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Results 201 - 250 of 1615
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Joffre C - - 2009
AIM: The composition of the meibum of blepharitis patients is characterised by increased levels of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) that return to normal values in patients treated with cyclins and lid hygiene. The aim of this study was to determine if BCFAs had toxic effects on conjunctival cells related to ...
Redman Janet E - - 2009
Tuberculosis has been a scourge of humans over many millennia, but questions remain regarding its evolution and epidemiology. Fossil biomarkers, such as DNA and long-chain mycolic acids, can be detected in ancient skeletal and other materials. The phthiocerol dimycocerosate waxes are also robust biomarkers for tuberculosis and sensitive methods are ...
Fang Lei - - 2009
A versatile synthetic strategy, which was conceived and employed to prepare doubly threaded, bistable [c2]daisy chain compounds, is described. Propargyl and 1-pentenyl groups have been grafted onto the stoppers of [c2]daisy chain molecules obtained using a template-directed synthetic protocol. Such [c2]daisy chain molecules undergo reversible extension and contraction upon treatment ...
Cardelle-Cobas Alejandra - - 2009
Bifidogenic effect and stimulation of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by fractions of oligosaccharides with a DP> or =3 and Gal beta(1-6) linkages synthesised from lactose or lactulose by Pectinex Ultra SP-L and Lactozym 3000 L HP G were evaluated in human faecal slurries. Results were compared with those ...
Wang Yong-Hong - - 2010
4''-O-isovalerylspiramycins are the major components of bitespiramycin complex consisting of a group of 4''-O-acylated spiramycins. The availability of isovaleryl group, usually in vivo derived from leucine, one of the branched-chain amino acids, affects the content of isovaleryispiramycin significantly. In this study, the effect of glucose on the activity of branched-chain ...
Defoirdt Tom - - 2009
Because of the risk of antibiotic resistance development, there is a growing awareness that antibiotics should be used more carefully in animal production. However, a decreased use of antibiotics could result in a higher frequency of pathogenic bacteria, which in its turn could lead to a higher incidence of infections. ...
Rayne Sierra - - 2009
Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated for all congeners in each of the C(4) through C(8) homologue groups for perfluorinated alkylsulfonic acids (PFSAs) and alkylcarboxylic acids (PFCAs). Predictive equations were developed between molecular areas and volumes using optimized gas-phase geometries from the AM1 and PM3 semiempirical computational basis sets and previously ...
Spiekerkoetter U - - 2009
Published data on treatment of fatty acid oxidation defects are scarce. Treatment recommendations have been developed on the basis of observations in 75 patients with long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects from 18 metabolic centres in Central Europe. Recommendations are based on expert practice and are suggested to be the basis ...
Shimamura Ken - - 2009
Long-chain fatty acid elongases reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and are responsible for the rate-limiting step of the elongation of long-chain fatty acids. The elongase of long-chain fatty acids (ELOVL) family 6 (ELOVL6) is involved in the elongation of saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. Increased expression of ELOVL6 in ob/ob ...
Zöllner Andy - - 2009
Overexpression of human CYP4Z1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, has been correlated with poor prognosis in human cancer. However, its catalytic properties are not yet known. We expressed this P450 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and demonstrate by whole-cell biotransformation assays CYP4Z1-dependent in-chain hydroxylation of lauric and myristic acid, which in both cases ...
Pan Xiao-dong - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to clarify effects of selected oligosaccharides on concentrations of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), total large bowel wet weight and wall weight, and cecal microbiota levels in mice. Mice were respectively given gavage of selected fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and chitooligosaccharides (COS) ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2009
Very long chain fatty acids (FAs) are important components of different classes of lipids in all organisms from bacteria to man. They include also, usually as minor components, odd-numbered FAs. These have so far been given little attention because of technical difficulties inherent in their detection and identification. Current modern ...
Kanazu T - - 2009
Substrate specificities for the carnitine and glycine conjugates of branched side-chain and cyclic side-chain carboxylic acids were examined using dog, rabbit, cynomolgus monkey, and squirrel monkey hepatocytes and kidney slices. For all tested samples, the substrate specificity for carnitine or glycine conjugation showed a similar tendency to those for rat ...
Denis Claire - - 2009
The phospholipid fatty acid composition of the North-East Atlantic sponge Polymastia penicillus (South Brittany, France) was investigated. Sixty fatty acids (FA) were identified as methyl esters (FAME) and N-acyl pyrrolidides (NAP) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), including eight Delta5,9 unsaturated FA and three long-chain 2-hydroxylated FA. The major phospholipid FA ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2009
A combination of TLC, ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS was used to identify unusual molecular species of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines containing very-long-chain anteiso branched fatty acids (VLCFAs) from Calothrix sp. collected in Antarctica and determine their component VLCFA up to 33-methyltetratriacontanoic acid as picolinyl ester derivatives using GC-MS.
Staab Claudia A - - 2009
Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) has emerged as an important regulator of protein S-nitrosation in its function as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase. GSNO depletion is associated with various disease conditions, emphasizing the potential value of a specific ADH3 inhibitor. The present study investigated inhibition of ADH3-mediated GSNO reduction by various substrate analogues, ...
Sandin Anna - - 2009
AIM: To investigate whether functional changes of the gut flora over time were related to sensitization and allergic symptoms at four years of age. METHODS: The levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in faecal samples at one (n = 139) and four (n = 53) years of age were ...
Butcher Rebecca A - - 2009
To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant ...
Bossola Maurizio - - 2009
Anorexia, defined as the loss of the desire to eat, is relatively common in hemodialysis patients, occurring in one third of such cases. The pathogenesis is essentially unknown. It has been proposed that uremic toxins such as middle molecules, inflammation, altered amino acid pattern, leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y are ...
Ahn John H - - 2009
Sailing the seven 'C's: 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane (triptane) selectively forms from dimethyl ether at low temperatures on acid zeolites. Selective methylation at less-substituted carbons, relative rates of methylation to hydrogen transfer as a function of chain size, slow skeletal isomerization, and beta-scission cracking of triptyl chains and their precursors are intrinsic properties ...
Chen Chin-Nung - - 2009
The infection and virulence functions of diverse plant and animal pathogens that possess quorum sensing systems are regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) acting as signal molecules. AHL-acylase is a quorum quenching enzyme and degrades AHLs by removing the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone ring of AHLs. This ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2009
There is increasing evidence supporting an oral chemosensory detection system for free fatty acids (FFA). The presumptive transduction mechanisms have different ligand specificities. Psychophysical studies with FFA varying in chain length and saturation may aid in identifying the presence and functionality of these mechanisms in humans. Oral detection thresholds were ...
Smith Benjamin E - - 2008
The rapid expansion of the oil sands industry has seen a concomitant expansion of the production of associated waste containing toxic naphthenic acids (NAs). Bioremediation of such waste is thus an important goal, but the mechanisms of biodegradation are still poorly understood, despite recent advances. Many oil sands NAs are ...
Zhang Kechun - - 2008
Nature uses a limited set of metabolites to perform all of the biochemical reactions. To increase the metabolic capabilities of biological systems, we have expanded the natural metabolic network, using a nonnatural metabolic engineering approach. The branched-chain amino acid pathways are extended to produce abiotic longer chain keto acids and ...
Söderberg Lars - - 2009
Low aqueous solubility of lipophilic agents, such as free fatty acids, hampers proper in vitro demonstration of biological effects, yielding an ambiguous in vitro-in vivo correlation. We have therefore developed a method for evaluating the acute effects of lipophilic substances on the shape of erythrocytes and estimated EC(50) and Hill ...
Li Jinxi - - 2008
This laboratory has introduced a chemical method for residue-specific protein cleavage and has provided a preliminary assessment of the suitability of microwave accelerated acid cleavage as a proteomic tool. This report is a continuing assessment of the fate of common protein modifications in microwave-accelerated acid cleavage. We have examined the ...
Chambellon Emilie - - 2009
Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases of lactic acid bacteria, which catalyze the stereospecific reduction of branched-chain 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids, are of interest in a variety of fields, including cheese flavor formation via amino acid catabolism. In this study, we used both targeted and random mutagenesis to identify the genes responsible for the ...
Liberska Aleksandra - - 2009
The long chain saturated fatty acids, arachidic (C20) and lignoceric (C24), are found as components of phospholipids within mammalian cellular membranes. Although these lipids have rarely been used as components of transfection reagents, we recently demonstrated that elongation of the fatty tail beyond C18 provide a means of increasing the ...
Xu Ying - - 2009
Eleven strains of Streptomyces isolated from deep-sea sediments were screened for anti-larval settlement activity and all were active. Among those strains, Streptomyces sp. UST040711-290 was chosen for the isolation of bioactive antifouling compounds through bioassay-guided isolation procedure. A branched-chain fatty acid, 12-methyltetradecanoid acid (12-MTA) was purified, and it strongly inhibited ...
Bazzocco Sarah - - 2008
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in apples are condensed tannins comprised mostly of (-)-epicatechin units with some terminal (+)-catechins. PAs, especially those having a long chain-length, are absorbed in the upper intestine only to a small extent and are passed to the colon. In the colon they are subjected to microbial metabolism by ...
Stirrett Karen - - 2009
Polyketide antibiotics are among the most important therapeutics used in human and animal health care. Type II polyketides are composed primarily of acetate-derived thioesters, and the subunits for the PKS are contained in a single module that includes a ketosynthase, acyl carrier protein, chain-length factor and sometimes a keto-reductase, aromatase, ...
Rezanka Tomás - - 2008
A method is described for the enrichment of odd very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) by means of RP-HPLC and argentation TLC from total fatty acids of the dinoflagellate A. carterae and their identification as picolinyl esters by means of microbore liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS/APCI). The ...
Fukuoka Tokuma - - 2008
Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These compounds show not only excellent surface-active properties, but also versatile biochemical actions. During a survey of new MEL producers, we found that a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma crassa, extracellularly produces three glycolipids. When glucose and ...
Debois Delphine - - 2008
Surfactins are a family of heptacyclopeptides in which the C-terminal carbonyl is linked with the beta-hydroxy group of a fatty acid acylating the N-terminal function of a glutamic acid residue. The fatty acyl chain is 12-16 carbon atoms long. These compounds, which are secreted by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis ...
Hashizume Hideki - - 2008
Branched chain amino acids are often utilized as the precursors of many lipid-containing bacterial secondary metabolites. The effect of isoleucine on the composition of the mixture of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics, tripropeptins from Lysobacter sp. BMK333-48F3 was evaluated. As expected, a novel tripropeptin analog with an anteiso-branched fatty acid was produced. ...
Kniazeva Marina - - 2008
Growth and development of multicellular organisms are controlled by signaling systems that sense nutrition availability and metabolic status. We report a novel and surprising factor in Caenorhabditis elegans development, the monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid C17ISO, a product of leucine catabolism. We show here that C17ISO is an essential constituent in ...
Neves L - - 2009
A method for long chain fatty acids (LCFA) extraction, identification and further quantification by gas chromatography was developed and its application to liquid and solid samples collected from anaerobic digesters was demonstrated. After validation, the usefulness of this method was demonstrated in a cow manure digester receiving pulses of an ...
Rector R Scott - - 2008
The mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a heterotrimeric protein that consists of four alpha-subunits and four beta-subunits and catalyzes three of the four chain-shortening reactions in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Families with recessively inherited MTP defects display a spectrum of maternal and fetal phenotypes. Current management of ...
Kubo Isao - - 2008
6-Alkylsalicylic acids inhibit the linoleic acid peroxidation catalyzed by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (EC 1.13.11.12, type 1) competitively and without pro-oxidant effects. This activity is largely dependent on the nature of their alkyl side chains. Inhibitory activities of anacardic acids, viz. 6-pentadec(en)ylsalicylic acids, isolated from the cashew Anacardium occidentale, were initially used ...
Fernández-Arche Angeles - - 2009
Pomace olive oil is a by-product of olive oil extraction that is traditionally produced and consumed in Spain. The nonglyceride matter of this oil is a good source of interesting minor compounds, like long-chain fatty alcohols, which are present free or as part of waxes. In the present study, long-chain ...
Weitkamp Petra - - 2008
Various long-chain alkyl (hydroxy)phenylacetates were prepared in high yield by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of the corresponding short-chain alkyl hydroxyphenylacetates and fatty alcohols in equimolar ratios. The reactions were performed in vacuo at moderate temperatures in the absence of solvents and drying agents in direct contact with the reaction mixture. Immobilized lipase ...
Morgan-Kiss Rachael M - - 2008
The genome of Lactococcus lactis encodes a single long chain 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase. This is in contrast to its close relative, Enterococcus faecalis, and to Escherichia coli, both of which have two such enzymes. In E. faecalis and E. coli, one of the two long chain synthases (FabO and ...
Solis de los Santos F - - 2008
Poultry colonized with Campylobacter species are a significant source of human food-borne illness. The therapeutic use of the medium chain fatty acid caprylic acid consistently reduced enteric C. jejuni colonization in chicks by 3 to 4 logs in three separate trials. These results support caprylic acid's potential to reduce Campylobacter ...
Cheng Hua - - 2008
Large-scale neuronal remodeling through apoptosis occurs shortly after birth in all known mammalian species. Apoptosis, in large part, depends upon critical interactions between mitochondrial membranes and cytochrome c. Herein, we examined the hypothesis that the large-scale reorganization of neuronal circuitry after birth is accompanied by profound alterations in cardiolipin (CL) ...
Dherbécourt J - - 2008
AIMS: Short branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are cheese flavour compounds, which result from the conversion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). In Swiss cheese, the production of short BCFAs is mainly performed by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and is strain dependent. Our aim was to investigate the possible links between the biosynthesis of ...
Entchev Eugeni V - - 2008
LET-767 from Caenorhabditis elegans belongs to a family of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and is homologous to 17beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenases of type 3 and 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases. Worms subjected to RNA interference (RNAi) of let-767 displayed multiple growth and developmental defects in the first generation and arrested in the second generation as L1 ...
Rode Bastian - - 2008
The study of new biomaterials is the objective of many current research projects in biotechnological medicine. A promising scaffold material for the application in tissue engineering or other biomedical applications is polysialic acid (polySia), a homopolymer of alpha2,8-linked sialic acid residues, which represents a posttranslational modification of the neural cell ...
Yang Teng - - 2008
We combine scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements with ab initio calculations to study the self-assembly of long chain alkanes and related alcohol and carboxylic acid molecules on graphite. For each system, we identify the optimum adsorption geometry and explain the energetic origin of the domain formation observed in the STM ...
Jenske Ramona - - 2008
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to study the effect of free hydroxylated and methyl-branched fatty acids on the physico-chemical properties of lipid membranes. First, the impact of free hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) model membranes was monitored only as a function of chain length and position ...
You Yi-Qian Nancy - - 2008
Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief ...
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