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Results 451 - 500 of 1636
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Puleo A - - 2004
Lipophilic conjugates of idebenone (IDE) with short-chain alkylamino acids were previously synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant properties. In this study, their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Results indicated that these derivatives release the parent drug quantitatively via enzymatic hydrolysis by serum and liver esterases, ...
Geal-Dor Miriam - - 2004
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease due to deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down branched chain amino acids. Lack of the enzyme causes accumulation of these amino acids and, if untreated, causes severe neurological damage. A case study of a 10-day old female infant, born ...
Magata Yasuhiro - - 2004
C-11- and I-123-labeled long chain fatty acid derivatives have been reported as useful radiopharmaceuticals for the estimation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism. We have reported that Tc-99m-labeled N-[[[(2-mercaptoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-6-aminohexanoic acid ([(99m)Tc]MAMA-HA), a medium chain fatty acid derivative, is metabolized by beta-oxidation in the liver and that the MAMA ligand is useful ...
Riazi Roya - - 2004
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the mitochondrial multienzyme complex branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD; EC 1.2.4.4), responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain ketoacids (BCKA) derived from the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, valine, and isoleucine. Deficiency of the enzyme ...
Wu Jer-Yuarn - - 2004
Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect derangements in the pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-treated (ENU-treated) mice. We identified mice with marked elevation of blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), ketoaciduria, and clinical features resembling human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a severe genetic metabolic disorder ...
Jones Patricia M - - 2004
The treatment for patients with genetic disorders of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation is directed toward providing sufficient sources of energy for normal growth and development, and at the same time preventing the adverse effects that precipitate or result from metabolic decompensation. Standard of care treatment has focused on preventing ...
Wood William F - - 2004
Using GC-MS analysis, 11 major volatile compounds were found in the preorbital gland secretion from a female sika deer, Cervus nippon. These compounds are the C14 through C18 straight-chain fatty acids, (ZZ)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 12-methyltridecanoic acid, 13-methyltetradecanoic acid, 14-methylpentadecanoic acid, 14-methylhexadecanoic acid, and 15-methylhexadecanoic acid. The five branched-chain acids make up ...
Muroi Hisae - - 2004
The synergistic effects of 6-alk(en)ylsalcylic acids, also known as anacardic acids, in combination with methicillin against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA) was investigated. The double bond in C15-anacardic acids is not essential in eliciting the antibacterial activity but is associated with increasing the activity. The synergistic effects decreased with increasing ...
Rousseaux M Cecilia - - 2004
We examined the effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant-insect interactions in Tierra del Fuego (55 degrees S), Argentina, an area strongly affected by ozone depletion because of its proximity to Antarctica. Solar UV-B under Nothofagus antarctica branches was manipulated using a polyester plastic film to attenuate UV-B (uvb-) ...
Ahn Jung-Mo - - 2004
In our ongoing efforts to develop new methods for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) detoxification, we have screened lipase/esterase libraries for the ability to deacylate the 2'- and 3'-fatty acid chains from lipid A: the most active esterases were successfully employed to inactivate LPSs in a crude concentrated cell supernatant of E. Coli ...
Tomiya Tomoaki - - 2004
Amino acids can serve as regulatory molecules that modulate numerous cellular functions. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are known to exert influences on cellular metabolism, amino acid transport, protein turn over, and gene expression. However, the mechanisms involved in the specific effect of BCAAs have not been clarified. BCAA supplementation ...
Tansey W - - 2004
Polymeric drug delivery systems are used not only to improve aqueous solubility of drug molecules but also to achieve desirable pharmacokinetics and an enhanced therapeutic index. New biodegradable polymers are needed to improve the biodistribution and targeting-ability of polymeric carriers. In this study, the synthesis and characterization of branched poly(L-glutamic ...
Petranovic Dina - - 2004
The changes in intracellular pool of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) regulate different physiological processes in bacteria. Up to date, the only available photometric test for measuring BCAA concentration was adapted for blood and plasma samples in diagnostic purposes. We have modified this method for use on bacterial cells, and tested ...
Ganesan Balasubramanian - - 2004
The objective of this study was to determine the role of a lactococcal branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase gene, ilvE, in the production of branched-chain fatty acids. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and an ilvE deletion mutant, JLS450, produced branched-chain fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids at levels above alpha-keto ...
Beck H C - - 2004
AIMS: Staphylococcus xylosus is an important starter culture in the production of flavours from the branched-chain amino acids leucine, valine and isoleucine in fermented meat products. The sensorially most important flavour compounds are the branched-chain aldehydes and acids derived from the corresponding amino acids and this paper intends to perspectivate ...
Lin J - - 2004
Nenatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease mainly affects premature infants. It is well known that prematurity, enteral formula feeding, and bacterial colonization are three major risk factors for NEC. Acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid are short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced mainly in the colon ...
Paggi R A - - 2004
The addition of 100-300 mmol/L of acetic, propionic, butyric or lactic acids (short-chain acids), or of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids (volatile fatty acids, VFA) mixtures increased the degradation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by R. albus (7.5 to 46 and 6 to 39 %, respectively). Differences among individual acids were ...
Wood William F - - 2003
GC-MS analysis of the metatarsal gland secretion from a female sika deer, Cervus nippon, showed 35 major volatile compounds that included 13 straight-chain carboxylic acids, a single branched-chain carboxylic acid, 9 straight-chain aldehydes, 3 monounsaturated aldehydes, 5 long-chain alcohols, a ketone, and cholesterol. The four most abundant compounds were heptanal, ...
Suzuki Yoshikatsu - - 2003
A previously unspecified "starter" unit in the predicted biosynthesis pathway of 5-alkylresorcinols has now identified as a fatty acid or its equivalent, using an efficient 5-alkylresorcinol production system of etiolated rice seedlings. Feeding saturated, odd-carbon fatty acid ester substrates from C11 to C19 specifically and markedly increased the amount of ...
Bashir Sajid - - 2003
Dihydroxybenzoic acid was modified to three analogues (M2, M4 and M6). The analogues exhibited specific properties that resulted in enhancement of analyte signal intensity with or without addition of iodine compared to the underivatized parent. Addition of iodine to M2, an ester of dihydroxybenzoic acid that had a terminal double ...
Liu Guojun - - 2003
Triblock copolymer nanotubes bearing end-exposed poly(acrylic acid) or PAA core chains were prepared. The exposed PAA chains were reacted by amidization with a large excess of polystyrene spacer chains possessing amino end groups or amino-containing end blocks to graft the spacer chains. The amino groups at the other end of ...
Westerberg Rolf - - 2004
Very little is known about the in vivo regulation of mammalian fatty acid chain elongation enzymes as well as the role of specific fatty acid chain length in cellular responses and developmental processes. Here, we report that the Elovl3 gene product, which belongs to a highly conserved family of microsomal ...
Schrauwen Patrick - - 2003
In contrast to UCP1, the primary function of UCP3 is not the dissipation of energy. Rather, several lines of evidence suggest that UCP3 is related to cellular long-chain fatty acid homeostasis. If long-chain fatty acids enter the mitochondrial matrix in their non-esterified form, they cannot be metabolized and may exert ...
Coster Jane - - 2003
Attempts have been made over the past decade to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in the nutritional support of surgical patients. Particular attention has been paid to the branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, and a collection of compounds that have been referred to as 'immunonutrients'. The present review provides ...
Das U N - - 2003
Metabolic syndrome X is common in Indians. But the exact cause for this is not clear. Earlier, I proposed that this could be due to low activities of delta6 and delta5 desaturases and consequent decreased plasma and tissue concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-6 and omega-3 series since ...
Seki Toshinobu - - 2003
Medium chain aliphatic alcohols (C8-C12) and methyl or propyl esters of medium chain fatty acids (C8-C12) enhanced the permeation of 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) and indomethacin (IND) through excised rat skin. The enhancing effects of the aliphatic alcohols for 6-CF and IND decreased with the increase in carbon chain length. The dependence ...
Poulsen Nicole - - 2003
The biological formation of inorganic materials with complex form (biominerals) is a widespread phenomenon in nature, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying biomineral morphogenesis are not well understood. Among the most fascinating examples of biomineral structures are the intricately patterned, silicified cell walls of diatoms, which contain tightly associated organic macromolecules. ...
Kölker Stefan - - 2003
Methylmalonic acidurias are biochemically characterized by an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and alternative metabolites. An impairment of energy metabolism plays a key role in the pathophysiology of this disease, resulting in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia and renal failure. It has become the subject of intense debates whether methylmalonic acid ...
Sweatt Andrew J - - 2004
We have examined the localization of the first two enzymes in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway: the branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) isozymes (mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc) and the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) enzyme complex. Antibodies specific for BCATm or BCATc were used to immunolocalize the respective isozymes ...
Vistisen Bodil - - 2003
The potential of the specific structured TAG MLM [where M = caprylic acid (8:0) and L = linoleic acid (18:2n-6)] is the simultaneous delivery of energy and EFA. Compared with long-chain TAG (LLL), they may be more rapidly hydrolyzed and absorbed. This study examined the lymphatic recoveries of intragastrically administered ...
Hiraoka Takenori - - 2003
Recent studies suggest that there is a chemical perception of dietary fat in the oral cavity. A much greater response in the cephalic phase of pancreatic secretion is obtained by palatable taste stimuli. To examine the perception of dietary fat in the oral cavity, we determined whether or not oral ...
Agosti M - - 2003
The data from the present investigation differ from those of the previous study. The new version of hydrolysed protein formula did not induce changes in insulinaemia or in the insulinaemia/glycaemia ratio in pre- and postprandial samples when compared with the intact protein formula. The investigation also confirmed that branch chain ...
Vistisen Bodil - - 2003
Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) have a potential glycogen-saving effect during exercise due to rapid hydrolysis and oxidation. However, studies comparing intake of carbohydrates (CHO) plus 80-90 g MCT with intake of CHO alone have revealed different results. The present study tested performance after consumption of specific structured triacylglycerol, consisting of a ...
Feliz Brady - - 2003
Propionic acidemia is a disorder of branch-chain amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism. The clinical features typically begin shortly after birth, with rare cases presenting in young adulthood. This disorder most commonly is characterized by episodic decompensations with dehydration, lethargy, nausea, and vomiting as well as a risk for ...
Holst Dorte - - 2003
Dietary long chain fatty acids and thiazolidinediones act as potent activators of adipogenesis in established preadipose cell lines. High concentrations of thiazolidinediones have also been shown to induce terminal differentiation of non-preadipose cells, such as fibroblasts and myoblasts, into adipose-like cells. This transdifferentiation was observed in both rodent and human ...
Burkoth Timothy S - - 2003
Peptoids (N-substituted glycines) are an important class of biomimetic oligomers that have made a significant impact in the areas of combinatorial drug discovery, gene therapy, drug delivery, and biopolymer folding in recent years. Sequence-specific peptoid oligomers are easily assembled from primary amines by the solid-phase submonomer method. However, most amines ...
Korge Paavo - - 2003
Fatty acids accumulate during myocardial ischemia and are implicated in ischemia-reperfusion injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. Because functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion ultimately depends on the ability of the mitochondria to recover membrane potential (DeltaPsim), we studied the effects of fatty acids on DeltaPsim regulation, cytochrome c release, and Ca2+ handling in ...
Raudenkolb Steve - - 2003
In order to characterize the arrangements of the hydrocarbon chains of ceramide 3, the thermotropic phase behaviour of the ceramides N-octadecanoylphytosphingosine (CER3) and its chain deuterated derivative N-(d(35)-octadecanoyl)phytosphingosine (d(35)CER3) was studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. CER3 and d(35)CER3 exhibit an identical thermotropic polymorphism involving ...
Das Undurti N - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the possible relationship between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, cytokines, anandamides, nitric oxide, leptin, various neurotransmitters in the brain, and their role in anorexia of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the omega-3 ...
Iwasa Motoh - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The administration of solutions rich in branched-chain amino acids leads to mental recovery from acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the mechanism of action of branched-chain amino acids remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravenous infusion of branched-chain amino ...
Verardo Giancarlo - - 2003
The composition of the surface waxes of three apple ( Malus domesticaL.) cultivars ("Florina", "Golden B" and "Ozark Gold") has been studied by means of spectroscopic and GC-MS analysis of the class-fractionated mixture of components. Odd n-alkanes, mainly C(27) and C(29) molecules, are prevalent in the saturated fraction. Small concentrations ...
Smyth M - - 2003
Bovine enterovirus (BEV), along with other enteroviruses and the rhinoviruses, has a hydrophobic pocket within structural protein VP1. In the crystal structures of these viruses there is electron density commensurate with a non-protein molecule within the pocket. These molecules, termed pocket factors, have been shown to stabilise the capsid and ...
Sebastian Aleksandra - - 2003
An integrated procedure is presented whereby gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry is used to determine chemical markers of gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (3-hydroxy fatty acids with 10 to 18 carbon atoms), gram-positive bacteria (branched-chain fatty acids with 15 and 17 carbon atoms), bacterial peptidoglycan (muramic acid), and fungal biomass (ergosterol) in ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2003
The marine fatty acid (+/-)-9-methoxypentadecanoic acid was synthesized for the first time in seven steps (7.8% overall yield) starting from commercially available 9-decen-1-ol. The key step in the synthesis was the coupling of pentylmagnesium bromide with 1-benzyloxy-9,10-epoxydecane under 1,5-cyclooctadiene copper (I) chloride catalysis. Nuclear magnetic resonance data are provided for ...
Richardson Mary Ann - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men with psychiatric disorders was tested. METHOD: Public-sector psychiatric patients with long histories of antipsychotic treatment and presumably long-standing tardive dyskinesia were randomly assigned to receive branched-chain amino acids or placebo. Treatment frequency was three ...
Das Undurti N - - 2003
It is proposed that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids when given from the perinatal period will ensure proper development and growth of the brain and maintain the activity and/or concentrations of ras, nitric oxide, insulin, and various neurotransmitters and cytokines at physiological level and thus, improve memory and prevent learning deficits.
Jansen Michael - - 2003
Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a salt-tolerant yeast isolated from the soy sauce process, produces fusel alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and isobutyl alcohol) from branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine, respectively) via the Ehrlich pathway. Using a high-throughput screening approach in microtiter plates, we have studied the effects of pH, ...
Malago J J - - 2003
The response of intestinal epithelial cells to short-chain fatty acids, which are increasingly used as food additives, was investigated. Human small intestinal epithelial cell model Caco-2 cells were exposed to formate, propionate and butyrate to assess their effect on cellular growth, metabolism, differentiation and protection against bacteria. The Caco-2 cells ...
Chirita Carmen N - - 2003
Alzheimer's disease is defined in part by the intraneuronal accumulation of filaments comprised of the microtubule-associated protein tau. In vitro, fibrillization of recombinant tau can be induced by treatment with various agents, including phosphotransferases, polyanionic compounds, and fatty acids. Here we characterize the structural features required for the fatty acid ...
Goto Masaru - - 2003
Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), which has pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor, is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). The enzyme reversibly catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of a hydrophobic amino acid to 2-oxoglutarate to form a 2-oxo acid ...
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