Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1329
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Akira K - - 1997
The amount of hippuric acid synthesized and excreted in the urine after benzoic acid loading (hippuric acid test) is a useful index of liver function. However, the hippuric acid test gives erroneous results in the event of failure of renal excretory function. A new stable isotope co-administration methodology using nuclear ...
Humaloja K - - 1997
Alcohol has been reported to increase the urinary excretion of dolichols, and urinary dolichols are suggested to be derived from the lysosomes of the renal cells. In the present study we examined the effects of alcohol and glucagon on the biliary excretion of dolichols in rats. Chronic ethanol treatment decreased ...
Li P H - - 1997
We present a Chinese female infant with an intermittent form of MSUD whose early development was relatively well. A total of three episodes of stupor and metabolic acidosis developed with a concurrent illness after the age of 13 months. The initial analyses of plasma amino acid and urinary organic acid ...
Mock D M - - 1997
Using serum biotin concentration as the indicator, a previous study reported biotin deficiency resulting from long-term anticonvulsant therapy. However, serum biotin may not be a good indicator of tissue biotin status. Using better indicators of biotin status in anticonvulsant-treated subjects, we found increased urinary excretion of biotin catabolites and 3-hydroxyisovaleric ...
Scholl P F - - 1997
Biologic effects of the hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 are principally induced by one of its metabolites, the exo-aflatoxin B1 epoxide which produces both DNA and protein adducts in vivo. Detoxication of the exo-aflatoxin B1 epoxide can be mediated in part by glutathione S-transferases whose induction could be important in chemoprotection ...
Maestri L - - 1997
Methods were developed for the determination of urinary phenylmercapturic acid (PMA), a metabolite specific for benzene, benzylmercapturic acid (BMA), a metabolite of toluene and phenylhydroxyethylmercapturic acids (PHEMAs), specific for styrene, in human beings. Methods involved sample clean up followed by deacetylation and derivatization of the compounds with o-phthaldialdehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol. ...
Steck T L - - 1997
The response to osmotic stress in axenically cultured Dictyostelium discoideum was examined. Hypoosmotic buffers elicited two changes in the large (approximately 50 mM) cytosolic pool of amino acids: a) the total size of the pool diminished, while b) about half of the initial pool was excreted. Hyperosmotic stress had the ...
Hallberg K - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increase intestinal permeability (IP) seen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is correlated with the basic defect, as revealed by the patient's genotype, and/or whether the intestinal disturbance reflects secondary abnormalities such as essential fatty acid deficiency. METHODS: Nineteen ...
Hadidi H H Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Norwegian University of Scinece and Technology, - - 1997
Human populations are thought to metabolize coumarin almost exclusively by 7-hydroxylation. We have identified an individual who is homozygous for a single amino acid substitution (Leu160His) in the cytochrome P450 CYP2A6 arising from the variant CYP2A6*2 allele. On administration of coumarin (2 mg orally) no detectable 7-hydroxycoumarin was excreted in ...
Taran F - - 1997
An enzyme immunoassay for urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) using polyclonal antiserum and VMA-acetylcholinesterase conjugate as enzymatic tracer is described. Two different strategies for immunogen preparation were developed and enantioselectivity was demonstrated. Selected EIA allowed direct measurement of urinary VMA using D(-)-VMA as standard with good sensitivity (MDC = 0.1 mumol/l) ...
Medeiros A M - - 1997
Biological markers or biomarkers of exposure are indicators for the evaluation of the internal dose of a xenobiotic. Biomarkers integrate exposure from all routes and sources. This review presents a short overview of potential biomarkers of benzene exposure currently under investigation, the methodology used for their determination, and experimental findings ...
Curtin F F Department of Psychiatry, Geneva University, - - 1997
According to Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence, are dependent on central monoaminergic systems. This study examined the relationship between the urinary levels of different monoamines and the above personality dimensions. Fifty normal men answered the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ); their levels of dopamine, ...
VanderJagt D J - - 1997
Neonates with sickle cell disease (SCD) are of normal size at birth in terms of height and weight. However, by the sixth month of life their growth begins to lag significantly behind that of non-sicklers. We hypothesize that such growth retardation could be explained, at least in part, by the ...
Aposhian H V - - 1997
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in a novel manner the arsenic exposure of humans living in two towns in Northeastern Chile. Residents of one town drink water containing 593 microg As/l. Those in the control town drink water containing 21 microg As/l. Our hypothesis was that ...
Maestri L - - 1997
Styrene (S) has been shown to be responsible for neurotoxic effects, including behavioural changes and neuroendocrine disturbances. The initial step of S metabolism is conversion to styrene 7,8-epoxide (SO), which is present in two enantiomeric forms [(R)(+)-SO and (S)(-)-SO]; this electrophilic intermediate is considered to be directly responsible for most ...
Sithisarankul P - - 1997
Collinearity is the situation which arises in multiple regression when some or all of the explanatory variables are so highly correlated with one another that it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their influences and obtain a reasonably precise estimate of their effects. Suppressor variable is one of ...
Rodopoulos N - - 1997
The metabolism of theophylline (TP) (540 mg per os) was determined by measuring plasma and saliva concentrations of TP and its metabolites, 0-24 h after loading, and urinary excretion 0-48 h after loading. TP and its five metabolites were separated and quantified by combining high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. ...
Murphy J L - - 1997
AIM: To examine the gastrointestinal handling of [1-13C]palmitic acid given as the free acid by measuring the excretion of 13C label in stool in 16 healthy children and 11 patients with cystic fibrosis on their habitual enzyme replacement treatment. METHODS: After an overnight fast, each child ingested 10 mg/kg body ...
Ghittori S - - 1997
Styrene is an important chemical of wide industrial use, particularly in the manufacture of polymers and reinforced plastics. Environmental and occupational exposures to styrene occur predominantly via inhalation. Styrene undergoes biotransformation mainly by side chain oxidation catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 enzymes to its reactive metabolite, styrene oxide. The (R)- and ...
Manz F - - 1997
In early infancy, complex disorders of acid base metabolism are more frequent than in any other age group, with a predisposition to metabolic acidosis due to an age-related low renal capacity for acid excretion and an unphysiologically high actual renal acid load in nutrition with common formulas. Recently in preterm ...
Crawford M L - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To review the UK spontaneous reports of urinary disorders associated with tiaprofenic acid and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and put them into context of the usage of these preparations in the UK. METHODS: Suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports of urinary disorders associated with tiaprofenic acid and other ...
Weinzimer S A - - 1997
This report describes two patients from unrelated families with an unusual syndrome of hyperinsulinism plus hyperammonemia. The diagnosis of hyperinsulinism was based on the demonstration of fasting hypoglycemia with inappropriately elevated insulin levels, inappropriately low beta-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acid levels, and inappropriately large glycemic response to the administration of ...
Pagella J H - - 1997
The quantitative relationship between the urinary excretion of benzoic acid (BA) and the uptake of 3-phenylpropionic (PPA) and cyclohexanecarboxylic (CHCA) acids was assessed. PPA and CHCA are produced in the rumen by microbial fermentation of lignocellulosic feeds and metabolized, after absorption, to BA which is excreted in the urine mainly ...
Borgeat A - - 1997
Serotonin excretion was investigated in the nausea and vomiting associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. Urinary hydroxyindoleacetic acid was measured in 13 gravid women with hyperemesis gravidarum, 10 gravid women without nausea and vomiting, and 10 nongravid women of similar age not taking contraceptive pills. No significant difference in the urinary excretion ...
Järnberg J - - 1997
The aim of this study was to determine the urinary excretion of dimethylhippuric acids (DMHAs) in humans after experimental chamber exposure to trimethylbenzene (TMB) vapor. The DMHAs have been put forward as suitable biomarkers of exposure to products containing TMBs such as white spirit and petrol. Ten healthy male volunteers ...
Hotz P - - 1997
It has been suggested that the threshold limit value (TLV) for the time-weighted average (TWA), of benzene be lowered because of its possible leukemogenic effect at low exposure concentrations. This requires the development of new methods of biological monitoring. In this cross-sectional study the diagnostic power of blood and breath ...
Gainza F J - - 1997
The Fanconi syndrome is an array of multiple proximal renal tubular dysfunctions occurring in association with several exogenous toxins, such as aminoglycosides. These antibiotics remain the drugs of choice in most gram-negative infections, but nephrotoxicity is the main drawback for them. Furthermore, the nephrotoxic effects may be overlooked with routine ...
Del Razo L M - - 1997
Relationships between alterations in the profile of urinary arsenic (As) species and the presence of cutaneous signs of arsenicism were studied in Region Lagunera, Mexico. The use of urinary concentrations of putative substrates and products of the As metabolism pathway, as indicators of metabolic efficiency is also discussed. Arsenic was ...
Ruppert T - - 1997
Excretion of trans,trans-muconic acid (2,4-hexadienedioic acid; t,t-MA), a potential biomarker of low-level exposure to benzene, was determined in 32 smokers and 82 nonsmokers. In smokers the median background excretion of t,t-MA was 0.13 (0.06-0.39) mg/g creatinine and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the value of 0.065 (0.02-0.59) mg ...
van Faassen A - - 1996
The intake of calcium (Ca) is negatively associated with colorectal cancer (crc) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the effects of the Ca-binder Calcisorb, which is given to kidney stone patients with hypercalciuria type I, on risk factors for crc risk, bile ...
Mamer O A - - 1996
15N,13C6-L-Isoleucine was given by stomach tube to a pair of rats and the urine excreted over the following 6 h period was collected. The urinary amino acid fraction showed that the majority of the L-alloisoleucine produced from the labeled isoleucine was formed with the 15N label intact. This fails to ...
Boogaard P J - - 1996
Phenol is not reliable as a biomarker for exposure to benzene at concentrations below 5 ppm (8-hr time-weighted average [TWA]). S-Phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans-trans-muconic acid (tt-MA), two minor urinary metabolites of benzene, have been proposed as biomarkers for low-level exposures. The aim of this study was to compare their ...
Ning C - - 1996
The metabolic profiles of three patients with fatal infantile mitochondrial myopathy with de Toni-Fanconi-Debré syndrome were studied by simultaneous analysis, after urease treatment of urinary organic acids, carbohydrates, polyols and amino acids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All three patients persistently showed lactic aciduria, phosphaturia, glucosuria and generalized amino aciduria. ...
Strandvik B - - 1996
The urinary excretion rate (ng/h/1.73 m2) of prostanoids was determined with a capillary gas-liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method in 19 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged 1-29 years. Patients with CF showed an increased excretion of prostaglandin E2 metabolites (PGE-M) and thromboxane B2 and its metabolites at all ages. An ...
Schulte-Mattler W J - - 1996
Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) is a clinical subtype of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). In ALD, the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in the nervous system, adrenal cortex, and testes due to impaired degradation of VLCFA is thought to be pathogenic. Demonstration of abnormally high levels of saturated VLCFA is diagnostic ...
Jackson A A - - 1996
A method for measuring 5-L-oxoproline in urine, which involves isolation by short-column chromatography, acid hydrolysis to glutamic acid and enzymic assay of glutamic acid, was used to measure the rate of excretion in normal adults, aged 20 to 45 y. There was no difference in the daily excretion between omnivorous ...
Lindenthal B - - 1996
Urinary excretion of mevalonic acid was investigated as an indicator of cholesterol synthesis. In normolipemic volunteers, excretion of mevalonic acid averaged 3.51 +/- 0.59 (SD) micrograms/kg x day1; (n = 24) and was not different from patients with hypercholesterolemia (3.30 +/- 0.92 micrograms/kg x day1; n = 24). In patients ...
Hermann T - - 1996
Whole cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum were loaded with high cytoplasmic l-isoleucine concentrations, and isoleucine excretion from these cells was studied in terms of mechanism and regulation. The transmembrane isoleucine flux could be differentiated into carrier-mediated uptake, carrier-mediated excretion, and diffusion. After discrimination from the other transmembrane solute movements, the outward-directed ...
Laitinen J - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: Ethylene glycol ethers and their acetates are widely used in industry, because of their hydrophilic and simultaneously lipophilic properties. Ethylene glycol ethers and their acetates are mainly metabolised to alkoxyacetic acids, but there is also a minor pathway through ethylene glycol to oxalic acid. The main pathway of ethylene ...
Houillier P - - 1996
Excessive animal protein consumption is associated with a greater risk of occurrence of renal calcium stone, presumably because of the attendant endogenous acid production. Indeed, chronic acid load enhances urinary calcium excretion possibly through an increased bone calcium release. Because acute studies are best designed to elucidate the mechanism, renal ...
Yu R - - 1996
The concentration of the urinary benzene metabolite trans, trans-muconic acid was measured after exposure to benzene contained in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Volunteers were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at different exposure levels and for different exposure durations. Urine samples were collected preexposure and postexposure for 24 h on exposure ...
Li Kam Wa T C - - 1996
1. Equimolar amounts of gamma-L-glutamyl-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (gludopa) and gamma-L-glutamyl-5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan were infused separately and together in eight healthy, salt-replete male subjects in a placebo-controlled, cross-over study to investigate whether the administration of one amine precursor affects the renal metabolism of the other and to determine whether dopamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine would be generated ...
Ensslin H K - - 1996
Studies on the isolation, identification, quantification, and synthesis of the urinary metabolites of racemic 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE) in humans are presented. After oral administration of 140 mg of racemic MDE to healthy volunteers, the following phase I metabolites could be isolated and identified by GC/MS: unchanged racemic MDE (I), racemic 3,4-dihydroxyethylamphetamine ...
Fukuyama T - - 1996
The effect of pentobarbital on the biliary excretion of diclofenac was investigated in a rat liver perfusion system following a pulse input of the drug. Without albumin in the perfusate, a trace amount of diclofenac was detected in the outflow from the liver (< 0.1%). The total biliary excretion of ...
Yuasa J - - 1996
The relationship between exposure to styrene and nerve conduction velocities was investigated in 32 workers occupationally exposed to styrene. There was a dose-dependent relationship between urinary mandelic acid and ulnar and peroneal motor distal latencies (MDLs). The ulnar and peroneal MDLs of subgroup B (urinary mandelic acid > or = ...
Boon L - - 1996
In a previous paper, we showed that an inhibition of amino acid transport across the liver plasma membrane is responsible for the decrease in urea synthesis in acute metabolic acidosis. We have now studied the mechanism responsible for the decline in urea synthesis in chronic acidosis. Chronic metabolic acidosis and ...
Bellia J P - - 1996
The chemical affinity of silicic acid for aluminium (AI) has been shown to reduce the bioavailability of AI in studies of human gastrointestinal (GI) absorption. Investigations were carried out to ascertain whether or not similar interactions may also enhance the renal excretion of AI by assessing the urinary output of ...
Shibata K - - 1996
It is known that the anti-tuberculosis drug, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH), causes pellagra, a niacin deficiency syndrome, and peripheral neuritis in humans. We investigated the effects of INH on the metabolism of tryptophan to niacin in rats fed on a niacin-free diet. The activity of kynurenine aminotransferase was significantly inhibited ...
Atmani F - - 1996
Uronic-acid-rich protein (UAP) is a urinary glycoprotein that inhibits calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. It shows a structural similarity to bikunin, a component of inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) known for its inhibition of the action of many serine proteinases like trypsin and chymotrypsin. To clarify the relationship between these macromolecules, UAP, IalphaI, ...
Yang X F - - 1996
Homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), two end products of dopamine metabolism, were measured in 60 workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS(2)) in a rayon factory and in 48 unexposed workers. The airborne CS(2) concentrations in eight major exposure zones of the plant were measured monthly over a period ...
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