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Tiwari Anjani K - - 2011
The acetylcholine receptor is an essential link between the brain and the muscles, so it is a sensitive location for attack. In this study, some reversible [diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-(amino acid)(2)] have been docked computationally to the active site of the acetylcholine receptor. The induced fit method was employed to perform the ...
Bazan Nicolas G - - 2011
The harmony and function of the complex brain circuits and synapses are sustained mainly by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, neurotrophins, gene regulation, and factors, many of which are incompletely understood. A common feature of brain circuit components, such as dendrites, synaptic membranes, and other membranes of the nervous system, is ...
Lenzi Almeida K C - - 2011
The importance of essential fatty acids, in particular the omega-3 family, in the central nervous system development of newborns is well documented. The flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is considered one of the best vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids. The influence of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed on the brain development ...
Mahaffey Kathryn R KR Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, George Washington University School of Public Health, Washington DC, - - 2011
Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish ...
Huo Taoguang - - 2011
Realgar is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used for thousands of years and are claimed to have therapeutic effects. The toxicity from realgar or realgar-containing traditional medicines has raised public concern. However, the neurotoxicity induced by realgar is less reported. Amino acid neurotransmitters are closely linked to the ...
Borges Karin - - 2012
The triglyceride of heptanoate (C7 fatty acid), triheptanoin, is a tasteless oil used to treat rare metabolic disorders in USA and France. Heptanoate is metabolized by β-oxidation to provide propionyl-CoA, which after carboxylation can produce succinyl-CoA, resulting in anaplerosis - the refilling of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Heptanoate is also ...
Curatolo Niccolo - - 2011
Omega-3 and omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiological processes in the brain. While experimental data have shown that PUFA have anticonvulsant properties, the outcomes of clinical trials have been controversial. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a PUFA which has been ...
Mitchell Ryan W - - 2011
The blood-brain barrier formed by the brain capillary endothelial cells provides a protective barrier between the systemic blood and the extracellular environment of the central nervous system. Brain capillaries are a continuous layer of endothelial cells with highly developed tight junctional complexes and a lack of fenestrations. The presence of ...
De Petrocellis Luciano - - 2011
Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system. The effects of 11 pure cannabinoids and botanical extracts [botanical drug substance (BDS)] from Cannabis varieties selected to contain a more abundant cannabinoid, on TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1, human recombinant diacylglycerol ...
Yuki D - - 2011
Sulfatide (ST) is a sphingolipid with an important role in the central nervous system as a major component of the myelin sheath. ST contains a structurally variable ceramide moiety, with a fatty acid substituent of varying carbon-chain length and double-bond number. Hydroxylation at the α-2 carbon position of the fatty ...
Cetin H - - 2012
The larvicidal activity of some lichen metabolites, (+)-usnic acid, atranorin, 3-hydroxyphysodic acid and gyrophoric acid, against the second and third instar larvae of the mosquito Culiseta longiareolata were studied. All metabolites caused high larvicidal activities. When metabolites were compared on the basis of their LC(50) values, the order of increasing ...
Wang Ming Li - - 2011
A panel of 55 peanut lines was analyzed for fatty acid composition with gas chromatography and also genotyped with SNP markers from the FAD2 genes by real-time PCR. Significant variation in fatty acid composition was identified, and the ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid (O/L) ranged from 1.23 to ...
Rapoport Stanley I - - 2011
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is critical for maintaining normal brain structure and function, and is considered neuroprotective. Its brain concentration depends on dietary DHA content and hepatic conversion from its dietary derived n-3 precursor, α-linolenic acid (α-LNA). We have developed an in vivo method in rats using quantitative autoradiography and intravenously ...
Musgrave Travis - - 2011
We have characterized the changes in tissue concentrations of amino acids and biogenic amines in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice with MOG(35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model commonly used to study multiple sclerosis (MS). High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse tissue samples from five ...
Burov Sergey - - 2011
Prolonged oral creatine administration resulted in remarkable neuroprotection in experimental models of brain stroke. However, because of its polar nature creatine has poor ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) without specific creatine transporter (CRT). Thus, synthesis of hydrophobic derivatives capable of crossing the BBB by alternative pathway is of ...
Wyse Angela T S - - 2011
Proline is an amino acid with an essential role for primary metabolism and physiologic functions. Hyperprolinemia results from the deficiency of specific enzymes for proline catabolism, leading to tissue accumulation of this amino acid. Hyperprolinemic patients can present neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities, whose aetiopathogenesis is poorly understood. This review ...
Fisher Bernard J - - 2011
Sepsis-induced lung injury is a persisting clinical problem with no direct therapy. Recent work suggests that intravenously infused ascorbic acid improves the circulatory dysfunction of sepsis. We used a model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury to determine whether parenteral ascorbic acid modulates the dysregulated proinflammatory, procoagulant state that leads to ...
Liu Li - - 2011
Osteoblasts synthesize bone in polarized groups of cells sealed by tight junctions. Large amounts of acid are produced as bone mineral is precipitated. We addressed the mechanism by which cells manage this acid load by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) in non-transformed osteoblasts in response to weak acid or bicarbonate loading. ...
Atri M S - - 2011
α-Lactalbumin α-La), together with oleic acid can be converted to a complex, which kills tumor cells selectively. Cytotoxic α-La -oleic acid and α-La -linoleic acid complexes were generated by adding fatty acid to camel holo α-La at 60°C (referred to as La-OA-60 and La-LA-60 state, respectively). Structural properties of these ...
Abdel-Tawab Mona - - 2011
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake is associated with high prevalence of gastrointestinal or cardiovascular adverse effects. All efforts to develop NSAIDs that spare the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovasculature are still far from achieving a breakthrough. In the last two decades, preparations of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata (a ...
Barker Felix M FM - - 2011
Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n-3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by ...
Subaiea Gehad M - - 2011
Evidence from our laboratory suggests that tolfenamic acid has a potential for slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through lowering cortical levels of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) intermediates [1]. In this study, we examined the ability of tolfenamic acid to cross the ...
Cohen Jessica L - - 2011
We report a new acid-sensitive, biocompatible, and biodegradable microparticulate delivery system, spermine modified acetalated-dextran (Spermine-Ac-DEX), which can be used to efficiently encapsulate siRNA. These particles demonstrated efficient gene knockdown in HeLa-luc cells with minimal toxicity. This knockdown was comparable to that obtained using Lipofectamine, a commercially available transfection reagent generally ...
Hashimoto Michio - - 2011
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3), the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain, is essential for brain growth and development. Recent evidence has indicated the potential health benefits of DHA for managing Alzheimer's disease (AD). For example, dietary administration of DHA considerably protects against and ameliorates the impairment ...
Boneva Nadezhda B - - 2011
Adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain is well-known to occur in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is related to learning, memory, and emotions, adult hippocampal neurogenesis possibly contributes to these functions. Adult neurogenesis is modulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids ...
Xu Yanxia - - 2011
The coupling of the 1-carboxyl of DMSA with L-amino acids led to a class of novel 1-(carbonyl-L-amino-acid)-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acids (DMSA-amino acid conjugates, DMSA-Gly, -Ser, -Val, -Leu, -Ile, -Asn, -Asp, -Gln, -Glu, -Met, -Phe and -Trp). In the in vivo evaluation of the Pb-loaded mice 0.4 mmol/kg of the conjugates effectively decreased ...
Fauser Jane K - - 2011
Fatty acids (FA) are bioactive molecules which have potential as adjunctive chemotherapeutic agents. FA are classified as short-, medium; or long-chain on the basis of the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain and have been reported to induce apoptosis in vitro in a range of cancer cell types, ...
Rowland Steven J SJ Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, UK. - - 2011
The oils sands industry of Canada produces large volumes of process water (OSPW) which is stored in large lagoons. The OSPW contains complex mixtures of somewhat toxic, water-soluble, acid-extractable organic matter sometimes called 'naphthenic acids' (NA). Concerns have been raised over the possible environmental impacts of leakage of OSPW and ...
Adwan L I - - 2011
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The search for therapeutic strategies that lower these peptides has mainly focused on the proteolytic processing of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), and other post-transcriptional pathways. The transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is vital for the ...
Steventon Glyn B - - 2011
The amino acid derivative, S-carboxymethyl-L: -cysteine, is an anti-oxidant agent extensively employed as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of human pulmonary conditions. A major biotransformation route of this drug, which displays considerable variation in capacity in man, involves the oxidation of the sulfide moiety to the inactive S-oxide metabolite. Previous ...
Cervera Mirna Fernández - - 2011
The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, ...
Gao Jinsuo - - 2011
The example of syn-aldol reaction of cyclohexanone to aldehyde was demonstrated based on chiral diamine organocatalysts and it was realized either by increasing the molecular size of acid additives or by introducing a hydrogen-bond donor into acid additives.
Lammens Tijs M - - 2011
Succinonitrile is the precursor of 1,4-diaminobutane, which is used for the industrial production of polyamides. This paper describes the synthesis of biobased succinonitrile from glutamic acid and glutamine, amino acids that are abundantly present in many plant proteins. Synthesis of the intermediate 3-cyanopropanoic amide was achieved from glutamic acid 5-methyl ...
Monfregola Luca - - 2011
A green process was followed to modify pectin samples under solvent free conditions, obtaining pectin at increasing concentration of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The weight loss of the modified powders showed a degradation path very similar to the pure pectin, indicating that the pristine structure was preserved after the ...
Bera Asit Kumar - - 2011
  This study was accomplished to exemplify the possible protective role of ascorbic acid and mushroom lectin against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and impairment of superoxide dismutase (SOD) production pathway in hepatocytes of rat. Hepatocytes were isolated from rat and treated with sodium arsenite (AS), arsenic plus ascorbic acid (AS+AA) and arsenic ...
Campbell Meghan A - - 2011
Oligonucleotide chemistry has been developed greatly over the past three decades, with many advances in increasing nuclease resistance, enhancing duplex stability and assisting with cellular uptake. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a structurally rigid modification that increases the binding affinity of a modified-oligonucleotide. In contrast, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) is ...
Nikolov Plamen Y - - 2011
The chemical reactivity of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) with lysine, glycine and proline was studied using isotope labeling technique. To confirm the formation of HMF adducts in glucose amino acid model systems a useful strategy was developed in which products simultaneously possessing six glucose (HMF moiety) and any number of amino acid ...
Li Yong - - 2011
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed for profiling of tobacco leaves. The differentiation among tobacco leaves planted in two different regions was investigated. Prior to analysis, the extraction solvent formulation was optimized and a combination of water, methanol and acetonitrile with a volume ratio of 3:1:1 was found to ...
Aprile Alessio - - 2011
The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a "sweet" lemon variety since it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris tree that ...
Lee Chang Hoon - - 2011
A cobalt(II) hangman porphyrin with a xanthene backbone and a carboxylic acid hanging group catalyzes the production of hydrogen from benzoic and tosic acid in acetonitrile solutions. The hanging group is able to deliver a single proton to the metal, thus enabling the determination that protonation of CoIIH is exclusively ...
Blanchet Christophe - - 2011
Curves+, a revised version of the Curves software for analyzing the conformation of nucleic acid structures, is now available as a web server. This version, which can be freely accessed at http://gbio-pbil.ibcp.fr/cgi/Curves_plus/, allows the user to upload a nucleic acid structure file, choose the nucleotides to be analyzed and after ...
Allison Sarah E - - 2011
The biosynthetic enzymes involved in wall teichoic acid biogenesis in gram-positive bacteria have been the subject of renewed investigation in recent years with the benefit of modern tools of biochemistry and genetics. Nevertheless, there have been only limited investigations into the enzymes that glycosylate wall teichoic acid. Decades-old experiments in ...
Mols Maarten - - 2011
Coping with acid environments is one of the prerequisites for the soil saprophytic and human pathogenic lifestyle of Bacillus cereus. This minireview highlights novel insights in the responses displayed by vegetative cells and germinating spores of B. cereus upon exposure to low pH as well as organic acids, including acetic ...
Yu Qiyu - - 2011
It is well-known that silica can be etched in alkaline media or in a unique hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution, which is widely used to prepare various kinds of hollow nanostructures (including silica hollow structures) via silica-templating methods. In our experiments, we found that stòˆber silica spheres could be etched in ...
Oztürk Nilgün - - 2011
Abstract The infusions and extracts obtained from leaves with flowers, fruit peel, and seed from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Family Rosaceae) were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their total content of phenolics, levels of phenolic acids, and in vitro antiradical activity. Total ...
Scott Emily E - - 2011
The relationship between inorganic nitrogen (N) cycling and plant productivity is well established. However, recent research has demonstrated the ability of plants to take up low molecular weight organic N compounds (i.e., amino acids) at rates that often rival those of inorganic N forms. In this study, we hypothesize that ...
Clemmensen Dorte - - 2011
PURPOSE: In Denmark, prevention to reduce the spina bifida birth rate has focused on two areas: folic acid supplementation (1997) and changes in the national ultrasonography screening programme (2004). Myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most severe malformation among the spina bifidas. Taking into consideration the potential negative effect of high-dose folic ...
Holloway Chloe A - - 2011
Modification of the ring nucleus of tetramic acids derived from serine gives chiral heterocyclic libraries which exhibit antibacterial activity, and correlation with various physicochemical parameters indicates that chiral tetramic acids may provide a potentially valuable non-aromatic skeleton for fragment-based drug discovery.
Martín M V - - 2011
A feeding experiment was carried out to determine the effect of a diet lacking n-3 and n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on lipid and fatty acid content in intestine and gills of male gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) broodstock at different stages of the reproductive cycle: November (pre-spermatogenesis), March ...
Kevers Claire - - 2011
Apple and pear fruits are important sources of secondary plant metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolics consumed all year round. The aim of this work was to identify the main variables influencing phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in apples. Higher phenolic and antioxidant contents were observed ...
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