. When glucose and ...
Debois Delphine - - 2008
Surfactins are a family of heptacyclopeptides in which the C-terminal carbonyl is linked with the beta-hydroxy group of a fatty acid acylating the N-terminal function of a glutamic acid residue. The fatty acyl chain is 12-16 carbon atoms long. These compounds, which are secreted by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis ...
Hashizume Hideki - - 2008
Branched chain amino acids are often utilized as the precursors of many lipid-containing bacterial secondary metabolites. The effect of isoleucine on the composition of the mixture of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics, tripropeptins from Lysobacter sp. BMK333-48F3 was evaluated. As expected, a novel tripropeptin analog with an anteiso-branched fatty acid was produced. ...
Kniazeva Marina - - 2008
Growth and development of multicellular organisms are controlled by signaling systems that sense nutrition availability and metabolic status. We report a novel and surprising factor in Caenorhabditis elegans development, the monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO, a product of leucine catabolism. We show here that C17ISO is an essential constituent in ...
Neves L - - 2009
A method for long chain fatty acids (LCFA) extraction, identification and further quantification by gas chromatography was developed and its application to liquid and solid samples collected from anaerobic digesters was demonstrated. After validation, the usefulness of this method was demonstrated in a cow manure digester receiving pulses of an ...
Rector R Scott - - 2008
The mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a heterotrimeric protein that consists of four alpha-subunits and four beta-subunits and catalyzes three of the four chain-shortening reactions in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Families with recessively inherited MTP defects display a spectrum of maternal and fetal phenotypes. Current management of ...
Kubo Isao - - 2008
6-Alkylsalicylic acids inhibit the linoleic acid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (EC 1.13.11.12, type 1) competitively and without pro-oxidant effects. This activity is largely dependent on the nature of their alkyl side chains. Inhibitory activities of anacardic acids, viz. 6-pentadec(en)ylsalicylic acids, isolated from the cashew Anacardium occidentale, were initially used ...
Fernández-Arche Angeles - - 2009
Pomace olive oil is a by-product of olive oil extraction that is traditionally produced and consumed in Spain. The nonglyceride matter of this oil is a good source of interesting minor compounds, like long-chain fatty alcohols, which are present free or as part of waxes. In the present study, long-chain ...
Weitkamp Petra - - 2008
Various long-chain alkyl (hydroxy)phenylacetates were prepared in high yield by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of the corresponding short-chain alkyl hydroxyphenylacetates and fatty alcohols in equimolar ratios. The reactions were performed in vacuo at moderate temperatures in the absence of solvents and drying agents in direct contact with the reaction mixture. Immobilized lipase ...
Morgan-Kiss Rachael M - - 2008
The genome of Lactococcus lactis encodes a single long chain 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase. This is in contrast to its close relative, Enterococcus faecalis, and to Escherichia coli, both of which have two such enzymes. In E. faecalis and E. coli, one of the two long chain synthases (FabO and ...
Solis de los Santos F - - 2008
Poultry colonized with Campylobacter species are a significant source of human food-borne illness. The therapeutic use of the medium chain fatty acid caprylic acid consistently reduced enteric C. jejuni colonization in chicks by 3 to 4 logs in three separate trials. These results support caprylic acid's potential to reduce Campylobacter ...
Cheng Hua - - 2008
Large-scale neuronal remodeling through apoptosis occurs shortly after birth in all known mammalian species. Apoptosis, in large part, depends upon critical interactions between mitochondrial membranes and cytochrome c. Herein, we examined the hypothesis that the large-scale reorganization of neuronal circuitry after birth is accompanied by profound alterations in cardiolipin (CL) ...
Dherbécourt J - - 2008
AIMS: Short branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are cheese flavour compounds, which result from the conversion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). In Swiss cheese, the production of short BCFAs is mainly performed by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and is strain dependent. Our aim was to investigate the possible links between the biosynthesis of ...
Entchev Eugeni V - - 2008
LET-767 from Caenorhabditis elegans belongs to a family of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and is homologous to 17beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenases of type 3 and 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases. Worms subjected to RNA interference (RNAi) of let-767 displayed multiple growth and developmental defects in the first generation and arrested in the second generation as L1 ...
Rode Bastian - - 2008
The study of new biomaterials is the objective of many current research projects in biotechnological medicine. A promising scaffold material for the application in tissue engineering or other biomedical applications is polysialic acid (polySia), a homopolymer of alpha2,8-linked sialic acid residues, which represents a posttranslational modification of the neural cell ...
Yang Teng - - 2008
We combine scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements with ab initio calculations to study the self-assembly of long chain alkanes and related alcohol and carboxylic acid molecules on graphite. For each system, we identify the optimum adsorption geometry and explain the energetic origin of the domain formation observed in the STM ...
Jenske Ramona - - 2008
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to study the effect of free hydroxylated and methyl-branched fatty acids on the physico-chemical properties of lipid membranes. First, the impact of free hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) model membranes was monitored only as a function of chain length and position ...
You Yi-Qian Nancy - - 2008
Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief ...
Guevara Marcial A - - 2008
The objective was to examine the chemical composition, in vitro fermentation characteristics, and in vivo digestibility responses of fiber-rich corn coproducts resulting from corn wet milling. Native corn fibers, native corn fibers with fines, hydrolyzed corn fibers, and hydrolyzed extracted corn fibers were analyzed chemically and their capacity to produce ...
Ruettinger A - - 2008
The influence of the chain length of the free fatty acid (FFA) in a stratum corneum (SC) lipid model membrane composed of N-(alpha-hydroxyoctadecanoyl)-phytosphingosine (CER [AP]), cholesterol (Ch), FFA and cholesterol sulphate (ChS) was investigated by neutron diffraction. The internal nanostructure of the SC lipid membrane in addition to the water ...
Ribechini Erika - - 2008
A combination of gas chromatographic (GC) and mass spectrometric (MS) techniques, including direct exposure-MS (DE-MS), high-temperature GC-MS (HTGC-MS) and GC-MS of neutral and acid fractions, was employed to study the composition and recognise origin of the organic materials used to manufacture balm residues surviving in a series of glass unguentaria ...
Atsumi Shota - - 2008
Global energy and environmental problems have stimulated increased efforts towards synthesizing biofuels from renewable resources. Compared to the traditional biofuel, ethanol, higher alcohols offer advantages as gasoline substitutes because of their higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. In addition, branched-chain alcohols have higher octane numbers compared with their straight-chain counterparts. ...
Hernández-Montes Georgina - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Twenty amino acids comprise the universal building blocks of proteins. However, their biosynthetic routes do not appear to be universal from an Escherichia coli-centric perspective. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand their origin and evolution in a global context, that is, to include more 'model' species and alternative routes ...
Soini Jaakko - - 2008
Norvaline is an unusual non-proteinogenic branched-chain amino acid which has been of interest especially during the early enzymological studies on regulatory mutants of the branched-chain amino acid pathway in Serratia marcescens. Only recently norvaline and other modified amino acids of the branched-chain amino acid synthesis pathway got attention again when ...
Hutson Susan M - - 2008
The human branched chain aminotransferase enzymes are key regulators of glutamate metabolism in the brain and are among a growing number of redox-sensitive proteins. Studies that use thiol-specific reagents and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry demonstrate that the mitochondrial BCAT enzyme has a redox-active CXXC center, which on oxidation forms a ...
Kuhlmann Matthias - - 2008
A new polymorph of dimesitylborinic acid (or hydroxy-dimesitylborane), C(18)H(23)BO, showcasing different crystal packing and symmetry, complements the previously reported polymorph [Weese, Bartlett, Murray, Olmstead & Power (1987 ▶). Inorg. Chem.26, 2409-2413; Entwistle, Batsanov & Marder (2007 ▶). Acta Cryst. E63, o2639-o2641]. The structure of the title compound contains only one ...
Joffre C - - 2008
AIMS: To evaluate the differences in meibomian fatty acid composition in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from meibomian gland dysfunction or aqueous-deficient dry eye. METHODS: We collected meibomian oil using a sterile Schirmer paper in healthy individuals (n = 20), dry eye patients (aqueous-deficient) (n = 32) and meibomian ...
Teixeira Leandro - - 2008
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of Light Coke, phosphoric acid, and citric acid on the force decline pattern of two types of elastomeric chains. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred sixty gray colored elastomeric chain modules, 80 Chainette (GAC) and 80 Sunburst (GAC) ...
Takeuchi Hiroyuki - - 2008
The bulk of fatty acids found in our diets consists of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), which are molecules containing 12 or more carbon atoms. In contrast, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are composed of 8-10 carbon atoms, and are found in palm kernel oil, among other types of foods. MCFA have ...
Tsai Chung-Jyi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Various saturated fatty acids have different effects on blood lipids and insulin secretion in experiments. The effect of long-term consumption of specific and different classes of saturated fatty acids on the risk of gallstone disease in humans is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied consumption of saturated fatty acids and ...
Khodadadi Iraj - - 2008
The link between dietary fat and coronary heart disease has attracted much attention since the effect of long-chain fatty acids on gene transcription has been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-chain fatty acids and clofibrate on mRNA levels of specific lipid metabolism-related genes ...
Parton M - - 2008
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease, is a progressive neuromuscular disease that causes disability and eventual death. Various amino acid preparations, the three branched-chain amino acids (L-leucine, L-valine and L-isoleucine) or, alternatively, L-threonine have been used as experimental therapy. To examine the efficacy of amino acid therapies ...
Knill Tanja - - 2008
In Arabidopsis thaliana, transamination steps in the leucine biosynthetic and catabolic pathways and the methionine (Met) chain elongation cycle of aliphatic glucosinolate formation are catalyzed by branched-chain aminotransferases (BCATs) that are encoded by a small gene family of six members. One member of this family, the plastid-located BCAT3, was shown ...
Ai Hongqi - - 2007
The side-chain effects of metalated and protonated dipeptides, including GGH(+)M(+), GAH(+)M(+), AGH(+)M(+), AAH(+)M(+), GWH(+)M(+), GSH(+)M(+), GTH(+)M(+), GFH(+)M(+), GYH(+)M(+), and GVH(+)M(+) (G = glycine, A = alanine, W = tryptophan, S = serine, T = threonine, F = phenylalanine, and V = valine; M = Li, Na, and K), are theoretically ...
Grossi Vincent - - 2007
The alkane- and alkene-degrading, marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803(T), known to oxidize n-alkanes anaerobically by fumarate addition at C-2, was investigated for its 1-alkene metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain were predominantly C-(even number) (C-even) when it was grown on C-even 1-alkenes and predominantly C-(odd ...
Saerens K - - 2008
Lipases and esterases are frequently used in dairy production processes to enhance the buttery flavour of the end product. Short chain fatty acids, and especially butanoic acid, play a key role in this and different enzymes with specificity towards short chain fatty acids are commercially available as potent flavouring tools. ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >