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Sala Alberto - - 2004
Alpha-1-microglobulin carries a set of covalently linked chromophores that give it a peculiar yellow-brown color, fluorescence properties, and both charge and size heterogeneity. In this report it is shown that these features are due to the adducts with the tryptophan metabolite, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its autoxidation products and that the modification ...
Randall D J - - 2004
The giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, is an amphibious, obligate, air-breathing teleost fish. It uses its buccal cavity for air breathing and for taking and holding large gulps of air. These fish live in mud burrows at the top of the intertidal zone of mangrove mudflats; the burrow water may be ...
Liang Wen-Chen - - 2004
A 22-year-old woman had suffered from several episodes of acute pancreatitis since the age of 11. Other than exercise intolerance since early childhood, her psychomotor development was normal. At age 21, she experienced two episodes of generalized muscle weakness including acute respiratory failure and hepatomegaly. Liver biopsy indicated fatty metamorphosis, ...
Goldoni Matteo - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a fluid formed by cooling exhaled air, can be used as a suitable matrix to assess target tissue dose and effects of inhaled cobalt and tungsten, using EBC malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of pulmonary oxidative ...
Kumar Gondi N - - 2004
The metabolism and disposition of calcimimetic agent cinacalcet HCl was examined after a single oral administration to mice, rats, monkeys, and human volunteers. In all species examined, cinacalcet was well absorbed, with greater than 74% oral bioavailability of cinacalcet-derived radioactivity in monkeys and humans. In rats, cinacalcet-derived radioactivity was widely ...
Wilkie Michael P - - 2004
We observed 10 sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) parasitizing basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), the world's second largest fish, in the Bay of Fundy. Due to the high concentrations of urea in the blood and tissues of ureosmotic elasmobranchs, we hypothesized that sea lampreys would have mechanisms to eliminate co-ingested urea while ...
Sprague Christopher L - - 2004
3-Butene-1,2-diol (BDD), a major metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), can readily be oxidized to hydroxymethylvinyl ketone (HMVK), a Michael acceptor. In previous studies, 4-(N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHB), a urinary metabolite of BD that was used to assess human BD exposure, was suggested to be a metabolite of HMVK, but DHB formation from BDD ...
Caslavska Jitka - - 2004
Commercial capillary electrophoresis instrumentation with XeHg lamp-based and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection is employed for analysis of urinary 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) and its major metabolites, urinary metabolites of acetylsalicylic acid, urinary benzoylecgonine in an immunoassay format, and albendazole sulfoxide and albendazole sulfone in plasma. For the examples studied, the ...
Sandborn W J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Existing pharmacokinetic data are insufficient to determine whether a delayed-release formulation of mesalamine (Asacol) results in greater systemic exposure to 5-aminosalicylic acid and its major metabolite N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid than a prodrug (balsalazide). AIM: To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid from equimolar doses of 5-aminosalicylic ...
McGowan Karen A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Among patients with ethylmalonic aciduria, a subgroup with encephalopathy, petechial skin lesions, and often death in infancy is distinct from those with short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency or multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. The nature of the molecular defect in this subgroup is unknown, and the source of the ...
Green T - - 2004
AIMS: To investigate the nephrotoxic potential of trichloroethylene in a currently exposed population using sensitive urinary markers of kidney toxicity. METHODS: Renal dysfunction was monitored in a cross-sectional study of 70 workers currently exposed to trichloroethylene. An age and sex matched control population of 54 individuals was drawn from hospital ...
Cowieson A J - - 2004
1. The effects of myo-inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) on the excretion of endogenous compounds were investigated using growing broiler chickens. 2. A total of 32 female Ross broilers were used in a precision feeding assay involving a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The materials administered ...
Hodgson Jonathan M - - 2004
Tea and coffee are rich in polyphenols with a variety of biological activities. Many of the demonstrated activities are consistent with favourable effects on the risk of chronic diseases. 4-O-methylgallic acid (4OMGA) and isoferulic acid are potential biomarkers of exposure to polyphenols derived from tea and coffee respectively. 4OMGA is ...
Mock Donald M DM Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. - - 2004
In two studies comprising 10 and 11 subjects, respectively, marginal biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by an egg-white diet in healthy men and women. The following urinary organic acids were assessed for their usefulness in detecting marginal biotin status: 1) 3-hydroxypropionic acid and methylcitric acid, organic acids that reflect decreased ...
Iu Y P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Strong mineral acid is the most commonly used preservative for measuring urinary free catecholamines. Leakage of corrosive acid is a safety hazard. The use of formate buffer as a safer alternative was studied. METHODS: Twenty-two urine specimens from post-operative patients were collected and preserved in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid ...
Roopnarinsingh E S - - 2004
A major pathway for the production of sulphate within the mammalian body is known to be via the oxidative degradation of the sulphur moiety within the amino acid, L-cysteine. The ability of two structurally similar sulphur-containing drugs, the anti-rheumatic agent, D-penicillamine, and the mucoactive compound, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, to interfere with this ...
Yaghobfar A - - 2003
1. Endogenous losses of amino acids (EAAL) and energy (EEL) were determined in unfed adult cockerels. The intercepts of linear regression analysis were determined using 44 birds precision-fed on maize. During the experimental period (48 h), excreta of birds were collected, and the samples of maize and the excreta were ...
Marnell Lorraine L - - 2003
Large interindividual variability in urinary arsenic profiles, following chronic inorganic arsenic exposure, is well-known in humans. To understand this variability, we studied the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene for human monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) reductase/hGSTO1 and the urinary arsenic profiles of individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in their drinking water. ...
Boulat Olivier - - 2003
Organic acid analysis is used for the early detection/ exclusion and for the follow-up of inherited disorders of amino acid and organic acid metabolism. Urinary organic acid concentrations in 417 healthy Caucasian children (1 day to 17 years of age) were determined after liquid solid extraction, as their trimethylsilyl derivatives, ...
Lin Shih-Hua - - 2003
Hypokalemia with paralysis (HP) is a potentially reversible medical emergency. It is primarily the result of either hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) caused by an enhanced shift of potassium (K(+)) into cells or non-HPP resulting from excessive K(+) loss. Failure to make a distinction between HPP and non-HPP could lead to ...
Johnson D J - - 2003
Differences in the toxicities observed for dithiocarbamates have been proposed to result from the influence of nitrogen substitution, oxidation state, and route of exposure. To better characterize the fate of dithiocarbmates in vivoas a function of structure and route of exposure, rats were administered equimolar doses of carbon disulfide (CS2), ...
Kinuta Masahiro - - 2003
Exposure of the skin to sunlight results in an increase of the content of epidermal trans-urocanic acid, a key metabolite of L-histidine, and also in occurrence of the isomerization of trans-urocanic acid to the cis isomer. S-[2-Carboxy-1-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethyl]glutathione (GS(CIE)), an adduct of urocanic acid and glutathione, is a presumed origin of ...
Weisel Clifford P - - 2003
The use of stable, isotopically labeled compounds in controlled exposure experiments at environmentally relevant levels allows for the distinguishing of urinary metabolites associated with known exposure from background levels generally present in the urine. Exposures of volunteers to (13)C-benzene for 2 h at 40+/-10 p.p.b. were conducted after obtaining informed ...
Usui Yukio - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Hypocitraturia, or low urinary citrate excretion is known as a risk for nephrolithiasis. Though urinary citrate excretion is basically determined by acid-base balance, metabolic acidosis is not always manifest in urinary stone patients with hypocitraturia. From our stone clinic data, we estimated the incidence of hypocitraturia and addressed its ...
Kowalówka-Zawieja Joanna - - 2003
The aim of the study was to evaluate cytochrome P-450 dependent hepatic monooxygenases system and urinary excretions of phenol and muconic acid in animals subjected to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) orally and benzene by inhalations. ASA increased urinary excretion of muconic acid although it did not affect the urinary level of ...
Remer Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that acid-base status has a significant effect on high-intensity physical performance, urolithiasis, and calcium metabolism. Experimental studies in adults showed that renal net acid excretion (NAE) can be reliably estimated from the composition of diets. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a reasonable estimation of NAE is ...
Malarkodi Kumaravel Palanichamy - - 2003
Adriamycin widely used in the treatment of neoplastic conditions is nephrotoxic. In the present study the protective effect of lipoic acid was investigated in adriamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino Wistar rats. Adriamycin-induced nephrotoxicity was characterized by hyperlipidemia, proteinuria, and hypoproteinemia, by decreased activities of the enzymes N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and cathepsin ...
Choe Keith Patrick - - 2003
Specimens of the euryhaline elasmobranch, Dasyatis sabina were acclimated to seawater and fresh water, and exposed to normocapnic (air) and hypercapnic (1% CO2 in air) environmental water. Blood pH, PCO2, and [HCO3-], as well as whole-animal net-acid excretion, were measured for up to 24 h of hypercapnia. In a separate ...
Shikano Naoto - - 2003
We evaluated the use of radiolabeled 4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine as an amino acid transport marker. The pharmacologic features of this compound, particularly the biodistribution and excretion, were examined by conducting in vivo and in vitro studies using 4-(125)I-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (4-(125)I-mTyr). Results obtained for L-(14)C-Tyr and 3-(125)I-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine ((125)I-IMT) were used for comparison. METHODS: In ...
Ohmori Kohtaro - - 2003
Toxicokinetics was compared between perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in male and female rats. Half lives (t(1/2)) in male and female rats were calculated to be 0.10 and 0.05 days, respectively, for PFHA, 5.63 and 0.08 days for PFOA, 29.5 and 2.44 ...
Cok Ismet - - 2003
In this study, groups exposed to toluene either intentionally (glue sniffers) or unintentionally (shoe-workers) were compared. The groups were evaluated in terms of urinary levels of the toluene metabolites hippuric acid and o-cresol. Results were also compared with control values. Hippuric acid levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography ...
Williams Ryan L - - 2003
Estimations of absorbed daily dosage (ADD) of chemicals following contact with treated surfaces may be required for risk assessment and risk management. Measurements of ADD based upon biomonitoring are a more reliable data than estimates of ADD from environmental measurements since they require fewer default assumptions. Study participants performed a ...
Vrtic Fatima - - 2003
To examine the suspected inhibitory potential of the over-the-counter (OTC) drug ibuprofen on N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) in vitro and in vivo and the possible implications for phenotyping procedures using caffeine as probe drug. We first studied the inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on NAT2 in vitro, using human liver cytosol and ...
Hossain Rayhan Zubair - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To compare urinary oxalate excretion after the oral administration of oxalic acid, disodium oxalate, or calcium oxalate in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six rats each and were intravenously hydrated with normal saline, and then were administered normal saline (control group), 10 mg ...
Haufroid Vincent - - 2002
In the field of occupational and/or environmental toxicology, the measurement of specific metabolites in urine may serve to assess exposure to the parent compounds (biological monitoring of exposure). Styrene is one of the chemicals for which biological monitoring programs have been validated and implemented in environmental and occupational medicine. However, ...
Fukuwatari Tsutomu - - 2002
We have reported that the administration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) increased the formations of quinolinic acid (QA) and its lower metabolites on the tryptophan-niacin pathway. To discover the mechanism involved in disruption of the tryptophan-niacin pathway by DEHP, we assessed the daily urinary excretion of QA and its lower metabolites, and ...
Bauer Steffen - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of treatment with Saint John's wort (hypericum perforatum) extract on the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid, 6beta-hydroxycortisol, and free cortisol in order to assess the effect of this extract on the activity of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. METHODS: Forty-eight healthy volunteers (25 male and 23 ...
Hwang Yaw-Huei - - 2002
For wafer fabrication in the semiconductor industry, maintenance engineers are potentially exposed to hazards during their work of disassembling machine components for cleanup. One special concern is the presence of arsenic or arsenic compounds in the working environment. This study analyzed speciated urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites of the maintenance engineers ...
Davidson D Fraser - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Normal urine catecholamine values in patients with phaeochromocytoma is an occasional finding and may lead to a missed diagnosis. Additional urinary free metadrenaline analysis may be of value in this situation. METHODS: In addition to vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and the catecholamines, urinary free normetadrenaline (fNMA) and free metadrenaline ...
Knerr I - - 2002
Glutaric aciduria type III is a rare metabolic abnormality leading to persistent isolated glutaric acid excretion. We report the clinical and biochemical phenotypes of three affected children. The first patient is a boy with dysmorphic features and a chromosomal deletion (monosomy 6q26-qter) in whom a persistent glutaric aciduria (500 mmol/mol ...
Upadhyaya Pramod - - 2002
N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is present in significant quantities in tobacco and tobacco smoke and is believed to play an important role as a cause of cancer in people who use tobacco products. Biomarkers of NNN uptake in humans such as urinary metabolites would be useful for assessing cancer risk. Previous studies, ...
Kessler T - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of plum-, cranberry- and blackcurrant juice on urinary stone risk factors. DESIGN: Investigations were carried out in 12 healthy male subjects aged 18-38 y. All subjects received a standardized diet formulated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition. The subjects provided ...
McDonagh Antony F - - 2002
The biliary excretion of the sodium salts of 8-(2-ethanesulfonic acid)-3-ethyl-2,7,9-trimethyl-1,10-dihydro-11H-dipyrrin-1-one (xanthosulfonic acid) and a fluorescent analogue (8-desethyl-N,N'-carbonyl-kryptopyrromethenone-8-sulfonic acid) was compared in Mrp2-deficient (TR(-)) and normal rats. Both organic anions were excreted rapidly in bile in Mrp2-deficient rats, but the biliary excretion of the fluorescent sulfonate was impaired relative to normal ...
Shinka Toshihiro - - 2002
We describe the rapid and sensitive detection of 4-hydroxybutyric acid, which is a marker compound for succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency. Urinary 4-hydroxybutyric acid and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid were targeted, quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after simplified urease digestion in which lactone formation from gamma-hydroxy acids is minimized. The recovery of ...
Schettgen Thomas - - 2002
Inhabitants (1177) of a residential area in Frankfurt/Main have been investigated with respect to internal exposure to pyrethroids. Biological monitoring revealed a body burden of pyrethroids. The 95th per thousand for the urinary metabolites of pyrethroids, such as permethrin and cypermethrin, cis and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA and trans-DCCA), was determined ...
Baggio Bruno - - 2002
BACKGROUND: An anomalous plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition has been reported in calcium nephrolithiasis, and was proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria, well-known risk factors for lithogenesis. METHODS: To confirm this hypothesis, we administered rats three different diets rich in coconut, soybean ...
Stockis Arnel - - 2002
The intestinal spasmolytic drug mebeverine is known to undergo fast in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis into mebeverine alcohol and veratric acid. A reversed-phase HPLC method with coulometric detection was developed in order to assay the hitherto unidentified secondary metabolite mebeverine acid. After intake of a single oral dose of 405 mg ...
Kerec M - - 2002
The influence of interactions between polycarbophil and calcium on a model drug permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall was investigated. Pipemidic acid was used as a model drug. One percent w/v polycarbophil dispersion significantly increases the permeation of pipemidic acid into the urinary bladder wall. The enhanced absorption of ...
Naya Y - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of the dietary intake of fatty acid on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium oxalate stone-formers in their fourth decade, as previous reports show that animal fat intake is associated with urinary oxalate excretion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The dietary intake of 58 idiopathic stone-formers in their ...
Gallmetzer Martin - - 2002
Succinate is an interesting chemical for industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants, detergents and biodegradable plastics. Succinate is produced mainly by a mixed-acid fermentation process using anaerobically growing bacteria. However, succinate excretion is also widespread among fungi. In this article we report results on the intracellular concentration and the ...
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