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Results 101 - 150 of 1328
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Dierkes Jutta - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To compare markers of alcohol consumption. DESIGN AND METHODS: Measurement of urinary ethyl glucuronide, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-hydroxytryptophol glucuronide, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in 10 patients during alcohol withdrawal. RESULTS: 5-Hydroxytryptophol glucuronide was measured by ELISA with good analytical precision, its diagnostic specificity and sensitivity was better than that of 5-hydroxytryptophol and ...
Hess David C - - 2006
DNA microarray analysis of gene expression in steady-state chemostat cultures limited for potassium revealed a surprising connection between potassium and ammonium: potassium limits growth only when ammonium is the nitrogen source. Under potassium limitation, ammonium appears to be toxic for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This ammonium toxicity, which appears to occur by ...
Gudbrandsen Oddrun Anita - - 2006
Dietary lipids are reported to affect the blood pressure in both humans and experimental animal models with hypertension. In the present study, 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats were treated with the modified fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) from the time of clipping or after hypertension was established. TTA treatment attenuated ...
Pannala Ananth S - - 2006
The major urinary metabolite of nitrotyrosine is 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-Nitro-HPA). However, recent animal studies have shown that the majority of urinary 3-Nitro-HPA is derived from nitration of endogenous para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA), a metabolite of tyrosine. One potential site for the formation of 3-Nitro-HPA is the stomach, where nitrous acid is ...
Gerlo Erik - - 2006
During the metabolic work-up of a patient presenting with neonatal convulsions, we consistently observed the presence of unusual peaks in the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of urinary organic acids. The gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characteristics of the unusual peaks suggested that they corresponded to derivatives of N-acetylated amino acids. The tentative ...
Suzuki Kazuo T - - 2006
Methylseleninic acid (MSA(IV)) [CH(3)Se(O)OH] is readily reducible to methylselenol [CH(3)SeH], the assumed lyase metabolite and the proposed biologically active form of methylated selenoamino acids. At the same time, MSA(IV) is an oxidation product of the major urinary metabolite selenosugar. (77)Se-Enriched MSA(IV) was injected intravenously into rats (25 microg Se/kg body ...
Wortmann S - - 2006
In this paper, we describe a distinct clinical subtype of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria is a group of different metabolic disorders biochemically characterized by increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid. We performed biochemical and genetic investigations, including urine organic acid analysis, NMR spectroscopy, measurement of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase activity, cardiolipin levels, ...
Marcos Ricardo - - 2006
Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen with a ubiquitous distribution in the natural environment. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic involves a biotransformation process that leds to the main excretion of organic methylated metabolites, such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), as well as the parental inorganic species. Interindividual ...
Starek Andrzej - - 2006
Alkoxyacetic acids (AAAs) are known urinary metabolites of the corresponding ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers with a wide range of industrial and domestic applications. Hemolysis is the principal toxic effect of AAAs in humans and animals. The mechanism of red-cell damage is not known. It is suggested that some disturbances in ...
Burgstaller Wolfgang - - 2006
Excretion of organic acids, e.g. citrate, by anamorphic fungi is a frequent phenomenon in natural habitats and in laboratory cultures. In biotechnological processes for citrate production with Aspergillus niger extracellular citrate concentrations up to 1 mol l(-1) are achieved. Intracellular citrate concentrations are in the millimolar range. Therefore the question ...
Nithipatikom Kasem - - 2006
The role of eicosanoids (metabolites of arachidonic acid) in prostate diseases is receiving increased attention. We investigated the relationship between the concentrations of urinary free acids of 12- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (12- and 20-HETE) and the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (Pca). Urinary concentrations of 12-HETE and 20-HETE ...
Dehnhard M - - 2006
In order to improve breeding of in situ populations of bears, a comprehensive study of reproductive physiology in Brown (Ursus arctos), Spectacled (Tremarctos ornatus) and Giant panda bears (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was performed. The objective was to perform non-invasive analyses of urinary and fecal steroid metabolites. In addition, we investigated the ...
Norwood W P - - 2006
Bioaccumulation of As, Co, Cr and Mn by the benthic amphipod Hyalella azteca in Burlington City tap (Lake Ontario) water was measured in 4-week tests. Bioaccumulation increased with exposure concentration and demonstrated an excellent fit to a saturation model (r(2): 0.819, 0.838, 0.895 and 0.964 for As, Co, Cr and ...
Quintana L F - - 2006
The arachidonic acid-derived metabolite 12-(S)hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE), catalyzed by 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX, ALOX12), exhibits a variety of biological activities with implications in cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown higher urinary excretion of this metabolite in essential hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of polymorphisms in ALOX12 ...
Morozumi Makoto - - 2006
We studied whether urinary oxalate excretion after an acute oral load of oxalic acid is influenced by concomitant administration of calcium in rats. Male Wistar rats weighing approximately 180 g were divided into six groups of five animals each. After inducing anesthesia, the animals were orally (via a gastrostomy) given ...
Trinchieri Alberto - - 2006
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. ...
Filipowicz Heather R - - 2006
Propionic acidemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of propionyl CoA carboxylase. Affected patients can develop severe hyperammonemia, whose causative mechanism is unknown. In this study, we monitored changes in metabolic parameters associated with hyperammonemia in patients with propionic acidemia. Levels of ammonia were correlated with plasma levels ...
Osther Palle J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12 male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using ...
Angelow Susanne - - 2006
Renal net acid excretion requires tubular reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate, followed by secretion of protons and ammonium in the collecting duct, generating steep transtubular gradients for these ions. To prevent passive backleak of these ions, the tight junctions in the collecting duct must be highly impermeable to these ions. We ...
Siener Roswitha - - 2005
Inappropriate dietary habits, overweight and lifestyle are suggested to contribute considerably to the increasing incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis. Numerous dietary factors can alter urinary composition and supersaturation, which can affect the process of stone formation. Dietary oxalate, calcium, protein, purines, sodium and ascorbic acid are known to be promoters ...
Jones Mark G - - 2005
Previous work by others have suggested the occurrence of one or more chemical or metabolic 'markers' for ME/CFS including specific amino acids and organic acids and a number of unidentified compounds (CFSUM1, CFSUM2). We have shown elsewhere that CFSUM1 is partially derivatised pyroglutamic acid and CFSUM2 partially derivatised serine and ...
Fujioka Yasushi - - 2005
Renal localization of radiolabeled antibody fragments presents a problem in targeted imaging and radiotherapy. We recently reported that Fab fragments labeled with 3'-[(131)I]iodohippuryl N(epsilon)-maleoyl-l-lysine (HML) demonstrated markedly low renal radioactivity levels from early postinjection in mice. Previous studies suggested that low renal radioactivity levels were attributable to cleavage of the ...
Hoppe Bernd - - 2005
Current treatment options in patients with primary and secondary hyperoxaluria are limited and do not always lead to sufficient reduction in urinary oxalate excretion. Intestinal oxalate degrading bacteria are capable of degrading oxalate to CO(2) and formate, the latter being further metabolized and excreted via the feces. It is speculated, ...
Felgines Catherine - - 2005
The consumption of anthocyanins has been shown to prevent certain chronic diseases. However, anthocyanin metabolism has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate anthocyanin urinary excretion in humans receiving a meal containing blackberries and to identify possible metabolites in urine. Five healthy volunteers were ...
Attar Mayssa - - 2005
Oral tazarotene, an acetylenic retinoid, is in clinical development for the treatment of psoriasis. The disposition and biotransformation of tazarotene were investigated in six healthy male volunteers, following a single oral administration of a 6 mg (100 microCi) dose of [14C]tazarotene, in a gelatin capsule. Blood levels of radioactivity peaked ...
Chalmers Ronald A - - 2006
McGregor et al. reported increased levels of an unidentified urinary compound (CFSUM1) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), with reduced excretion of another unidentified compound (CFSUM2), and suggested the possibility of chemical or metabolic 'markers' for CFS. The identity of CFSUM1 as reported was erroneous and the identities of ...
Gettman Matthew T - - 2005
PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of cranberry juice on urinary stone risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 normal subjects and 12 calcium oxalate stone formers underwent 2, 7-day phases of study in random order while on a controlled metabolic diet. Subjects ingested 1 l of cranberry juice ...
Tsukahara Hirokazu - - 2005
We measured urinary excretion of L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in preterm neonates on days 1, 5-10, and 25-30 of life. Urinary L-FABP levels (expressed as the ratio to creatinine) in preterm neonates were considerably higher than those of healthy adults. They did not change significantly during the study ...
Zhang Y C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Several epidemiology studies have found an increase in the major cockroach allergen Bla g 2 with reported pesticide use. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Our aim was to investigate the effect on the excretion of Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 allergens by cockroaches exposed to sub-lethal doses of ...
Shen Jun - - 2006
Epidemiological studies indicated that human arsenic exposure can induce urinary bladder cancer. Methylation of inorganic arsenic can generate more reactive and toxic organic arsenical species. In this regard, it was recently reported that the methylated arsenical metabolite, dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], induced urinary bladder tumors in rats. However, other methylated metabolites, ...
Robosky Lora C - - 2005
Genetic drift in animal populations has been a recognized concern for many years. Less understood is the potential for phenotypic "drift" or variation that is not related to any genetic change. Recently, stock Sprague-Dawley (Crl:CD(SD)) rats obtained from the Charles River Raleigh facility demonstrated a distinct endogenous urinary metabonomic profile ...
Förster Anke - - 2005
A nine-day dietary study involving 18 healthy volunteers was performed in order to investigate the influence of nutrition on the urinary excretion of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) fructoselysine, pyrraline, and pentosidine. From day two through day eight, most types of Maillard product-containing food had to be avoided. On day ...
Mordekar Santosh - - 2005
We present a 9-month-old male with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis who developed an acute encephalopathy with focal seizures and developmental regression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral striatal necrosis and raised glutarylcarnitine levels on tandem mass spectrometry of a (crisis) blood spot, and chromatography of organic acids revealed increased urinary excretion of ...
Garte Seymour - - 2005
Biomarkers of benzene exposure and effect were evaluated in 158 Bulgarian petrochemical workers and 50 matched controls. Air exposures to benzene averaged about 1.8 ppm, for workers and 0.02 ppm for controls. Urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, and S-phenylmuconic acid, showed dose response relationships with benzene air exposure. The dose response curve ...
Haufroid V - - 2005
A minireview is presented concerning the use of mercapturic acids as biological exposure index for electrophilic chemicals. Besides pure analytical aspects, this minireview considers possible issues in relation to (a) the added value of mercapturic acids as compared to other well validated biomarkers of exposure and (b) the high inter-individual ...
Pak Charles Y C - - 2005
PURPOSE: We determined why calcium oxalate stones instead of uric acid stones form in some patients with gouty diathesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gouty diathesis was diagnosed from absence of secondary causes of uric acid stones or low urinary pH, and reduced fractional excretion of urate with discriminant score of the ...
Moriwaki H - - 2005
The main metabolites of o-xylene in urine are o-methylhippuric acid, o-toluic acid, o-toluic acid glucuronide, 3,4-dimethylphenol, 3,4-dimethylphenol conjugates and o-xylylmercapturic acid. The urinary excretion of o-toluic acid, o-toluic acid conjugates and o-xylene were increased by the prior administration of sodium benzoate. Conversely, the amounts of o-methylhippuric acid, 3,4-dimethylphenol conjugates and ...
Negri Sara - - 2005
An LC-MS method is described for the determination of urinary sorbic acid (SA), a common food additive, which allows to measure down to 4 microg/L of the compound. The method involves an acidic hydrolysis followed by solid-phase extraction. The method was applied to two volunteers who ingested SA and to ...
Fustinoni Silvia - - 2005
This research compared the capability of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and benzene excreted in urine (U-benzene) to monitor low benzene exposure and evaluated the influence of smoking habit on these indices. Gasoline attendants, urban policemen, bus drivers and two groups of referents working in two large Italian ...
Sreemantula S - - 2005
Reserpine, an alkaloid from Rauwolfia serpentina was widely used for its antihypertensive action in the past. In the present investigation, reserpine methiodide (RMI), a quaternary analogue of reserpine was synthesised and evaluated biochemically for its central and peripheral amine depleting actions in rats and compared with reserpine. The 24 h ...
Deters Michael - - 2005
The authors have investigated whether cyclosporine decreases the serum concentration of mycophenolic acid, the active principle of the immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil, and increases that of the inactive metabolite 7-O-mycophenolic acid glucuronide by reducing their enterohepatic recirculation. Rats were treated daily with methylcellulose (1.66 mL/kg PO) plus 0.9% NaCl (6 mL/kg ...
Kasuya Yasuji - - 2005
This study describes an oral administration of 5 mg of [1,2,4,19-13C4,11alpha-2H]cortisol (cortisol-13C4,2H1) to a human subject performed on two separate occasions, one with cortisol-13C4,2H1 alone and the other with cortisol-13C4,2H1 plus 130 mg per day of glycyrrhetinic acid for 6 days. The stable isotope methodology employed allowed for the evaluation ...
Csanaky Iván - - 2005
Arsenate (AsV), the environmentally prevalent form of arsenic, is converted sequentially in the body to arsenite (AsIII), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAsV), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAsIII), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAsV) and some trimethylated metabolites. Although the biliary excretion of arsenic in rats is known to be glutathione (GSH)-dependent, involving transport of arsenic-GSH conjugates, ...
Verbeke K - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate, using isotope techniques, the in vivo effectiveness of a pH-dependent colonic delivery system. Methods: In order to dispose of differently labelled substrates for measurement of orocaecal transit time, inulin-14C-carboxylic acid was evaluated as an alternative substrate to inulin and lactose-13C-ureide. Secondly, the time of release of 13C- ...
Peiro Géraldine - - 2005
The objective of our study was to compare the information obtained through the use of three different urinary biomarkers of lipoperoxidation during the time course of a bromotrichloromethane (BrCCl3) induced oxidative stress in rats. These biomarkers were malondialdehyde (MDA) measured by LC/MS after derivatization, the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha measured by enzyme ...
Mulder Theo P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A major portion of the catechins in green tea is not absorbed in the small intestine. Bacteria in the colon convert nonabsorbed catechins into simpler phenolic compounds, which may also be absorbed. During the production of black tea, most catechins are polymerized to complex molecules called thearubigins. Little is ...
Kiep Lutz - - 2005
It is well known that in vitro preparations of the chick embryo can functionalise and conjugate selected model substances. Based on this biochemical knowledge an ex vivo model was developed to study xenobiotic metabolism in the incubated hen's egg. The xenobiotic is injected into the yolk sac, i.e. the nutritional ...
Balagué Claudia E - - 2004
Interfering Escherichia coli attachment to the urinary tract, using P-fimbriation inhibitors, can prevent pyelonephritis. Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are organic compounds structurally related, but with different pharmacological uses. These agents are potentially active in the urinary tract due to its elimination in an unaltered form by the renal route. This ...
Sala Alberto - - 2004
Alpha-1-microglobulin carries a set of covalently linked chromophores that give it a peculiar yellow-brown color, fluorescence properties, and both charge and size heterogeneity. In this report it is shown that these features are due to the adducts with the tryptophan metabolite, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its autoxidation products and that the modification ...
Randall D J - - 2004
The giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, is an amphibious, obligate, air-breathing teleost fish. It uses its buccal cavity for air breathing and for taking and holding large gulps of air. These fish live in mud burrows at the top of the intertidal zone of mangrove mudflats; the burrow water may be ...
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