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Results 251 - 300 of 1329
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Kharasch E D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is degraded during low-flow anesthesia to fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether ("compound A"), which causes renal necrosis in rats but is not known to cause nephrotoxicity in surgical patients. Compound A is metabolized to glutathione S-conjugates and then to cysteine S-conjugates, which are N-acetylated to mercapturic acids (detoxication pathway), or metabolized ...
Bergamaschi E - - 1999
A quasi-experimental field study was carried out in 24 volunteers with the aim of: (i) assessing personal exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons polluting urban areas; and (ii) exploring the role of polymorphic enzymes relevant to the biotransformation of benzene in the inter-individual variability of biomarkers. Each subject covered by bicycle: (i) ...
Reffitt D M - - 1999
Silicon (Si), as silicic acid, is suggested to be the natural antidote to aluminium (Al) toxicity, and was recently shown to promote the urinary excretion of Al from body stores. The metabolism of Si in man, however, remains poorly investigated. Here we report on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Si ...
Thibaut R - - 1999
Nonylphenol is present in surface water and aquatic sediments and because of its lipophilic characteristics shows a considerable potential to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Nonylphenol inhibits testicular growth and induces vitellogenin synthesis in male rainbow trout. In order to better understand the effects of nonylphenol on fish and its impact ...
Iwami Y - - 1999
Reduced nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NADH)-dependent fluorescence and acid excretion during glucose pulse to washed Streptococcus mutans cells were monitored simultaneously at pH 7.0 with a fluorescence spectrophotometer and a pH-stat. Acid excretion started with addition of glucose. At the same time, the fluorescence dropped quickly to a minimum level and ...
Yamamoto T - - 1999
To determine the effect of amino acids on the plasma level and urinary excretion of uric acid and uridine, 200 mL 12% amino acid solution, and 2 weeks later, 100 mL physiological saline solution containing glucagon (1.2 microg/kg weight), was infused into five healthy men. Both increased the urinary excretion ...
Choudhury R - - 1999
The urinary recoveries of the hydroxycinnamates, ferulic acid (3-methoxy, 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid), and chlorogenic acid (the quinic acid ester of 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), and three structurally related flavonoids were studied in the rat. For the latter, the aglycone quercetin was compared with its 3-glucoside (isoquercitrin) and 3-rhamnoglucoside (rutin). Doses of 50 ...
Upadhyaya P - - 1999
4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a major metabolite of the tobacco-specific pulmonary carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), has a chiral center but the tumorigenicity of the NNAL enantiomers has not been previously examined. In this study, we assessed the relative tumorigenic activities in the A/J mouse of NNK, racemic NNAL, (R)-NNAL, (S)-NNAL and several NNAL ...
Lehnert W - - 1999
Hawkinsinuria is a rarely diagnosed autosomal dominantly transmitted inborn error of tyrosine metabolism with impaired conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate. As a consequence of the defective 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxigenase activity, large amounts of the unusual, ninhydrin-positive amino acid hawkinsin and later on in life 4-hydroxycyclohexylacetic acid are formed and excreted. Clinically ...
Renner T - - 1999
The average daily uptake of the common food preservative sorbic acid is estimated to range from 0.01 to 1.1 mg kg-1. Sorbic acid mainly is metabolised to carbon dioxide. Minor amounts are converted to trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) as well as excreted unchanged into the urine. Since urinary ttMA is a ...
Colombani P C - - 1999
A field study was performed to investigate the acute influence of a milk protein hydrolysate supplemented drink (CHO+PRO) on metabolism during and after a marathon run compared to the same drink without protein (CHO). Carbohydrate metabolites and hormones were not influenced by CHO+PRO. Levels of plasma free fatty acids were ...
Kim Y - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate exposure to mixed solvents containing ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) in shipyard painters, to determine if EGEEA is toxic to the bone marrow. METHODS: An industrial hygiene survey was performed to identify exposure to EGEEA of two groups of shipyard painters, a low exposure group (n ...
Liesivuori J - - 1999
Male Wistar rats were given ethanediol (9.4 g/l), 2-ethoxyethylacetate (5.4 g/l), 2-butoxyethylacetate (2.9 g/l) and 1,2-propanediol (40 g/l) respectively in their drinking water for 2 weeks. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of the exposure. There was a marked increase in the oxalic acid excretion by the rats ...
Morrow J D - - 1999
The isoprostanes (IsoPs) are a series of novel prostaglandin (PG)-like compounds generated from the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. The first series of IsoPs characterized contained F-type prostane rings analogous to PGF2alpha. One F-ring IsoP, 15-F2t-IsoP (8-iso-PGF2alpha) has been shown to be formed in abundance in vivo and to ...
Jacob K - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the metabolism of the four urinary coproporphyrin isomers I-IV in the extremely rare 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) deficiency porphyria (syn.: Doss porphyria), in acute lead intoxication, and after oral 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) loading. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the excretion of total urinary coproporphyrins and the composition ...
Pourcelot S - - 1999
Cigarette smoke is known to generate free radicals by various mechanisms. In this study involving 30 non-smokers and 30 smokers, we show that urinary excretion of 5-(hydroxymethyl) uracil (HMUra) was not different in the two groups (6.54+/-2.07 vs. 6.70+/-1.68 nmol/mmol creatinine). In contrast, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo) excretion increased by 16% (1.16+/-0.35 ...
Dor F - - 1999
Exposure biomarkers, which have long been restricted to the framework of occupational hygiene, currently arouse increasing interest in the field of environmental pollution. To assess their validity, we propose here a conceptual framework that is based on their intrinsic characteristics and on properties related to the procedures for their analysis. ...
Zempleni J - - 1999
Human biotin turnover and requirements can be estimated on the basis of (1) concentrations of biotin and metabolites in body fluids, (2) activities of biotin-dependent carboxylases, and (3) the urinary excretion of organic acids that are formed at increased rates if carboxylase activities are reduced. Recent studies suggest that the ...
Guillén M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Cystinuria is an autosomal-recessive disorder of the kidneys and small intestine affecting a luminal transport mechanism shared by cystine, ornithine, arginine, and lysine. Three different types of cystinuria can be distinguished according to the excretion of these amino acids in urine samples. We propose cutoff values from our population ...
Cupid B C - - 1999
1. Quantitative relationships between molecular physico-chemical properties of 22 substituted benzoic acids and the extent of excretion of their metabolites in rat urine have been investigated using computational chemistry and multivariate statistics. 2. A data set of 34 theoretically derived physico-chemical descriptors calculated was used to classify the benzoic acids ...
Suzuki Y - - 1999
Alkaptonuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by homogentisic aciduria, ochronosis, and arthritis. Although a deficiency of homogentisic acid 1,2-dioxygenase has recently been confirmed at the molecular level, no effective treatment regimen has yet been developed for this disorder. In the present study, 2(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), a potent inhibitor of ...
Lemann J J - - 1999
Increasing urinary net acid (titratable acid + NH4 - HCO-3) excretion is accompanied by an increased urinary Ca excretion because of reduced renal tubular reabsorption of filtered Ca. The relationships between urinary Ca excretion rates and urinary net acid excretion rates are reviewed for data: (1) among healthy adults eating ...
Bourne L C - - 1998
There is a wealth of evidence for the powerful antioxidant properties in vitro of flavonoid components of the diet. However, few studies have been undertaken concerning the hydroxycinnamates, major constituents of fruit, some vegetables, beverages, and grains, particularly the extent to which they are absorbed in vivo from the diet. ...
Villamide M J - - 1998
The effect of chemical composition of sunflower seed meal (SFSM) on TMEn and true amino acid digestibility (TAAD) was studied. In Experiment 1, the excretion pattern of three SFSM samples force-fed (30 g) to 10 adult cockerels (Hy-Line) each was followed for 84 h to determine the time interval for ...
Pineda M - - 1998
Two brothers with dystonia and slight MRI changes in the basal ganglia had normal urinary glutaric acid excretion, but slightly increased 3-hydroxyglutarate and conjugated glutarate excretions. Both siblings have high residual glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity, and are compound heterozygotes for two mutations - R227P and V400M reported to be disease-causing in ...
Pras E - - 1998
Cystinuria is a hereditary disorder manifested by the development of kidney stones. Three subtypes of the disease have been described, based on urinary excretion of cystine and the dibasic amino acids in heterozygotes, and oral loading tests in homozygotes. Cystinuria is very common among Libyan Jews living in Israel. Recently, ...
Alary J - - 1998
Following iv administration of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and [4-3H]HNE to rats, 15 polar urinary metabolites accounting for about 50% of the urinary radioactivity were separated by HPLC. Among them, eight major compounds and tritiated water were quantified. The metabolites were unequivocally characterized using GC/MS and ESI/MS/MS/MS. Most of "HNE polar metabolites" ...
Langkilde A M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study the short-term effect of resistant starch (RS) from retrograded high-amylose corn starch (HACS) on the excretion of bile acids and nutrients from the small bowel in humans. DESIGN: Seven healthy ileostomists were given a controlled, constant diet during three days. On days 2 and 3, 100 g/d ...
Fisher J W - - 1998
Nine male and eight female healthy volunteers were exposed to 50 or 100 ppm trichloroethylene vapors for 4 h. Blood, urine, and exhaled breath samples were collected for development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for trichloroethylene and its two major P450-mediated metabolites, trichloroacetic acid and free trichloroethanol. Blood ...
Goodwin B L - - 1998
1. The in vivo decarboxylation of analogues of DL-phenylalanine with methoxy, ethoxy or methylenedioxy substituents on the aromatic nucleus was assessed in the rat by measuring urinary excretion of the corresponding phenylacetic acids and beta-phenylethylamines. Only trace amounts of these amines and acids were excreted. 2. o-Tyrosine was readily decarboxylated, ...
Terán-García M - - 1998
The metabolic derangements in severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) are only partially known, due to the limitations of blood collection in these patients. Urinary excretion of organic acids was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 39 infants with four types of PEM: 1) upon hospital admission, as soon as eventual infections ...
Johnson L M - - 1998
Data were collected from six experiments using duodenally cannulated Holstein dairy cows (88 combinations of cow and period) to evaluate the relationship between urinary purine metabolites and microbial N flow. Experiments evaluated the effects of dietary factors on microbial N production, which included 1) varying concentrations of ruminally degradable protein ...
Howes D - - 1998
Samples of the emulsifier polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) were synthesized using the radiolabelled precursors [1-14C]glycerol ([14C]polyglycerol PGPR), [9,10-3H] or [12-3H]ricinoleic acid ([3H] PGPR) or [1-14C]stearic acid ([14C]stearyl PGPR). The absorption, tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion of these 14C- or tritium-labelled PGPR samples administered to rats was studied. The effects of intestinal ...
Stuedemann J A - - 1998
Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue. Little is known about the bioavailability of the ergot alkaloid classes (lysergic acid, lysergic acid amides, or ergopeptine alkaloids) in livestock, and this hampers development of pharmacological strategies to ameliorate the toxicosis. One method used to determine bioavailability ...
Stone P J - - 1998
Urinary levels of collagen- and elastin-crosslink amino acids have been used as biologic markers for degradation of collagen and elastin in the body. Circadian variation of collagen-crosslink amino acids is well known. The current study was undertaken to determine whether there is also circadian variation in excretion of elastin-crosslink amino ...
Gubrelay U - - 1998
Thiamin or methionine supplementation was equally and moderately effective in preventing the accumulation of cadmium in soft organs and alterations in a few selected biochemical indices during concomitant administration. Adequate intake of sulfur amino acid following methionine supplementation might increase the bioavailability of glutathione, facilitating the prevention of the binding ...
Laitinen J - - 1998
Many sensitive biomarkers are available for the surveillance of the early health effects of chemicals on humans. This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) as biomarkers of early kidney effects in exposure to 2-alkoxyethanols and their acetates. GAG were compared with effects on the urinary beta-N-acetylglycosaminidase ...
Barzel U S - - 1998
The average American diet, which is high in protein and low in fruits and vegetables, generates a large amount of acid, mainly as sulfates and phosphates. The kidneys respond to this dietary acid challenge with net acid excretion, as well as ammonium and titratable acid excretion. Concurrently, the skeleton supplies ...
Gómez M - - 1998
The present study was conducted to assess in rats the comparative effects of a number of chelating agents on the urinary excretion and tissue distribution of A1. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal dose of aluminium (A1) nitrate nonahydrate (0.24 mmol/kg). Ten min. after A1 injection 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic ...
Blair K L - - 1998
To develop a model for the mechanisms of organic acid excretion in nematodes, we measured the concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), pH and electrical potentials across hypodermal and muscle membranes and across the composite body wall (consisting of hypodermis, muscle and cuticle) of Ascaris suum using standard chromatographic and ...
Gregg A R - - 1998
We identified a patient who excreted large amounts of methylmalonic acid and malonic acid. In contrast to other patients who have been described with combined methylmalonic and malonic aciduria, our patient excreted much larger amounts of methylmalonic acid than malonic acid. Since most previous patients with this biochemical phenotype have ...
Green T - - 1998
Rats exposed to trichloroethylene, either by gavage or by inhalation, excreted large amounts of formic acid in urine which was accompanied by a change in urinary pH, increased excretion of ammonia, and slight increases in the excretion of calcium. Following a single 6-h exposure to 500 ppm trichloroethylene, the excretion ...
Tsujimoto Y - - 1998
The determination of urinary mercapturic acid, N-acetyl-S-(m-xylyl)-L-cysteine or N-acetyl-S-(p-xylyl)-L-cysteine, was undertaken by HPLC after i.p. administration of m- or p-xylene to rats in order to confirm the structure of thioether which was known to be excreted in small amounts related with the metabolism of m- or p-xylene. The excretion rates ...
Kudo S - - 1998
1. The biotransformation of 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide (OPB-2045), a new potent biguanide antiseptic, was investigated in male beagle dogs. Urinary and faecal excretion of unchanged compound and metabolites were studied following a single subcutaneous injection of 14C-labeled compound at a dose of 1 mg/kg. 2. Four urinary metabolites were structually identified using ...
Gallmetzer M - - 1998
Penicillium simplicissimum excreted citrate, isocitrate, and succinate when grown in a strongly buffered medium [1 M Mes (pH 6) or 1 M Hepes (pH 7.3)]. Growth in a weakly buffered medium did not lead to citrate excretion despite a similar intracellular citrate concentration. When nongrowing, citrate-excreting hyphae were aerated in ...
Auer B L - - 1998
The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of ingestion of large doses of vitamin C on urinary oxalate excretion and on a number of other biochemical and physicochemical risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. A further objective was to determine urinary ascorbate excretion and to relate it ...
Mock D M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In subjects undergoing long-term therapy with carbamazepine and/or phenytoin, reduced plasma concentrations of biotin have been reported. However, the diagnostic value of plasma biotin is unclear, in part because of the presence of significant plasma concentrations of biotin metabolites. Pathologic organic aciduria has also been reported with long-term anticonvulsant ...
Fukumura S - - 1998
PURPOSE: Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, a so-called canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). As there appear to be many canalicular organic anion transports, we examined the effects of various organic anions and bile acid conjugates on the biliary excretion of pravastatin in ...
Uribarri J - - 1998
This study examines endogenous acid production in a group of stable chronic hemodialysis patients with no residual renal function who were admitted to the chronic hemodialysis unit of Mount Sinai Hospital. Net acid production was estimated by the change in body bicarbonate content, which occurs in the interdialytic period. The ...
Fleck C - - 1998
In anaesthetized adult female rats, the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on renal amino acid handling was investigated in glutamine, arginine (both 50 mg/100 g b.wt. per hour), or alanine (90 mg/100 g b.wt. per hour) loaded animals. Continuous infusions of the three amino acids were followed by an ...
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