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Results 451 - 500 of 1625
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Tansey W - - 2004
Polymeric drug delivery systems are used not only to improve aqueous solubility of drug molecules but also to achieve desirable pharmacokinetics and an enhanced therapeutic index. New biodegradable polymers are needed to improve the biodistribution and targeting-ability of polymeric carriers. In this study, the synthesis and characterization of branched poly(L-glutamic ...
Petranovic Dina - - 2004
The changes in intracellular pool of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) regulate different physiological processes in bacteria. Up to date, the only available photometric test for measuring BCAA concentration was adapted for blood and plasma samples in diagnostic purposes. We have modified this method for use on bacterial cells, and tested ...
Ganesan Balasubramanian - - 2004
The objective of this study was to determine the role of a lactococcal branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase gene, ilvE, in the production of branched-chain fatty acids. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and an ilvE deletion mutant, JLS450, produced branched-chain fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids at levels above alpha-keto ...
Beck H C - - 2004
AIMS: Staphylococcus xylosus is an important starter culture in the production of flavours from the branched-chain amino acids leucine, valine and isoleucine in fermented meat products. The sensorially most important flavour compounds are the branched-chain aldehydes and acids derived from the corresponding amino acids and this paper intends to perspectivate ...
Lin J - - 2004
Nenatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease mainly affects premature infants. It is well known that prematurity, enteral formula feeding, and bacterial colonization are three major risk factors for NEC. Acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid are short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are produced mainly in the colon ...
Paggi R A - - 2004
The addition of 100-300 mmol/L of acetic, propionic, butyric or lactic acids (short-chain acids), or of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids (volatile fatty acids, VFA) mixtures increased the degradation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by R. albus (7.5 to 46 and 6 to 39 %, respectively). Differences among individual acids were ...
Wood William F - - 2003
GC-MS analysis of the metatarsal gland secretion from a female sika deer, Cervus nippon, showed 35 major volatile compounds that included 13 straight-chain carboxylic acids, a single branched-chain carboxylic acid, 9 straight-chain aldehydes, 3 monounsaturated aldehydes, 5 long-chain alcohols, a ketone, and cholesterol. The four most abundant compounds were heptanal, ...
Suzuki Yoshikatsu - - 2003
A previously unspecified "starter" unit in the predicted biosynthesis pathway of 5-alkylresorcinols has now identified as a fatty acid or its equivalent, using an efficient 5-alkylresorcinol production system of etiolated rice seedlings. Feeding saturated, odd-carbon fatty acid ester substrates from C11 to C19 specifically and markedly increased the amount of ...
Bashir Sajid - - 2003
Dihydroxybenzoic acid was modified to three analogues (M2, M4 and M6). The analogues exhibited specific properties that resulted in enhancement of analyte signal intensity with or without addition of iodine compared to the underivatized parent. Addition of iodine to M2, an ester of dihydroxybenzoic acid that had a terminal double ...
Liu Guojun - - 2003
Triblock copolymer nanotubes bearing end-exposed poly(acrylic acid) or PAA core chains were prepared. The exposed PAA chains were reacted by amidization with a large excess of polystyrene spacer chains possessing amino end groups or amino-containing end blocks to graft the spacer chains. The amino groups at the other end of ...
Westerberg Rolf - - 2004
Very little is known about the in vivo regulation of mammalian fatty acid chain elongation enzymes as well as the role of specific fatty acid chain length in cellular responses and developmental processes. Here, we report that the Elovl3 gene product, which belongs to a highly conserved family of microsomal ...
Schrauwen Patrick - - 2003
In contrast to UCP1, the primary function of UCP3 is not the dissipation of energy. Rather, several lines of evidence suggest that UCP3 is related to cellular long-chain fatty acid homeostasis. If long-chain fatty acids enter the mitochondrial matrix in their non-esterified form, they cannot be metabolized and may exert ...
Coster Jane - - 2003
Attempts have been made over the past decade to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in the nutritional support of surgical patients. Particular attention has been paid to the branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, and a collection of compounds that have been referred to as 'immunonutrients'. The present review provides ...
Das U N - - 2003
Metabolic syndrome X is common in Indians. But the exact cause for this is not clear. Earlier, I proposed that this could be due to low activities of delta6 and delta5 desaturases and consequent decreased plasma and tissue concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-6 and omega-3 series since ...
Seki Toshinobu - - 2003
Medium chain aliphatic alcohols (C8-C12) and methyl or propyl esters of medium chain fatty acids (C8-C12) enhanced the permeation of 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) and indomethacin (IND) through excised rat skin. The enhancing effects of the aliphatic alcohols for 6-CF and IND decreased with the increase in carbon chain length. The dependence ...
Poulsen Nicole - - 2003
The biological formation of inorganic materials with complex form (biominerals) is a widespread phenomenon in nature, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying biomineral morphogenesis are not well understood. Among the most fascinating examples of biomineral structures are the intricately patterned, silicified cell walls of diatoms, which contain tightly associated organic macromolecules. ...
Kölker Stefan - - 2003
Methylmalonic acidurias are biochemically characterized by an accumulation of methylmalonic acid and alternative metabolites. An impairment of energy metabolism plays a key role in the pathophysiology of this disease, resulting in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia and renal failure. It has become the subject of intense debates whether methylmalonic acid ...
Sweatt Andrew J - - 2004
We have examined the localization of the first two enzymes in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway: the branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) isozymes (mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc) and the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) enzyme complex. Antibodies specific for BCATm or BCATc were used to immunolocalize the respective isozymes ...
Vistisen Bodil - - 2003
The potential of the specific structured TAG MLM [where M = caprylic acid (8:0) and L = linoleic acid (18:2n-6)] is the simultaneous delivery of energy and EFA. Compared with long-chain TAG (LLL), they may be more rapidly hydrolyzed and absorbed. This study examined the lymphatic recoveries of intragastrically administered ...
Hiraoka Takenori - - 2003
Recent studies suggest that there is a chemical perception of dietary fat in the oral cavity. A much greater response in the cephalic phase of pancreatic secretion is obtained by palatable taste stimuli. To examine the perception of dietary fat in the oral cavity, we determined whether or not oral ...
Agosti M - - 2003
The data from the present investigation differ from those of the previous study. The new version of hydrolysed protein formula did not induce changes in insulinaemia or in the insulinaemia/glycaemia ratio in pre- and postprandial samples when compared with the intact protein formula. The investigation also confirmed that branch chain ...
Vistisen Bodil - - 2003
Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) have a potential glycogen-saving effect during exercise due to rapid hydrolysis and oxidation. However, studies comparing intake of carbohydrates (CHO) plus 80-90 g MCT with intake of CHO alone have revealed different results. The present study tested performance after consumption of specific structured triacylglycerol, consisting of a ...
Feliz Brady - - 2003
Propionic acidemia is a disorder of branch-chain amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism. The clinical features typically begin shortly after birth, with rare cases presenting in young adulthood. This disorder most commonly is characterized by episodic decompensations with dehydration, lethargy, nausea, and vomiting as well as a risk for ...
Holst Dorte - - 2003
Dietary long chain fatty acids and thiazolidinediones act as potent activators of adipogenesis in established preadipose cell lines. High concentrations of thiazolidinediones have also been shown to induce terminal differentiation of non-preadipose cells, such as fibroblasts and myoblasts, into adipose-like cells. This transdifferentiation was observed in both rodent and human ...
Burkoth Timothy S - - 2003
Peptoids (N-substituted glycines) are an important class of biomimetic oligomers that have made a significant impact in the areas of combinatorial drug discovery, gene therapy, drug delivery, and biopolymer folding in recent years. Sequence-specific peptoid oligomers are easily assembled from primary amines by the solid-phase submonomer method. However, most amines ...
Korge Paavo - - 2003
Fatty acids accumulate during myocardial ischemia and are implicated in ischemia-reperfusion injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. Because functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion ultimately depends on the ability of the mitochondria to recover membrane potential (DeltaPsim), we studied the effects of fatty acids on DeltaPsim regulation, cytochrome c release, and Ca2+ handling in ...
Raudenkolb Steve - - 2003
In order to characterize the arrangements of the hydrocarbon chains of ceramide 3, the thermotropic phase behaviour of the ceramides N-octadecanoylphytosphingosine (CER3) and its chain deuterated derivative N-(d(35)-octadecanoyl)phytosphingosine (d(35)CER3) was studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. CER3 and d(35)CER3 exhibit an identical thermotropic polymorphism involving ...
Das Undurti N - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the possible relationship between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, cytokines, anandamides, nitric oxide, leptin, various neurotransmitters in the brain, and their role in anorexia of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the omega-3 ...
Iwasa Motoh - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The administration of solutions rich in branched-chain amino acids leads to mental recovery from acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the mechanism of action of branched-chain amino acids remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravenous infusion of branched-chain amino ...
Verardo Giancarlo - - 2003
The composition of the surface waxes of three apple ( Malus domesticaL.) cultivars ("Florina", "Golden B" and "Ozark Gold") has been studied by means of spectroscopic and GC-MS analysis of the class-fractionated mixture of components. Odd n-alkanes, mainly C(27) and C(29) molecules, are prevalent in the saturated fraction. Small concentrations ...
Smyth M - - 2003
Bovine enterovirus (BEV), along with other enteroviruses and the rhinoviruses, has a hydrophobic pocket within structural protein VP1. In the crystal structures of these viruses there is electron density commensurate with a non-protein molecule within the pocket. These molecules, termed pocket factors, have been shown to stabilise the capsid and ...
Sebastian Aleksandra - - 2003
An integrated procedure is presented whereby gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry is used to determine chemical markers of gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (3-hydroxy fatty acids with 10 to 18 carbon atoms), gram-positive bacteria (branched-chain fatty acids with 15 and 17 carbon atoms), bacterial peptidoglycan (muramic acid), and fungal biomass (ergosterol) in ...
Carballeira Néstor M - - 2003
The marine fatty acid (+/-)-9-methoxypentadecanoic acid was synthesized for the first time in seven steps (7.8% overall yield) starting from commercially available 9-decen-1-ol. The key step in the synthesis was the coupling of pentylmagnesium bromide with 1-benzyloxy-9,10-epoxydecane under 1,5-cyclooctadiene copper (I) chloride catalysis. Nuclear magnetic resonance data are provided for ...
Richardson Mary Ann - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men with psychiatric disorders was tested. METHOD: Public-sector psychiatric patients with long histories of antipsychotic treatment and presumably long-standing tardive dyskinesia were randomly assigned to receive branched-chain amino acids or placebo. Treatment frequency was three ...
Das Undurti N - - 2003
It is proposed that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids when given from the perinatal period will ensure proper development and growth of the brain and maintain the activity and/or concentrations of ras, nitric oxide, insulin, and various neurotransmitters and cytokines at physiological level and thus, improve memory and prevent learning deficits.
Jansen Michael - - 2003
Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a salt-tolerant yeast isolated from the soy sauce process, produces fusel alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and isobutyl alcohol) from branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine, respectively) via the Ehrlich pathway. Using a high-throughput screening approach in microtiter plates, we have studied the effects of pH, ...
Malago J J - - 2003
The response of intestinal epithelial cells to short-chain fatty acids, which are increasingly used as food additives, was investigated. Human small intestinal epithelial cell model Caco-2 cells were exposed to formate, propionate and butyrate to assess their effect on cellular growth, metabolism, differentiation and protection against bacteria. The Caco-2 cells ...
Chirita Carmen N - - 2003
Alzheimer's disease is defined in part by the intraneuronal accumulation of filaments comprised of the microtubule-associated protein tau. In vitro, fibrillization of recombinant tau can be induced by treatment with various agents, including phosphotransferases, polyanionic compounds, and fatty acids. Here we characterize the structural features required for the fatty acid ...
Goto Masaru - - 2003
Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), which has pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor, is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). The enzyme reversibly catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of a hydrophobic amino acid to 2-oxoglutarate to form a 2-oxo acid ...
Baldwin Adam - - 2003
The thiocarbamates, such as pebulate (S-propyl butyl (ethyl) thiocarbamate) are a well-established class of herbicides. They inhibit fatty acid elongation, which is necessary for the biosynthesis of constituents of surface waxes and suberin and this has been proposed to be important for their toxicity. In this study lipid metabolism was ...
Heller Axel R - - 2003
Cell membranes are not simply barriers separating intracellular from extracellular space. Rather, they represent a dynamic high-turnover system that adapts to current demands. During inflammation, prostaglandins and leukotrienes are formed from membrane-derived phospholipids. Encouraging improvements in critically ill patients were observed after nutritional replacement of long-chain omega-6 fatty acids with ...
Macpherson Gordon R - - 2003
The biosynthetic origins of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins DTX-5a and DTX-5b have been elucidated by supplementing cultures of the producing organism Prorocentrum maculosum with stable isotope labeled precursors and determining the incorporation patterns by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The amino acid residue in the sulfated side chain is found to ...
Jones Patricia M - - 2003
Dietary management of long-chain l-3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency involves a regimen that contains adequate carbohydrate, protein, and essential lipids, and supplementation with medium-chain fatty acids in the form of medium-chain triglycerides, providing energy from fats that bypasses the long-chain metabolic block. This study analyzes the effects of dietary treatment ...
dos Santos Pereira Alberto - - 2003
Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is a tree from the leguminosae family (Papilionoideae) indigenous in Argentina and extensively used in urbanism, mainly in Southern Brazil. The epicuticular waxes of leaves and branch, and flower surface were studied by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography. Several compounds were characterized, among which the ...
Lalah J O - - 2003
The branched isomers of p-nonylphenol (NP) are perceived to be more resistant to biodegradation in aquatic environments as well as to have more estrogen-like toxicity than the straight chain isomers. By use of GC-MS, some of them have been identified and found to exist in higher concentrations in the isomeric ...
Andrade Claudia M B - - 2003
Sphingolipids play a relevant role in cell-cell interaction, communication, and migration. We studied the sphingolipid content in the murine hepatic stellate cell line GRX, which expresses the myofibroblast phenotype, and can be induced in vitro to display the fat-storing phenotype. Lipid modifications along this induction were investigated by labeling sphingolipids ...
Kurz Michael - - 2003
Ustilago species produce an extracellular oil that shows activity in various pharmaceutical assays. We isolated several complexes of this heterogeneous glycolipid from cultures of Ustilago maydis DSM 11494 and Geotrichum candidum ST 002515, and determined the chemical structures of these new compounds, termed ustilipids, on the basis of NMR experiments, ...
Vermeer Cornelia P - - 2003
Surface extracts from primary leaves of Castor bean were found to contain 1.8 microg cm(-2) of cuticular waxes. The mixture comprised alkanes (C(26)-C(29)), primary alcohols (C(22)-C(38)), aldehydes (C(26) and C(28)), fatty acids (C(20)-C(34)) and triterpenoids (lupeol, beta- and alpha-amyrin). Besides, a series of n-alkane-1,3-diols was detected, with chain lengths ranging ...
Horst R L RL National Animal Disease Center, ARS-USDA, Ames, Iowa, USA. - - 2003
1alpha-Hydroxy-23 carboxy-24,25,26,27-tetranorvitamin D(3) (calcitroic acid) is known to be the major water-soluble metabolite produced during the deactivation of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). This deactivation process is carried out exclusively by the multicatalytic enzyme CYP24 and involves a series of oxidation reactions at C(24) and C(23) leading to side-chain cleavage and, ultimately, formation of ...
Brady Sean F - - 2003
[structure: see text] Long-chain fatty acid enol ester 1 is the major metabolite of a new family of small molecules isolated from the heterologous expression of environmentally derived DNA. A versatile synthesis of 1, in which an aromatic acetaldehyde is O-acylated with a long-chain acyl chloride allowed for the rapid ...
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