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Results 451 - 500 of 1331
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Pontes Z B - - 1993
Factors affecting the caffeine acetylation phenotype were investigated in a French Caucasian population of 150 unrelated supposedly healthy subjects, aged 18 to 63 years. This population, including 75 men and 75 women, was used to determine whether the acetylation polymorphism is related to environmental influences such as smoking habits, intake ...
Edwards J W - - 1993
Occupational exposure to petroleum vapour was assessed in workers employed in suburban petroleum retail outlets. Urinary output of thioethers provided a non-specific estimate of exposure to chemicals metabolised via a mercapturic acid pathway. Urinary d-glucaric acid (DGA) excretion was taken as an estimate of hepatic enzyme activity. Sister chromatid exchange ...
Adibi S A - - 1993
A possible source of glutamine, for inclusion in the parenteral solutions, is glycylglutamine. The aim of this article is to review briefly the information on metabolism of glycylglutamine when administered intravenously. The fact that there is efficient utilization of intravenously infused glycylglutamine was evident with very little excretion in the ...
Chakraborty A K - - 1993
Hydroquinone administration in Bufo melanostictus causes an induction of indole amine 2,3-dioxygenase in skin and liver while simultaneously inhibiting tyrosinase in these organs. The result is discussed with the reports of higher urinary excretion of abnormal indole metabolites including derivatives of anthranilic acid in vitiliginous subjects (Roychoudhury and Chakraborty, Clinica. ...
Buchet J P - - 1993
Homovanillic acid, an end product of dopamine catabolism, and manganese (Mn) were measured in the urine of 68 male workers exposed to Mn-containing dust in a dry alkaline battery plant or an Mn oxide and salt producing plant, and in 35 control male subjects. The geometric mean of the airborne ...
Marklová E - - 1993
Indolylacryloylglycine (IAcrGly) is a regular constituent of human urine. Changes in its excretion have been observed, among other conditions, in some skin diseases. Skin lesions in burns are dealt with in the present paper. IAcrGly excretion has been followed during several weeks of hospital treatment and compared with that of ...
Behari J R - - 1993
Polyaminocarboxylic acids have widely been used an antidotes in heavy metal intoxication, however their hydrophilic nature renders them to be mostly distributed extracellularly. To facilitate the intracellular delivery of such chelating agent, triethlenetetraamine-hexaacetic acid (TTHA) was encapsulated in small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) or dehydration rehydration vesicles (DRV) and its effect ...
Löf A - - 1993
Nine male volunteers were exposed to 2H8-toluene (200 mg/m3 for two hours during a workload of 50 W) via inspiratory air with the aid of a breathing valve and mouthpiece. Labelled toluene was used to differentiate between hippuric acid originating from exposure to toluene and hippuric acid normally excreted in ...
Cucueco M T - - 1993
To compare symptoms with urinary metabolite levels, 900 workers from 7 organic solvent-using industries were studied. Urinary metabolites were determined using a high performance liquid chromatograph. Urinary hippuric acid concentrations exceeding the reference value (2.5 g/g creatinine) were found in 78 (8.7%) workers. However, only 3 (0.3%) and 1 (0.1%) ...
Sakai T - - 1993
In control subjects and workers exposed to glycol ethers and their acetates, we determined the urinary metabolites (three alkoxyacetic acids) by a simple and rapid method. Levels of urinary metabolites were significantly higher in the solvent workers than in the nonexposed subjects. The exposure levels measured by personal monitoring of ...
Schierbeek H - - 1993
Patients with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I (HT) excrete large amounts of succinylacetone (SA) in urine. Owing to structural resemblance of SA to delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), SA inhibits the second enzyme in the pathway for haeme biosynthesis, porphobilinogen synthase, resulting in increased urinary ALA excretion. We investigated the relationship between urinary ...
Li M H - - 1992
Recently, investigators have reported bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insects collected at hazardous waste sites. Little is known about differences in bioaccumulation of particular PCB congeners in insects. The authors report on the toxicokinetics of a non-coplanar ortho substituted congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-47) and a coplanar non-ortho substituted PCB, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl ...
Netzer T - - 1992
Triamterene and amiloride belong to the potassium retaining diuretics of the cycloamidine type. These agents exert natriuretic as well as antikaliuretic effects. After administration of high doses an additional magnesium-sparing property also becomes evident. Whereas amiloride is only metabolized to a minor extent, triamterene is rapidly bio-transformed to the phase-I ...
Fettman M J - - 1992
Experimental evidence indicates that maintenance of urinary pH < or = 6.4 is the single most effective means of preventing feline struvite crystalluria or urolithiasis of noninfectious causes. This may be accomplished by dietary acidification, but must be moderated to avoid potential adverse effects of excessive acidification, including bone demineralization, ...
Chen X B - - 1992
Endogenous allantoin derives from the breakdown of tissue nucleic acids. This study examined the effect of changes in protein supply on endogenous allantoin excretion by sheep. The animals were nourished by infusions of volatile fatty acids into the rumen and casein into the abomasum, thus avoiding ruminal microbial fermentation (i.e., ...
Andersson H - - 1992
The ileostomy model offers a method for direct, accurate and quantitative determination of small bowel excretion, provided the bacteriological degradation of the effluent can be minimized. The intraindividual variation is small, and rapid changes in excretion pattern due to dietary manipulations can be measured. Such ileostomy investigations have been important ...
Glasgow J F - - 1992
The urinary excretion of metabolites of orally administered phenylpropionic acid (PPA) in 72 children, aged 2 days to 16 years, thought to be at-risk of medium acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency has been studied. Forty had presented as Reye Syndrome, 9 as a Reye-like syndrome and 24 were sibs of decreased ...
Marescau B - - 1992
To better understand the biosynthesis of guanidinosuccinic acid, we determined urea, arginine, and guanidinosuccinic acid levels in nondialyzed uremic and hyperargininemic patients. These substances were also determined during several years of therapy in one hyperarginiemic patient. Interrelationships of guanidinosuccinic acid levels with their corresponding urea and arginine levels were assessed ...
Elpeleg O N - - 1992
Hypotonia was the initial symptom in four siblings from a nonconsanguineous Tunisian-Jewish family. Plasma carnitine was severely deficient, and urinary organic acid analysis revealed increased excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and 3-methylcrotonylglycine. 3-Methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase activity was reduced in skin fibroblasts; pyruvate carboxylase and serum biotinidase activities were normal. We conclude ...
Prandi C - - 1992
According to the hydrolysis performance "in vitro" and lipophylicity, two Furosemide (F) prodrugs were chosen from a series of acyloxymethylesters of F synthesized previously: P1 (acetyloxymethyl-4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilate ) and P4 (pivaloyloxymethyl-4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilate+ ++). The bioavailability studies were assayed over two groups of eight male Wistar rats as a randomized two-way crossover and ...
Bakos P - - 1992
Vasopressin and its synthetic analogs were studied for their effect on transepithelial water flux in frog urinary bladder. As compared with AVP, 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) was about 40 times less effective in stimulating osmotic water flow. The vasopressin analogs obtained by modification in positions 1 and 2 were: [1-(1-mercapto-4-tert-butylcyclohexaneacetic acid)] ...
Woollen B H - - 1992
1. The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin was administered orally to six male volunteers as a single dose of 3.3 mg (cis: trans 1:1) and dermally to six volunteers at a dose of 31 mg/800 cm2 (cis:trans 56:44) as a soya oil-based formulation. Urine samples were collected for up to 5 days ...
Kadono K - - 1992
We devised a clinical test of renal metabolism based on the synthesis of guanidinoacetic acid from citrulline in the proximal convoluted tubule. Intravenous administration of a citrulline/creatine solution to rats with modified levels of renal glycine amidinotransferase activity revealed a strong correlation (r = 0.921) between this activity and urinary ...
Newton J F - - 1992
A primary route of inactivation of leukotrienes and their receptor antagonists (LTRA) is metabolism by omega oxidation. SK&F 102922 [5-(2-(8-phenyloctyl)phenyl)-4,6-dithianonanedioic acid] is a LTRA that was designed to be resistant to omega oxidation. Therefore, these experiments were designed to characterize the metabolic fate of [14C]SK&F 102922. Following iv administration of ...
Maren T H - - 1992
We have sought to define urinary acid-base excretion in the marine teleost using the long-horned sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Urine flow (1.7 ml.h-1.kg-1) is relatively high, and glomerular filtration rate is very low (2.9 ml.h-1.kg-1). The urine-to-plasma ratio of inulin is 2. Renal clearance of p-aminohippurate is very high (108 ml.h-1.kg-1); ...
Mardens Y Y Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry, Free University of Brussels (ULB), - - 1992
We have compared a new isolation procedure for urinary organic acids using strong anion-exchange columns with a solvent partition (ethyl acetate) method. Urinary samples from two healthy children and from nine children with organic acidurias were analysed by both procedures. Although the solid-phase extraction is more efficient for polyhydroxy acids, ...
Wright P A - - 1992
To study mechanisms involved in renal glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) regulation in response to systemic acid loading, we have measured blood pH, ammonium excretion, renal GDH mRNA levels, and GDH activity in rats. Acid intake (0.28 M NH4Cl in drinking water for 3 days) increased GDH mRNA levels in the renal ...
Bödeker D - - 1992
1. The effect of sodium propionate on urinary excretion of orotic acid was investigated. 2. Solutions containing sodium propionate or NaCl, 750 mM/day each, were continuously infused into the rumen for 10 days. 3. During NaCl infusion, an urinary orotic acid excretion of 290 +/- 80 micrograms/day was noted. The ...
Tomokuni K - - 1992
Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) concentration was determined by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatography in 22 workers occupationally exposed to lead. The urinary excretion of ABA was increased with increasing exposure to lead. The excretion of urinary ABA had a significant correlation with concentration of lead in blood (Pb-B) (r = ...
Cheng T S - - 1992
The mechanism of kidney damage commonly seen in patients with intravascular hemolysis is not entirely clear. Injection of distilled water (4 ml within 5 seconds) into the carotid arteries of rats resulted in intravascular hemolysis leading to hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, reduction in inulin clearance, and elevation of urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion. ...
Shinka T - - 1992
A patient with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria was diagnosed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The patient had severe metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia and excreted abnormal amounts of 3-methylglutaconic, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric, 3-methylglutaric, 3-hydroxyisovaleric and glutaric acids in the urine. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid appeared as two peaks on the chromatogram after trimethylsilylation. One was a ...
Totsuka K - - 1992
The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of pivalic acid, a major metabolite of S-1108, were studied with three healthy volunteers. Concentrations of S-1006 (the active compound), pivalic acid, and pivaloylcarnitine in plasma and urine were measured after administration of S-1108. Recoveries in urine at the doses of S-1108 given (100 and 200 ...
Donnelly S - - 1992
Incomplete renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and overt distal RTA may be different stages of the same underlying pathophysiology in certain individuals. The rationale that draws these conditions together is the relatively alkaline pH of the urine, hypocitraturia, and a possible familial association. The rate of excretion of ammonium (NH4+), on ...
Black R M - - 1992
The urinary excretion profiles of some metabolites of sulfur mustard were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after cutaneous application of sulfur mustard in rats. Excretion profiles of the individual metabolites thiodiglycol and thiodiglycol sulfoxide, derived from the hydrolysis of sulfur mustard, were determined in different groups of three rats. Concentrations ...
Llobet J M - - 1992
Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenglycolbis-(beta-amino-ethylether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), tartaric acid, KRYPTOFIX 222, and KRYPTOFIX 5 were evaluated for their efficacy in mobilization of strontium from the body of mice which had received 20 sc injections of strontium nitrate (95 mg/kg/injection) for 4 w. Twenty-four hours after the last strontium injection, ip administration ...
Wang R S - - 1992
Rats were exposed to toluene at a wide range of concentrations from 50 to 4000 ppm for six hours, and the effects of ethanol and phenobarbital (PB) treatments on the pharmacokinetics of toluene metabolism were investigated. Ethanol treatment influenced toluene metabolism mainly at low exposure concentrations. Thus ethanol accelerated the ...
Patel M - - 1992
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is extensively conjugated with glucuronic acid and sulfate prior to renal excretion. A minor metabolic route involves microsomal oxidation of acetaminophen to a hepatotoxic reactive intermediate, which subsequently undergoes glutathione (GSH) conjugation, yielding cysteine and mercapturate conjugates, both of which are excreted in the urine (Slattery et al., ...
Korn M - - 1992
Ethylbenzene is an important industrial solvent and a key substance in styrene production. Ethylbenzene metabolism leads to the formation of mandelic acid, which occurs in two enantiomeric forms, and phenylglyoxylic acid. To decide which enantiomer is preferably formed, 70 urine samples of exposed workers were taken at the end of ...
Aposhian H V - - 1992
Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is bound to plasma albumin in humans and appears to be excreted in the urine as the DMSA-cysteine mixed disulfide. The pharmacokinetics of DMSA have been determined after its administration to humans po. For the blood, the tmax and t1/2 were 3.0 h + 0.45 SE and ...
van Hogezand R A - - 1992
After oral administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid a substantial proportion of the acetylated form is excreted in the faeces. We have studied the role of the faecal microflora in acetylating 5-aminosalicylic acid. In faeces incubated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions there was acetylation of 5-aminosalicylic acid. Of the anaerobic bacteria ...
Cupisti A - - 1992
To better define the relative role of metabolic factors in the recurrence of stone formation, we studied the 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium (uCa), citrate (uCit), oxalic acid (uOx) and uric acid (uUa) in 73 male patients with primary calcium oxalate urolithiasis. According to the episodes of stone formation per ...
Walker V - - 1992
Using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the effects of birth asphyxia on the urinary organic acid profile of term babies was investigated. Random urine samples were collected on days 1 and 8 from 19 babies with fetal distress, 19 with moderate birth asphyxia and 12 with severe asphyxia causing encephalopathy. Controls ...
Nelson E - - 1992
Toxicants can be converted in vivo by a variety of biotransformation reactions into substances that are more, equally, or less noxious than the parent compound. Although conjugation with glutathione is a process that usually results in less harmful products, these products might subsequently form new metabolites that exert more toxicity ...
Winter S M - - 1992
6-n-Alkylchromone-2-carboxylic acids are metabolized solely by aliphatic oxidation. In the rabbit, the 6-n-propyl congener (PCCA) undergoes omega-1 hydroxylation exclusively. Following administration of PCCA to female Dutch rabbits (500 mumol/kg), some 77% of the dose was excreted in the urine, 41% as PCCA and 36% as 6-(2'-hydroxy-n-propyl)chromone-2-carboxylic acid. Since this metabolite ...
Helander A - - 1992
The urinary excretion patterns of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) metabolites 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) were examined after ingestion of bananas, a food rich in 5-HT. The bananas contained on an average 25 micrograms 5-HT/g pulp. Both urinary 5-HIAA and 5-HTOL increased markedly (15- to 30-fold) shortly after eating ...
Pedrotti A - - 1992
The acute renal effects of hypoxemia-reoxygenation and the putative protective action of WR-2721 [S-, 2-(3-aminopropyl-amino)-, etylphosphosphorothioic acid], a drug with specific properties such as PTH-secretion inhibiting, calcium lowering and free radical scavenging activities, were investigated in anesthetized-ventilated rabbits. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow (RBF) were assessed by ...
Rustom R - - 1992
Increased renal ammoniagenesis is pathogenic in animals. Thus, tubular degradation of filtered proteins to ammonia might link proteinuria to disease progression. The tubular uptake, metabolism and fractional degradation of aprotinin 99mTc (Trasylol), were measured in 26 glomerulonephritic patients with normal renal function, 10 with proteinuria > 5 g/24 h. In ...
Puche R C - - 1992
In normal subjects fed western-mixed diets, in the fasting state, 39.6% of the variance of calciuria is accounted for by net acid excretion and 4% by sulfaturia. In the postprandial period, net acid accounts for 6.9% and sulfaturia for 11.8% of the variance of calciuria. As expected, after a load ...
Fleck C - - 1992
In previous studies it could be shown that after bilateral nephrectomy (NX) the excretory function of the liver is disturbed. To further clarify whether or not this "renohepatic syndrome" is caused by toxic effects of uremia or by competition phenomena between various uraemic toxins an additional aspect was investigated: the ...
Ketting D - - 1991
Urinary amino acids were isolated from the urine of healthy controls and a patient with a short bowel syndrome. Following derivatization with isopropyl alcohol/HCl and trifluoroacetic anhydride the amino acid enantiomers were separated by gas chromatography on a Chirasil-L-Val column. All subjects excreted D-alanine (10-30% of total Ala). The percentage ...
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