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Ai Teng - - 2014
Intrigued by the role of protein acetylation in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication, we tested known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and a focused library of structurally simple hydroxamic acids for inhibition of a HCV sub-genomic replicon. While known HDAC inhibitors with varied inhibitory profiles proved to be either relatively toxic ...
Javitt Norman B NB Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York - - 2014
Studies of hepatic bile formation reported in 1958 established that it was an osmotically generated water flow. Intravenous infusion of sodium taurocholate established a high correlation between hepatic bile flow and bile acid excretion. Secretin, a hormone that stimulates bicarbonate secretion, was also found to increase hepatic bile flow. The ...
Martin Gregory G GG Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A & M University, College Station, - - 2014
On the basis of their abilities to bind bile acids and/or cholesterol, the physiological role(s) of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and sterol carrier protein (SCP) 2/SCP-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) gene products in biliary bile acid and cholesterol formation was examined in gene-ablated male mice. L-FABP (LKO) or L-FABP/SCP-2/SCP-x [triple-knockout (TKO)] ablation ...
Li Hongqiang H Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, - - 2014
The CIDEC protein is located in lipid droplets (LDs) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is induced in fat deposition. However, the binding domain, the functional domain and the underlying mechanism of CIDEC in stimulating lipid accumulation remain unclear. Here, we investigated the subcellular localization and function of pig CIDEC ...
Park Woo-Jae WJ Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel; Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 406-799, South - - 2014
Ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) null mice cannot synthesize very-long acyl chain (C22-C24) ceramides resulting in significant alterations in the acyl chain composition of sphingolipids. We now demonstrate that hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) levels are reduced in liver but not in adipose tissue or skeletal muscle in the CerS2 null mouse, both ...
Kong Ming M Beijing YouAn Hospital, The Capital Medical - - 2014
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) or insufficiency is recognized for its association with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Using animal models we found that vitamin D deficiency promoted the high fat diet (HFD) initiated simple steatosis into typical NASH, characterized by elevated hepatic inflammation and fat degeneration. ...
Benskin Jonathan P - - 2014
The health of Skeena River Sockeye salmon (Onchorhychus nerka) has been of increasing concern due to declining stock returns over the last decade. In the present work, in-migrating Sockeye from the 2008 run were evaluated using a mass spectrometry-based, targeted metabolomics platform. Our objectives were to a) investigate natural changes ...
Wang Chao C Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China; Department of Clinical Diagnosis, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, - - 2014
Abnormal metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and their derivatives has been reported to be the main cause of intracellular lipotoxic injury. Normally, NEFAs are stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in the form of triglyceride (TG), which could reduce the lipotoxicity of cytosolic NEFAs. Previous studies have implicated that Perilipin ...
Białek Agnieszka - - 2014
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of diet supplementation of pregnant and breast-feeding female Sprague-Dawley rats with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on the Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activity in hepatic microsomes as well as on fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in liver and hepatic microsomes of ...
Yang Fan F Institute of Chinese Material Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai-Lun Road, Shanghai, 201203, China; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, the University of California at Davis Medical Center, 4645, 2nd Avenue, Sacramento, California, 95817, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current ...
Kawahara Hisayoshi H Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan, - - 2014
To clarify the effects of rikkunshito on acid reflux, non-acid reflux, and esophageal clearance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We enrolled seven patients with vomiting and/or stridor (median 6 years; 1 month-17 years), with a percent total time of esophageal pH <4.0 (reflux index) over 4.0 %. Rikkunshito (TJ-43; Tsumura Co, Tokyo, ...
Ojima Eisuke E Department of Gastroenterologic Surgery, Kanazawa University, 13-1, Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8641, - - 2014
Reflux of bile acid into the esophagus induces esophagitis, inflammation-stimulated hyperplasia, metaplasia such as Barrett's esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) via nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by bile acid is an important factor in the development of BE and EAC. In colorectal cancer, experimental data suggest ...
Gockel Ines I 1] Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, University Medical Center, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany. - - 2014
Idiopathic achalasia is characterized by a failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax due to a loss of neurons in the myenteric plexus. This ultimately leads to massive dilatation and an irreversibly impaired megaesophagus. We performed a genetic association study in 1,068 achalasia cases and 4,242 controls and fine-mapped ...
Yu Xiaoyun X Johns Hopkins - - 2014
Acid reflux-induced heartburn and non-cardiac chest pain are processed peripherally by sensory nerve endings in the wall of the esophagus; but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of acid on esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in guinea pig ...
Jang Sun Woo SW Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-905, Republic of - - 2014
Risedronate sodium (RA), a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, is widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the free acid form of the bisphosphonate below pH 3.5 has the potential to produce severe impatience of the upper gastrointestinal tract, particularly esophagitis. A pH-responsive raft-forming tablet (PRR-T) was designed to prevent the esophageal ...
Kessing B F BF Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
The 5-HT4 receptor agonist prucalopride is a prokinetic drug which improves colonic motility. Animal data and in vitro studies suggest that prucalopride also affects gastric and esophageal motor function. We aimed to assess the effect of prucalopride on gastric emptying, esophageal motility, and gastro-esophageal reflux in man. In this double-blind, ...
Scarpellini E E Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
Previous studies established that a pocket of highly acidic gastric juice is present postprandially at the gastroesophageal junction in man. The GABA-B agonist baclofen inhibits postprandial reflux events through its effects on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The aim of the current study was to investigate whether baclofen would affect ...
Li Dan D Rhode Island Hospital and Brown - - 2014
Mechanisms whereby acid reflux may accelerate the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. Acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported to cause DNA damage in Barrett's cells. We have previously shown that NADPH oxidase NOX5-S is responsible for acid-induced H2O2 production ...
Holecek Milan M Department of Physiology, Charles University Prague, Medical Faculty in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hyperammonemia and severe amino acid imbalances play central role in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the article is demonstrated that the main source of ammonia in cirrhotic subjects is activated breakdown of glutamine (GLN) in enterocytes and the kidneys and the main source of GLN is ammonia detoxification to GLN in ...
Skoczylas Tomasz T 2nd Department of General Surgery, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, - - 2014
It has been previously demonstrated that the exposure of the lower esophageal mucosa to acid and pepsin results in significant increase in salivary protective factors secretion, mediated by the esophago-salivary reflex. The impact of the upper esophageal mucosal exposure to acid and pepsin on salivary secretory response remains unknown. To ...
Lee Y Y YY School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bahru, Kelantan, Malaysia; Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, - - 2014
Obesity is a major reason for the recent increase in incidence of reflux disease and cancers at the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) and is mediated through a rise in the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) but the exact mechanisms are unclear. Raised IAP from obesity and with application of waist ...
Khinchi Pradeep P Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Lucknow, - - 2014
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of omeprazole and baclofen on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight received normal saline (3ml/kg, ip; sham control) or toxic control (3ml/kg, ip) or omeprazole (30mg/kg, ip) or baclofen (20mg/kg, ip) or their combinations, were subjected to ...
Takeuchi Koji K 0000-0002-9668-6021 Division of Pathological Sciences, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan ; General Incorporated Association, Kyoto Research Center for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Karasuma-Oike 671, Kyoto 604-8106, - - 2014
Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with ...
Park Jason Y JY Esophageal Diseases Center, Department of Pathology, Children's Medical Center, Eugene McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Besides reducing gastric acid secretion, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) suppress Th2-cytokine-stimulated expression of an eosinophil chemoattractant (eotaxin-3) by esophageal epithelial cells through acid-independent, anti-inflammatory mechanisms. To explore acid-inhibitory and acid-independent, anti-inflammatory PPI effects in reducing esophageal eosinophilia, we studied eotaxin-3 expression by the proximal and distal esophagus of children with ...
Vela Marcelo F MF Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine, 2002 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The mainstay of pharmacological therapy for GERD is gastric acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are superior to histamine-2 receptor antagonists for healing erosive esophagitis and achieving symptomatic relief. However, up to one-third of patients may not respond to PPI therapy, creating the need for alternative treatments. Potential ...
Carlson Dustin A DA Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 676 North St Clair Street, Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2014
Detection of acid and nonacid reflux using esophageal reflux monitoring, which includes conventional and wireless pH monitoring and pH impedance, can be a valuable diagnostic tool when used appropriately in the assessment of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Reflux monitoring may be especially helpful if a management change is desired, ...
Hall Mats - - 2013
Abstract Objective. The postprandial acid pocket is suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as it according to the theory extends into the distal esophagus. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the acid pocket transverses the squamocolumnar junction ...
Zhang Shizhong S Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan; - - 2014
Acid reflux in the esophagus can induce esophageal painful sensations such as heartburn and noncardiac chest pain. The mechanisms underlying acid-induced esophageal nociception are not clearly understood. In our previous studies, we characterized esophageal vagal nociceptive afferents and defined their responses to noxious mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present ...
Del Genio Gianmattia - - 2013
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is currently gaining popularity due to an excellent efficacy combined to minimal anatomic changes. However, some concerns have been raised on increased risk of postoperative gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to gastric fundus removal, section of the sling muscular fibers of gastroesophageal junction, reduced antral pump function, ...
Rohof Wout O - - 2013
Approximately 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have symptoms resistant to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Several mechanisms such as esophageal hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability and possibly the position of the gastric acid pocket might underlie a partial response to PPI. To what extent these mechanisms interact ...
Tavakkoli Anna A Anna Tavakkoli, Bisma A Sayed, Nicholas J Talley, Baharak Moshiree, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10019, United - - 2013
To determine whether an increased number and duration of non-acid reflux events as measured using the multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (MII-pH) is linked to gastroparesis (GP). A case control study was conducted in which 42 patients undergoing clinical evaluation for continued symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (both typical and atypical ...
Emerenziani S - - 2013
Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients are more sensitive than erosive esophagitis patients to weakly acidic reflux and to the presence of gas in the refluxate. Intra-esophageal acid perfusion sensitizes esophageal receptors to mechanical and chemical stimuli. To establish whether acid sensitization plays a role in the perception of weakly acidic ...
Kilincaslan H - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the acute phase of experimental corrosive esophageal burns. Fifty male rats were allocated into five groups (control, acid burn, alkali burn, acid burn + DMSO and alkali burn + DMSO) of ten rats each. Acid ...
Ohara Shunji - - 2013
The sensitivity of the upper and lower esophageal mucosa to acid is considered to differ. We investigated the relationship between pH changes in different sites of the esophagus and generation of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms during an acid infusion test. An acid infusion catheter was placed at 5 or 15 cm ...
Bor Serhat S Ege University School of Medicine, Sect Gastroenterology & Ege Reflux Study Group, Izmir, - - 2013
There is a general belief that gastro-oesophageal reflux increases after meals and especially following a rapid intake. To evaluate the impact of rapid vs. slow food intake on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients. Forty-six GORD patients with heartburn and / or acid regurgitation once a week or more often common ...
Burgerhart Jan S - - 2013
This study aimed to investigate the association between BMI and esophageal acid exposure in a cohort of patients referred for esophageal pH monitoring. The contributing roles of hiatal hernia, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, and intragastric pressure (IGP) were investigated, with an emphasis on reflux in the supine position. Esophageal ...
Bus P - - 2013
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus that occurs because of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Previous studies have identified BE-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in comparison with normal squamous epithelium (SQ). We hypothesized that BE-specific miRNAs could be induced in esophageal SQ cells by exposure to acid and/or bile ...
Farré R - - 2013
Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very prevalent and has a high burden on health security system costs. Nevertheless, pathophysiology is complex and not well-understood. Several mechanisms have been proposed: decreased salivation, impaired esophageal clearance, decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure resting tone, presence of hiatal hernia, increased number of transient lower ...
Matsuzaki Juntaro - - 2013
Bile reflux contributes to the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and could be involved its progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated whether bile acids affect levels or functions of microRNAs (MIRs) 221 and 222, which bind to the 3'-UTR of p27Kip1 mRNA to inhibit its translation. Reduced p27Kip1 increases ...
Chen Chien-Lin - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to evaluate whether acute esophageal instillation of capsaicin and hydrochloric acid had different effects on distension-induced secondary peristalsis. METHODS: Secondary peristalsis was induced by slow and rapid air injections into the mid-esophagus after the evaluation of baseline motility in 16 healthy subjects. The effects on ...
Radisavljevic Mirjana M - - 2013
Background/Aims: The study examines the relationship between activity of acid DNase and 5'nucleotidase (5'NT) and histological changes in reflux esophagitis. Methodology: Thirty-three patients were examined, 15 of whom with mild esophagitis, 12 with severe esophagitis and 6 with Barrett's epithelium. Patients were classified into 3 groups, according to Ismail-Beigi histological ...
Rohof Wout O WO Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the - - 2013
Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an alginate formulation ...
Bulsiewicz William J - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are esophageal nociceptors that are candidates to mediate heartburn in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Amiloride, a diuretic, is known to inhibit ASICs. For this reason, we sought a role for ASICs in mediating heartburn by determining whether amiloride could block heartburn in NERD induced by ...
Kahrilas Peter J PJ Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. - - 2013
The nadir esophageal pH of reflux observed during pH monitoring in the postprandial period is often more acidic than the concomitant intragastric pH. This paradox prompted the discovery of the "acid pocket", an area of unbuffered gastric acid that accumulates in the proximal stomach after meals and serves as the ...
Zhou Xiaoxu X Department of Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, - - 2013
The mechanisms of progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not known. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) has been shown to be important in esophageal tumorigenesis. We have shown that COX-2 mediates acid-induced PGE₂ production. The prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) responsible for acid-induced PGE2 production in BE, ...
Turk Helena - - 2013
The effect of proton pump inhibitors on the characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in children and adolescents was evaluated. Twenty-one children and adolescents with symptoms suggesting GER disease (GERD) underwent upper endoscopy and a 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance/pH (MII-pH) monitoring before and at the end of 2 months of therapy ...
Kondo Takashi - - 2013
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a major role in pain processing and hypersensitivity. This study investigated whether PGE2 levels are increased in the esophageal mucosa after acid infusion and if increases in PGE2 are associated with heartburn. Furthermore, expression of the PGE2 receptor, EP1 was investigated in human esophageal mucosa. Fourteen ...
Woodland Philip P Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, - - 2013
Intact esophageal mucosal integrity is essential to prevent symptoms during gastroesophageal reflux events. Approximately 70% of patients with heartburn have macroscopically normal esophageal mucosa. In patients with heartburn, persistent functional impairment of esophageal mucosal barrier integrity may underlie remaining symptoms. Topical protection of a functionally vulnerable mucosa may be an ...
Jovov Biljana B Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7032, USA. - - 2013
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a common strategy for the prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). After RFA, the ablated esophagus heals on acid suppressive therapy, and is re-populated with a stratified squamous epithelium, referred to as "neosquamous epithelium (NSE)." Because the ability of the NSE to protect ...
Alai Milind - - 2013
The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit ...
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