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Gupte Renuka - - 2011
Autotaxin (ATX, NPP2) is a member of the nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase enzyme family. ATX catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by lysophospholipase D activity, which leads to generation of the growth-factor-like lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is highly upregulated in metastatic and chemotherapy-resistant carcinomas and represents a potential target ...
Eckert Elisabeth - - 2011
Hydroxyalkyl mercapturic acids (HAMA) are the main urinary metabolites of several alkylating substances that possess a carcinogenic potential, like acrolein, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and glycidol. These alkylating substances are used extensively in industrial processes, but they do also occur environmentally, e.g. in tobacco smoke. The aim of this ...
Shimbata Tomoya - - 2011
Sweet wheat (SW), which lacks functional granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and starch synthase IIa (SSIIa), accumulates high levels of free sugars in immature seed. Here, we examined the effects of the lack of these two enzymes on mature kernel composition. Whole grain flour of SW had higher levels of ...
Svetashev Vasily I - - 2011
A mild and convenient method has been developed for preparing 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives of fatty acids for GC-MS analysis. First, fatty acid methyl esters are converted to corresponding amides by incubation overnight at room temperature with 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and a catalytic amount of sodium methoxide. The resulting 2-(methylpropanol) amides were isolated ...
Hu Jiang-Ning - - 2011
Medium chain triacyglycerols (MCTs)-enriched oil was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction of carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) from Cinnamomum camphora seeds. The SFE-CO2 process was optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD). The maximum oil yield (42.82%) was obtained under the optimal SFE-CO2 conditions: extraction pressure, 21.16 MPa; extraction temperature, 45.67℃; and extraction time, ...
Rodríguez-Díaz Maité - - 2011
Objectives  Quillaic acid is the major aglycone of the widely studied saponins of the Chilean indigenous tree Quillaja saponaria Mol. The industrial availability of quillaja saponins and the extensive functionalisation of this triterpenoid provide unique opportunities for structural modification and pose a challenge from the standpoint of selectivity in regard ...
Singh Ajay Kumar - - 2011
Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD3)-catalyzed conversion of linoleic acid to linolenic acid (18:3) is an important step for the biosynthesis of fatty acids as well as the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) in plants. We report that silencing three microsomal isoforms of GmFAD3 enhanced the accumulation of Bean pod mottle virus ...
Gibson Robert A - - 2011
Over the past two decades, there has been a marked shift in the fatty acid composition of the diets of industrialized nations towards increased intake of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), largely as a result of the replacement of saturated fats with plant-based polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). ...
Liu Changchun - - 2011
A simple, point of care, inexpensive, disposable cassette for the detection of nucleic acids extracted from pathogens was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette utilizes a single reaction chamber for isothermal amplification of nucleic acids. The chamber is equipped with an integrated, flow-through, Flinders Technology Associates (Whatman FTA®) membrane for ...
Veiga T R - - 2011
HLA-B*52:21 differs from the closest, HLA-B*52:01:02, by two nucleotides (CTG →TGG), leading to an amino acid substitution from Leu to Trp at codon 156.
Venkatramani Ravindra - - 2011
Theoretical studies of charge transport in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) indicate that structure and dynamics modulate the charge transfer rates, and that different members of a structural ensemble support different charge transport mechanisms. Here, we review the influences of nucleobase geometry, electronic structure, solvent environment, and ...
Novo-Uzal Esther - - 2011
Cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids and the composition of lignin were studied in relation to the digestibility of a collection of 91 maize silages in wethers. Total lignin and guaiacyl content showed the highest correlation coefficients with digestibility. Using the above-mentioned chemical parameters, eight equations were also developed to predict digestibility. ...
Heaton James - - 2011
Aristolochic acids are known to contribute to various renal disorders; therefore, expanding the availability of analytical methodology to detect these compounds is important in order to assess the quality of Chinese herbal medicines in which they can be found. Twelve medicinal herbal samples were procured from various sources and extracted ...
Yang Chia-Ann - - 2011
Trichoderma spp. are used as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, but their biocontrol mechanisms are poorly understood. A novel l-amino oxidase (Th-LAAO) was identified from the extracellular proteins of Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323. Here, we show a FAD-binding glycoprotein with the best substrate specificity constant for l-phenylalanine. ...
Goldman Mitchel P - - 2011
The author has declared no conflicts in regards to this article.
Yasmeen Farhat - - 2011
In this study, we present liquid chromatographic and mass spectral data for predominant terpenoic acids formed through oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene, and Δ(3) -carene that occur in fine forest aerosol from K-puszta, Hungary, a rural site with coniferous vegetation. Characterization of these secondary organic aerosol tracers in fine ambient ...
Quesnel Dean M - - 2011
Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a major contributor to toxicity in tailings waste generated from bitumen production in the Athabasca Oil Sands region. While investigations have shown that bacteria can biodegrade NAs and reduce tailings toxicity, the potential of algae to biodegrade NAs and the biochemical mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. ...
Spindler Xanthe - - 2011
Enantioselective anti-l-amino acid antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles are shown to facilitate the detection of latent fingermarks by interacting with amino acids present in friction ridge secretions. This antibody-based system is particularly effective for the enhancement of aged and dried fingermarks on non-porous surfaces, an area unexploited by current techniques.
Khan A Majeed - - 2011
Seven secondary metabolites, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), ferulic acid (3), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy acetophenone (4), lupeol (5), 2'-O-ethylmurrangatin (6) and hibiscetin heptamethyl ether (7) were the natural products isolated from various medicinal plants. Their structures were identified by spectral comparison with previously reported data. The compounds 1-7 were screened for ...
Lauritzen Lotte - - 2011
The present review of determinants of infant fatty acid status was undertaken as part of a conference on 'Fatty acid status in early life in low-income countries: determinants and consequences'. Emphasis is placed on the essential fatty acids, and particularly the physiologically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of ...
Lorenzo J M - - 2011
A total of 80 dry-cured duck breasts were used in this study. The gross composition, color and textural parameters, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, macro- and micromineral content, and sensory properties were analyzed. In comparison with other dry-cured meat products made from cuts of whole meat, dry-cured duck breast ...
Ohlin Markus - - 2011
The use of benzylidene acetals as protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry is utterly important. The main advantage of benzylidene acetal is the ability for regioselective openings. 4,6-benzylidene acetal can be opened selectively under reductive conditions to yield either free 4-OH or 6-OH. There are a plethora of methods available for ...
Briend André - - 2011
Fat intake may be low in low-income countries and little information is available on its composition in terms of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids (FA). As a result, long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status is a concern, especially in settings where fish intake is low and/or common sources of ...
Lazzaro Daniel P - - 2011
The carbometalated complex Pt(dppzϕ*)Cl, where dppzϕ* denotes the 6-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine ligand, exhibits emission in a dichloromethane solution at room temperature with a concentration-dependent excited-state lifetime. Extrapolation to zero Pt(dppzϕ*)Cl concentration yields a limiting lifetime of 11.0 μs in the absence of dioxygen along with an impressive emission quantum yield of 0.17. ...
Zouboulis C C - - 2011
Background:  Treatment of SZ95 sebocytes with the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (LA) and the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) leads to sebaceous lipogenesis. Animal data indicates that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, is involved in sebaceous lipogenesis and the proinflammatory signalling in the ...
Jalili M - - 2011
The effect of 18 different chemicals, which included acidic compounds (sulfuric acid, chloridric acid, phosphoric acid, benzoic acid, citric acid, acetic acid), alkaline compounds (ammonia, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), salts (acetate ammonium, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydrosulfite, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate) and oxidising agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium ...
Mota-Morales Josué D - - 2011
Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) based upon mixtures of Acrylic Acid (AA) or Methacrylic Acid (MAA) and Choline Chloride (CCl) demonstrated superior performance than regular organic solvents and even ionic liquids for frontal polymerizations (FPs). Full recovering of CCl after FP provided an interesting green character to the process.
Dupuy Stéphanie - - 2011
A recently isolated gold(i) complex, [Au(IPr)(OH)], permits the transformation of carboxylic acids to the corresponding decarboxylated gold(i)-aryl complex without the use of silver co-catalyst under mild reaction conditions.
Lee Han-Chih Hencher - - 2011
Data of classical inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) of amino acids, organic acids and fatty acid oxidation are largely lacking in Hong Kong, where mass spectrometry-based expanded newborn screening for IEM has not been initiated. The current study aimed to evaluate the approximate incidence, spectrum and other characteristics of classical ...
Völker Denise - - 2011
Based on repeatedly reported extensive pantothenic acid disappearance in the rumen, the present study is aimed at examining if pantothenic acid is used for a more efficient ruminal fermentation and microbial growth in an artificial rumen (Rusitec). Three substrates differing in roughage/concentrate ratio were incubated with and without the addition ...
Brenna J Thomas - - 2011
Scores of animal studies demonstrate that seed oils replete with linoleic acid and very low in linolenic acid fed as the exclusive source of fat through pregnancy and lactation result in visual, cognitive, and behavioural deficits in the offspring. Commodity peanut, sunflower, and safflower oils fed to mother rats, guinea ...
Horton Rebecca B - - 2011
In bioanalytical chemistry, a detailed chemical understanding of biomaterials is often difficult to obtain due to the sheer number of analytes contained in a sample along with the samples' generally low reproducibility. This study presents a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique in conjunction with innovations in sample preparation and ...
Glaser Claudia - - 2011
Blood and tissue contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) are related to numerous health outcomes including cardiovascular health, allergies, mental health and cognitive development. Evidence has accumulated to show that in addition to diet, common polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have very ...
Andiç S - - 2011
The effects of packaging methods (nonvacuum and vacuum) on biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, and histamine) and organic acids (citric, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric) during storage for 180 d at 4°C were investigated in Kashar cheese. Dry matter, titratable acidity, total nitrogen, water-soluble nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid-soluble ...
Lilley David M J - - 2011
The nucleolytic ribozymes use general acid-base catalysis to contribute significantly to their rate enhancement. The VS (Varkud satellite) ribozyme uses a guanine and an adenine nucleobase as general base and acid respectively in the cleavage reaction. The hairpin ribozyme is probably closely similar, while the remaining nucleolytic ribozymes provide some ...
Michaelsen Kim F - - 2011
With increasing interest in the potential effects of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in early life, there is a need for data on the dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in low-income countries. This review compiles information on the content in breast milk and in foods that are important ...
Wu Qingqing - - 2011
A microdevice made of glass for genetic analysis has been fabricated, for the first time, for integration of extraction of nucleic acids and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), followed by online fluorescence detection of amplification products on a single chip. The nucleic acid (NA) extraction region consists of a microfabricated serpentine ...
Figueiredo Jane C - - 2011
Observational data suggest that lower folate status is associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia, implying that folate may be useful as a chemopreventive agent. We conducted a combined analysis of three large randomized trials of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of metachronous adenomas in patients with an ...
Ramakrishnan Usha - - 2011
Maternal mental health (MMH) problems are a major public health concern with adverse consequences for women, their offspring and families. Intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are found predominantly in cold water fish, has been associated with a ...
Parra-Cabrera Socorro - - 2011
Nutritional demands for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are high during pregnancy. Diets low in DHA and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty-acids (LC-PUFA) in pregnancy are associated with poorer DHA status and slower reestablishment of maternal stores. To assess intakes of LC-PUFA among urban pregnant women in Central Mexico, we conducted a cross-sectional survey ...
Prentice Andrew M AM MRC International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. - - 2011
In vitro and animal studies point to numerous mechanisms by which fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), can modulate the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. These data strongly suggest that improving the fatty acid supply of young children in low-income countries might have immune benefits. ...
Ghaemi-Oskouie Faranak F Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease and Immunology Research Group, University of Calgary, 4A18 HRIC, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, - - 2011
Gout is an ancient disease that still plagues us. Its pathogenic culprit, uric acid crystal deposition in tissues, is a strong inflammatory stimulant. In recent years, the mechanisms through which uric acid crystals promote inflammation have been a subject of increasing interest among rheumatologists and immunologists. Uric acid has been ...
Chiou Eric E Center for Motility and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02155, - - 2011
Existing tests for supraesophageal gastric reflux (SEGR) that focus on pH drops <4 in the proximal esophagus have had limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of newly proposed pH criteria on SEGR detection. Twenty-four-hour dual-sensor pH tracings of 32 patients were ...
Pareyson Davide D Clinic of Central and Peripheral Degenerative Neuropathies Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Foundation, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute, Milan, Italy. - - 2011
Ascorbic acid reduced the severity of neuropathy in transgenic mice overexpressing peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), a model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) associated with the PMP22 duplication. However, in three 1-year trials, ascorbic acid had no benefit in human beings. We did a multicentre 2-year trial to test ...
Carter Brian - - 2011
In the cellulosic ethanol process, furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid are formed during the high temperature acidic pretreatment step needed to convert biomass into fermentable sugars. These compounds can inhibit cellulase enzymes and fermentation organisms at relatively low concentrations (≥ 1 g/L). Effective removal of these inhibitory compounds would ...
Hu Miao - - 2011
By taking an anaerobic Dehalococcoides-containing consortium (designated UC-1) as the research object, the influence of humic acid on the degradation of TCE by UC-1 was examined. The results indicated that (i) TCE was more rapidly degraded in the presence of humic acid compared with the control and the TCE removal ...
Holinga George J - - 2011
Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to characterize the interfacial structure of eight individual amino acids-l-phenylalanine, l-leucine, glycine, l-lysine, l-arginine, l-cysteine, l-alanine, and l-proline-in aqueous solution adsorbed at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. Specifically, SFG vibrational spectra were obtained for the amino acids at the solid-liquid interface between ...
Katritzky Alan R - - 2011
Reactions of <i>O</i>-Pg(α-hydroxyacyl)benzotriazoles with (a) unprotected α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, (b) amino acids and (c) amines afforded respectively chirally pure (a) oligoesters, (b) depsidipeptides and (c) amide conjugates (yields 52-94%). <i>N</i>-Pg(α-Aminoacyl)benzotriazoles reacted with α-hydroxycarboxylic acids to yield depsidipeptides (47-87%). <i>N</i>-Pg(Depsidipeptidoyl)benzotriazoles, obtained from depsidipeptides, gave depsitripeptides (yields 55-78%) on reactions with amino acids ...
Svennerstam Henrik - - 2011
• Recent studies of Arabidopsis have identified several transporters as being important for amino acid uptake. • We used Arabidopsis plants with altered expression of lysine histidine transporter 1 (LHT1), amino acid permease 1 (AAP1) and amino acid permease 5 (AAP5) with the aim of disentangling the roles of each ...
Yuan Feng-Quan - - 2011
We present a PdCl(2)-catalyzed protocol for highly efficient allylation and benzylation of a rich variety of N-, O-, and S-containing heteroarenes under base/acid, additive, and ligand-free conditions. The method represents the very few examples for simple, universally applicable, clean, and atom-efficient functionalization of heteroarenes.
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