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Huang Jing - - 2010
We show that the length of the alkyl chain of surface ligands can shift the equilibrium between the wurtzite and zinc blende polytypes of CdSe nanocrystals. In-situ wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements reveal that short-chain (e.g., propyl) phosphonic acids stabilize CdSe nanocrystals with the zinc blende phase whereas octadecylphosphonic acid stabilize ...
Johnson Richard J - - 2011
Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in oil sands and enter the environment through natural and anthropogenic processes. NAs comprise toxic carboxylic acids that are difficult to degrade. Information on NA biodegradation mechanisms is limited, and there are no studies on alkyl branched aromatic alkanoic acid biodegradation, despite their contribution to ...
Hsu Fong-Fu FF Mass Spectrometry Resource, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. - - 2011
We describe a simple tandem mass spectrometric approach toward structural characterization of mycolic acids, the long-chain α-alkyl-β-hydroxy fatty acids unique to mycobacteria and related taxa. On collisionally activated dissociation in a linear ion trap or tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer, the [M-H](-) ions of mycolic acid generated by electrospray ionization undergo ...
Sun Yvonne - - 2010
Anteiso-branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) represent the dominant group of membrane fatty acids and have been established as crucial determinants in resistance against environmental stresses in Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular pathogen. Here, we investigate the role of anteiso-BCFA in L. monocytogenes virulence by using mutants deficient in branched-chain alpha-keto acid ...
Perera Nimalie J - - 2011
Refsum's Disease is an inherited metabolic disorder in which a metabolite of branched chain fatty acids accumulates due to lack of appropriate oxidative enzymes. Patients have elevated plasma phytanic acid levels and high concentrations of phytanic acid in a variety of tissues leading to progressive tissue damage. Besides retinal degeneration ...
Li Qiang - - 2011
To efficiently produce short-chain-length-medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates copolymer from substrate mixture containing sugars and/or fatty acids, fadA gene mutant was constructed in Escherichia coli DH5α phosphotransferase system (PTS) disrupted strain. Plasmids pCJY02, pBHR68 and pBHR71 were separately introduced into E. coli DH5α (ΔptsG, ΔFadA) by transformation, then the recombinants were cultivated in ...
Millet S - - 2010
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are considered to have important physiological functions. However, to prove this, SCFA must be determined, which is rather difficult as a lot of factors interfere with their production. This review focuses on the factors that influence the prediction of short-chain fatty acid formation in the large ...
Nelson Clark J - - 2010
Hibernation in mammals involves major alterations in nutrition and metabolism that would be expected to affect levels of circulating molecules. To gain insight into these changes we conducted a non-targeted LC-MS based metabolomic analysis of plasma using hibernating ground squirrels in late torpor (LT, T(b)~5 °C) or during an interbout ...
Douliez Jean-Paul - - 2010
It is presently shown that long chain (C14, C16, and C18) alkanoic (saturated fatty) acids can form magnetically oriented hexagonal phases in aqueous concentrated solutions in mixtures with tetrabutylammonium (TBAOH) as the counterion. The hexagonal phase occurred for a molar ratio, alkanoic acid/TBAOH, higher than 1, i.e., for an excess ...
Monroig Oscar - - 2010
Elovl4 is a fatty acyl elongase that participates in the biosynthesis of very long-chain fatty acids (>/=C24), which are relatively abundant in skin (saturated chains), or retina, brain and testes (polyunsaturated chains) of mammals. In the present study we characterised two Elovl4 proteins, Elovl4a and Elovl4b, from zebrafish Danio rerio, ...
Torii T - - 2010
Short-chain fatty acids such as lactic acid produced by the intestinal bacterial flora have various physiological actions involved in health, and it is important to determine the concentrations of faecal short-chain fatty acids and evaluate their relationship with large intestinal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the highly selective and ...
Cartoni Cristina - - 2010
The oral perception of fat has traditionally been considered to rely mainly on texture and olfaction, but recent findings suggest that taste may also play a role in the detection of long chain fatty acids. The two G-protein coupled receptors GPR40 (Ffar1) and GPR120 are activated by medium and long ...
Tanamachi H - - 2010
J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 509-518 (September/October 2009) Synopsis The effect of the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA (18-methyleicosanic acid) to create a persistent hydrophobicity of alkaline-color-treated weathered hair treated with 18-MEA/SPDA (stearoxypropyldimethylamine) was investigated by comparing a straight-chain fatty acid (n-heneicosanoic acid, n-HEA) and an iso-branch fatty acid (19-methyleicosanic acid, 19-MEA) ...
Spiekerkoetter Ute - - 2010
The different long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects present with similar heterogeneous clinical phenotypes of different severity. Organs mainly affected comprise the heart, liver, and skeletal muscles. All symptoms are reversible with sufficient energy supply. In some long-chain fatty acid oxidation defects, disease-specific symptoms occur. Only in disorders of the mitochondrial ...
Maloney Gregory S - - 2010
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are synthesized in plants from branched-chain keto acids, but their metabolism is not completely understood. The interface of BCAA metabolism lies with branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) that catalyze both the last anabolic step and the first catabolic step. In this study, six BCAT genes from the cultivated ...
Watkins P J - - 2010
The characteristic mutton odour, associated with the cooked meat of older sheep, can be problematic for some consumers who find the odour disagreeable. Branch chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are considered to be the main determinants of mutton odour. In this study, the aim was to identify the factors influencing the ...
Gassler Nikolaus - - 2010
In the modifier concept of intestinal carcinogenesis, lipids have been established as important variables and one focus is given to long-chain fatty acids. Increased consumption of long-chain fatty acids is in discussion to modify the development of colorectal carcinoma in humans. Saturated long-chain fatty acids, in particular, are assumed to ...
Dalisay Doralyn S DS Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, - - 2010
Two new omega-phenyl polyketide peroxides, plakinic acids K and L, were isolated from a two-sponge association of Plakortis halichondroides and Xestospongia deweerdtae. The absolute configurations of the remote dimethyl-branched stereocenters in plakinic acid K were assigned by degradation of plakinic acid K to a long-chain naphthamide and analysis by liposomal ...
Li Hong - - 2010
Mitochondrial fatty acids beta-oxidation disorder (FAOD) has become popular with development of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and enzymatic evaluation techniques. FAOD occasionally causes acute encephalopathy or even sudden death in children. On the other hand, hyperpyrexia may also trigger severe seizures or encephalopathy, which might be caused by the defects ...
Sinkó Bálint - - 2010
Ceramides play a crucial role in the barrier function of the skin as well as in transmembrane signaling. In this study long aliphatic chain tartaric acid diamides able to replace ceramides in an in vitro model of the stratum corneum lipid matrix due to their similar physico-chemical properties were synthesized ...
Xu Zhidong - - 2010
The existing protocols for analyzing fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using a one-step acetyl chloride (AC) catalyzed transesterification and extraction procedure cannot accurately determine the medium- and long-chain fatty acids simultaneously in clinical (enteral, parenteral) formulations. For example: (1) addition of AC at room temperature generates an exothermic reaction that ...
Pewzner-Jung Yael - - 2010
Ceramide is an important lipid signaling molecule that plays critical roles in regulating cell behavior. Ceramide synthesis is surprisingly complex and is orchestrated by six mammalian ceramide synthases, each of which produces ceramides with restricted acyl chain lengths. We have generated a CerS2 null mouse and characterized the changes in ...
Hern?ndez Bel?n - - 2010
In two recent reports of the same series (J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 1470-1477 and J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 3169-3178), we have described the geometrical and vibrational analysis of glycine and amino acids (AAs) with hydrophobic side chains through the joint use of optical spectroscopy and quantum ...
Amara Sawsan - - 2010
Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) are the most abundant lipids in nature, mainly as important components of plant leaves and chloroplast membranes. Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) was previously found to express galactolipase activity, and it is assumed to be the main enzyme involved in the digestion of these common ...
Shimizu Motoyuki - - 2010
Although branched-chain amino acids are synthesized as building blocks of proteins, we found that the fungus Aspergillus nidulans excretes them into the culture medium under hypoxia. The transcription of predicted genes for synthesizing branched-chain amino acids was upregulated by hypoxia. A knockout strain of the gene encoding the large subunit ...
Battimelli A - - 2010
A thermochemical pretreatment, i.e. saponification, was optimised in order to improve anaerobic biodegradation of slaughterhouse wastes such as aeroflotation grease and flesh fats from cattle carcass. Anaerobic digestion of raw wastes, as well as of wastes saponified at different temperatures (60 degrees C, 120 degrees C and 150 degrees C) ...
Julotok Mudcharee - - 2010
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of ...
Hussain Rohanah - - 2010
Effective drug delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals, such as proteins, peptide-based drugs, and vaccines still present major challenges. A procedure has been developed whereby human serum albumin (HSA) can be used as a delivery vehicle for these biomolecules exploiting its role as main fatty acid carrier. Using essentially fatty acid free ...
Calder P C - - 2010
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in oily fish and in fish oils and similar preparations. Substantial evidence from epidemiological and case-control studies indicates that consumption of fish, oily fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduces risk of cardiovascular mortality. Secondary prevention studies using long-chain n-3 fatty acids in ...
Scaglia Fernando - - 2010
Sodium phenylbutyrate is used in the pharmacological treatment of urea cycle disorders to create alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion. The primary metabolite, phenylacetate, conjugates glutamine in the liver and kidney to form phenylacetylglutamine that is readily excreted in the urine. Patients with urea cycle disorders taking sodium phenylbutyrate have a ...
Kanda Ayato - - 2010
Structured oils prepared by enzymatic transacylation with triacylglycerols (TAGs) and various fatty acids (FAs) were characterized. Transacylation with trilaurin and saturated FAs (C4:0-C16:0) was performed using Lipozyme RM-IM under standard reaction conditions. The structured oils thus produced had transacylation ratios of 25-37%, as medium-chain FAs > long-chain FAs > short-chain ...
Ono Daisuke - - 2010
Novel double-chain nonionic surfactants with an acid decomposition function were prepared by acid-catalyzed condensation of chloroacetone with fatty alcohols (octyl, decyl, and dodecyl), followed by a Williamson reaction with polyethylene glycol without any expensive reagents and special equipment. These surfactants showed easy micelle formation compared to those of polyoxyethylene (n=9) ...
Den Ruijter Hester M - - 2010
Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism ...
Mullens Bradley A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Straight-chain, saturated fatty acids (particularly C8, C9 and C10) have some known behavioral effects on insects such as mosquitoes, and were tested in combination for potential repellency/antifeedant activity in bioassays against three significant muscoid flies of medical/veterinary importance: houseflies, horn flies and stable flies. RESULTS: Mixtures of C8, C9 ...
Jannat-Khah Deanna - - 2010
Four nocardioform bacterial strains isolated from clinical respiratory sources were characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, these strains were found to be 100 % similar to each other and were shown to belong to the genus Nocardia. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone: ω-cyclic ...
Radulovi?? Niko - - 2009
GC and GC-MS analyses of two diethyl ether extracts of Lonicera fragrantissima flowers (extraction times 1 and 20 days) enabled the identification of 61 components that represented ca. 90% of the extract volatiles. 10-Nonacosanol (18.1-24.1%), nonacosane (14.4-15.0%) and the rather rare long-chained fatty acid hexyl esters (octadecanoate, eicosanoate, docosanoate, tetracosanoate, ...
Rayne Sierra - - 2009
The SPARC software program was validated for nitrogen-hydrogen acidity constant estimation of primary and secondary sulfonamides against a broad suite of substituted derivatives with experimental datasets in water and dimethylsulfoxide solvent systems and across a wide pK(a) range. Following validation, amidic proton pK(a) values were estimated for all C(1) through ...
Islam Mohammad Mainul - - 2010
The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain alpha-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that ...
Iwabuchi Kazuhisa - - 2010
Lactosylceramide (LacCer), a neutral glycosphingolipid, is abundantly expressed on human neutrophils, and specifically recognizes several pathogenic microorganisms. LacCer forms membrane microdomains coupled with the Src family kinase Lyn on the plasma membrane, and ligand binding to LacCer activates Lyn, resulting in neutrophil functions. In contrast, neutrophilic differentiated HL-60 cells do ...
Wang Yujun - - 2010
The silks of both Lepidoptera and its sister order Trichoptera contain a homologue of heavy chain (H-fibroin), which is assumed to determine the physical properties of the fiber, such as elasticity and toughness. The long repetitive region of the H-fibroin caddisfly Stenopsyche marmorata shows a conspicuous hierarchical structure that is ...
Tremblay L W - - 2009
Unlike mammals, bacteria encode enzymes that synthesize branched-chain amino acids. The pyridoxal 50-phosphate-dependent transaminase performs the final biosynthetic step in these pathways, converting keto acid precursors into -amino acids. The branched-chain amino-acid transaminase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtIlvE) has been crystallized and its structure has been solved at 1.9 angstrom resolution. ...
Martin Natalia - - 2009
Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor required for the function of key metabolic pathways in most organisms. We report the characterization of a Bacillus subtilis mutant obtained by disruption of the lipA (yutB) gene, which encodes lipoyl synthase (LipA), the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the de novo ...
Hume Aisling R - - 2009
A fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase (FadD) from Pseudomonas putida CA-3 is capable of activating a wide range of phenylalkanoic and alkanoic acids. It exhibits the highest rates of reaction and catalytic efficiency with long-chain aromatic and aliphatic substrates. FadD exhibits higher k(cat) and K(m) values for aromatic substrates than ...
Bandyopadhyay Prasun - - 2010
In this article, we report tuning of the sensory capability of an amino acid (tryptophan) in a biomimicking anionic micellar nano cage. It has been shown that anionic surfactant concentration dictates the sensing behavior of tryptophan toward body malodor component (butyric acid) generated by bacterial degradation of tributyrin. We have ...
Villapakkam Anuradha C AC Graduate Program in Molecular Microbiology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, - - 2009
Bacillus subtilis CodY protein is a DNA-binding global transcriptional regulator that responds to branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and GTP. Crystal structure studies have shown that the N-terminal region of the protein includes a GAF domain that contains a hydrophobic pocket within which isoleucine and valine bind. This ...
Tanamachi Hiroto - - 2009
The effect of the anteiso-branch moiety of 18-MEA (18-methyleicosanic acid) to create a persistent hydrophobicity of alkaline-color-treated weathered hair treated with 18-MEA/SPDA (stearoxypropyldimethylamine) was investigated by comparing a straight-chain fatty acid (n-heneicosanoic acid, n-HEA) and an iso-branch fatty acid (19-methyleicosanic acid, 19-MEA) with the anteiso-branch fatty acid (18-MEA), using dynamic ...
Kramer Michael S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Neither macro- nor micronutrient supplements have been clearly demonstrated to reduce the risk of preterm birth. However, there has been little attention to carotenoids, tocopherols, and long-chain fatty acids other than n-3 polyunsaturates. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested in a large (n = 5337) prospective, multicenter cohort. ...
Koreishi Mayuko - - 2009
We report here on the purification, characterization, molecular cloning, and expression of a new aminoacylase, initially isolated from the supernatant of Streptomyces mobaraensis (Sm-AA). Purified wild-type Sm-AA was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 55 kDa. The cloned gene of Sm-AA contained an ORF of ...
Karabulut Ihsan - - 2009
The chain length selectivity of three immobilized lipases, namely, Lipozyme TL IM from Thermomyces lanoginosus, Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei, and Novozym 435 from Candida antarctica, was determined in acidolysis performed in hexane using the homologous series of even carbon number, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of 6-22 carbons. Triolein ...
Mikami Shin-ichi - - 2009
The thermodynamic properties of the redox potentials (E(m)) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c(551) (PA) and its mutants possessing a variety of pK(a) values for the heme 17-propionic acid side chain, which ranged from approximately 5 to approximately 8, have been investigated to elucidate the role of ionization of the heme ...
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