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Results 401 - 450 of 1819
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Daydé Sandrine - - 2003
As a nonessential element, aluminum is likely to be toxic both at low usual dietary levels in the long run (chronic toxicity) and at high therapeutic levels in shorter periods of time (acute toxicity). In both situations, aluminum toxicity is a direct function of aluminum bioavailability, which is itself dependent ...
Liao Su-Lan - - 2003
Microenvironmental changes including elevated levels of L-glutamate, ionic homeostasis, acidification, and oxygen level are associated with brain insults. Their effects on energy metabolism were studied in cultured astrocytes. L-glutamate caused a decrease in lactate accumulation through the activation of transporter in astrocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Decreases in ...
Hermann Thomas - - 2003
In the 1950s Corynebacterium glutamicum was found to be a very efficient producer of L-glutamic acid. Since this time biotechnological processes with bacteria of the species Corynebacterium developed to be among the most important in terms of tonnage and economical value. L-Glutamic acid and L-lysine are bulk products nowadays. L-Valine, ...
Ma Zhuo - - 2003
Commensal and pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli possess three inducible acid resistance systems that collaboratively protect cells against acid stress to pH 2 or below. The most effective system requires glutamate in the acid challenge media and relies on two glutamate decarboxylases (GadA and B) combined with a putative glutamate:gamma-aminobutyric ...
Phillis J W - - 2003
Brain extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, GABA and glycine increase rapidly following the onset of ischemia, remain at an elevated level during the ischemia, and then decline over 20-30 min following reperfusion. The elevated levels of the excitotoxic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are thought to contribute to ischemia-evoked neuronal ...
Erikson Keith M - - 2003
Brain extracellular concentrations of amino acids (e.g. aspartate, glutamate, taurine) and divalent metals (e.g. zinc, copper, manganese) are primarily regulated by astrocytes. Adequate glutamate homeostasis is essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate is of central importance for nitrogen metabolism and, along with aspartate, is ...
Sanabria Emilio R Garrido - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that endogenous N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) presynaptically inhibits glutamate release at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. For this purpose, we made use of 2-(3-mercaptopropyl)pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA), an inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase II [GCP II; also known as N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase)], the enzyme that hydrolyzes NAAG into N-acetylaspartate and ...
Bui B V - - 2003
We wanted to determine the characteristics associated with electrophysiological and neurochemical changes secondary to ischemic insult as well as correlate these electrophysiological and neurochemical changes. A Ganzfeld source was used to elicit electroretinograms in anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Following baseline recordings, one eye was removed for control quantitative amino acid ...
Waterman Scott R - - 2003
Strains of Escherichia coli K-12, O157:H7, and Shigella flexneri grown to stationary phase in complex unbuffered media can survive for several hours at pH 2.5. This stationary-phase acid resistance phenotype is dependent upon the alternate sigma factor sigmas and the supplementation of either glutamate or glutamine in the acidified media ...
Duarte Ana Isabel - - 2003
In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of exogenously administered insulin on the susceptibility to oxidative stress and on the accumulation of the amino acid neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in a synaptosomal fraction isolated from male Wistar rat brain cortex. Insulin (1 microM) did not affect ...
Conti Paola - - 2003
Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them behaved as antagonists at mGluR1,5 and as agonists at ...
Antonini G - - 2003
The cause of downbeat nystagmus (DBN) remains undiagnosed in about 40% of patients. This paper reports the presence of antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) in a patient with DBN. Antibodies against GABAergic neurons located in the vestibular complex may induce chemical denervation of the floccular neurons, which normally suppress the ...
Richards Douglas A - - 2003
The amino acid content of hourly microdialysis samples from nine severely head-injured children was examined. Of particular interest was the measurement of the excitatory amino acid glutamate, as high levels of this substance, which are associated with the excitotoxicity cascade, have been linked to high intracranial pressure and poor outcome ...
Galvan Adriana - - 2003
A technique for continuous on-line detection of glutamate using brain microdialysis in awake primates is described. The method is based on an enzymatic assay using fluorescence detection of glutamate. The time resolution of the continuous fluorescent readout compares favorably with that of most published studies, which have used standard high-pressure ...
Davies J A - - 2003
Bilobalide is one of many active constituents found in EGb 761 (definition see editorial), which is extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Whilst there is good, sound evidence that bilobalide exhibits neuroprotective actions in a variety of model systems, there is currently no consensus on its mechanism of action. This present ...
Noguchi Yasushi - - 2003
Corynebacterium ammoniagenes is an overproducer of xanthosine-5'-monophosphate (XMP) by consuming either glcose (glc) or glutamic acid (glu). Its energy metabolism was studied in vivo using 31P NMR spectroscopy coupled with a circulating fermentation system (CFS). CFS enabled us to validate directly the cellular dependency on carbon sources and changes in ...
Oh Suk-Heung - - 2003
Changes in the concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), soluble calcium ions, glutamic acid, and the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) were investigated in non-germinated vs. germinated brown rice. Brown rice was germinated for 72 h by applying each of the following solutions: (1) distilled water, (2) 5 mM lactic acid, ...
Qureshi Adnan I - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extracellular concentrations of glutamate and other amino acids are significantly elevated after intracerebral hemorrhage and, if so, the temporal characteristics of these changes. Although the role of excitotoxic amino acids, particularly that of glutamate, has been described in ischemic stroke and head trauma, no information exists ...
Brennan Lorraine - - 2003
A series of glutamate analogues, known as gliotoxins, are toxic to astrocytes in culture, and are inhibitors or substrates of high affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. The mechanisms by which these gliotoxins cause toxicity are not fully understood. The effects of a series of gliotoxic amino acids (L-alpha-aminoadipate, L-serine-O-sulphate, D-aspartate and ...
Dakshinamurti Krishnamurti - - 2003
Electroencephalographic recordings in cerebral cortex of mice given a single sub-convulsive dose of domoic acid exhibited typical spike and wave discharges. Administration of the anti-epileptic drugs sodium valproate, nimodipine, or 5 alpha-pregnan 3 alpha-ol-20-one as well as pyridoxine simultaneously with or after domoic acid treatment resulted in significantly less spike ...
Bodrova M E - - 2003
At low Ca2+ concentrations the pore of the inner mitochondrial membrane can open in substates with lower permeability (Hunter, D. R., and Haworth, R. A. (1979) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 195, 468-477). Recently, we showed that Ca2+ loading of mitochondria augments the cyclosporin A-dependent decrease in transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi) across the ...
Yu Siming - - 2003
The effects of aniracetam on extracellular amino acid levels in the hippocampus of conscious gerbils, with or without transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, were measured by microdialysis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Increased extracellular levels of aspartate and glutamate that were observed in the hippocampus of conscious gerbils during transient global ...
Novak Donald - - 2003
Marginal giant cells within the rodent placenta are important sources of androgens, critical to maintenance of pregnancy. Androgen synthesis requires NADPH, a by-product of glutamate oxidation. We examined the uptake of glutamate into rat choriocarcinoma cells, which have been shown to maintain many of the characteristics of marginal giant cells ...
Thibodeaux Stefan J - - 2003
This study examines the role of steric hindrance near the stereogenic centers of four glutamic acid based polymeric surfactants. The single amino acid surfactants of glutamic acid, glutamic acid methyl ester, glutamic ethyl ester, and glutamic acid tert-butyl ester were investigated. The micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation of three binaphthyl ...
Yu K W - - 2003
The chemical components of freeze-dried stromata from Cordyceps scarabaecola were examined. The stromata consisted of crude carbohydrates (55.1%) and crude proteins (14.2%). The stromata were also composed of a low content of crude ash (6.6%) and fat (1.5%). The composition of the carbohydrate in the stromata included a large quantity ...
Feng Yi - - 2003
Gabapentin has recently been used clinically as an antihyperalgesic agent to treat certain neuropathic pain states. The aim of this study is to test whether gabapentin is able to inhibit responses to peritoneal irritation-induced visceral pain and to examine the effect of gabapentin on spinal cord amino acid release. The ...
Honkanen Robert A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To measure vitreous concentrations of glutamate and other amino acids in patients with glaucoma undergoing vitrectomy. METHODS: Undiluted vitreous samples were collected from patients undergoing vitrectomy at the University of Iowa (Iowa City) between 1997 and 1998 (n = 69). Vitreous concentrations of 16 amino acids, including glutamate, were ...
Newsholme P - - 2003
Glucose is widely accepted as the primary nutrient for the maintenance and promotion of cell function. This metabolite leads to production of ATP, NADPH and precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and phospholipids. We propose that, in addition to glucose, the 5-carbon amino acids glutamine and ...
Baran H - - 2003
It has been shown recently that the L-kynurenine metabolite kynurenic acid lowers the efficacy of mitochondria ATP synthesis by significantly increasing state IV, and reducing respiratory control index and ADP/oxygen ratio of glutamate/malate-consuming heart mitochondria. In the present study we investigated the effect of L-tryptophan (1.25 microM to 5 mM) ...
Rebillard G - - 2003
In the cochlea, glutamate plays a major role in synaptic transmission between the inner hair cell and the primary auditory neurons. Extracellular glutamate concentration must be regulated to prevent excitotoxicity. This regulation is mediated by excitatory amino acid transporters, membrane proteins that remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft. In this ...
Richard Hope T - - 2003
To colonize and cause disease, enteric pathogens must overcome environmental challenges that include acid stress in the host's stomach as well as short-chain fatty acid stress in the intestine of the host and reservoir. Three known inducible systems have evolved for stationary phase acid resistance in E. coli. These systems ...
Nakajima Kumiko - - 2003
A new glass capillary microelectrode for L-glutamate is described using pulled glass capillaries (tip size, approximately 12.5 microm) with a very small volume (approximately 2 microl) of inner solution containing glutamate oxidase (GluOx) and ascorbate oxidase. The operation of the electrode is based on capillary action that samples L-glutamate into ...
Qi Haiping - - 2003
Analytical grade L-glutamic acid is chemically stable and has a C/N mole ratio of 5, which is close to that of many of natural biological materials, such as blood and animal tissue. Two L-glutamic acid reference materials with substantially different 13C and 15N abundances have been prepared for use as ...
Prandota Joseph - - 2003
The hepatotropic viruses, measles, and herpesviruses as well as different drugs were repeatedly shown to act presumably as a trigger in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AI-H). On the other hand, it is known that viral infections stimulate interferon production, which inactivates the cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of ...
Kimura Eiichiro - - 2003
Since the discovery of Corynebacterium glutamicum as an efficient glutamate-overproducing microorganism in 1957, the production of L-amino acids by the fermentative method has become one of the most important research-target of industrial microbiology. Several research groups have developed metabolic engineering principles for L-amino acid-producing C. glutamicum strains over the last ...
González-Quevedo A - - 2002
The clinical and electroretinographic features of chronic methanol intoxication are scarce, and neurotransmitter studies have not been conducted. In addition, most of the studies in the field include results after acute administration. In the present work, a chronic methanol intoxication scheme (2 g/kg/day ip for 2 weeks) was carried out ...
Denton Travis - - 2002
Select trans-4,5-[bi]cyclohexenylglutamic and pyroglutamic acids (3,4-substituted glutamates) were synthesized in three steps and were screened as potential inhibitors of the sodium dependent excitatory amino acid transporters 2 (EAAT2) and 3 (EAAT3), the chloride dependent glial cystine/glutamate exchanger system x(c)(-), and the glutamate vesicular transport system (VGLUT). Two glutamate analogues and ...
Samartsev V N - - 2002
The effect of ethanol on the uncoupling activity of palmitate and recoupling activities of carboxyatractylate and glutamate was studied in liver mitochondria at various Mg2+ concentrations and medium pH values (7.0, 7.4, and 7.8). Ethanol taken at concentration of 0.25 M had no effect on the uncoupling activity of palmitic ...
Tapiero H - - 2002
Glutamine and glutamate with proline, histidine, arginine and ornithine, comprise 25% of the dietary amino acid intake and constitute the "glutamate family" of amino acids, which are disposed of through conversion to glutamate. Although glutamine has been classified as a nonessential amino acid, in major trauma, major surgery, sepsis, bone ...
Somogyi Jozsef - - 2002
Previous pharmacological and physiological data on GABA and glycine receptor-dependent components of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents show that the electrophysiological characteristics of synaptic transmission from inhibitory synapses on spinal motoneurons are highly variable. Although post-synaptic factors are thought to be the major underlying cause of this variability, quantitative immunohistochemical data ...
Fatemi S Hossein - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A limited number of reports have demonstrated abnormalities involving the glutamate and gamma amino butyric acid systems in blood and platelets of subjects with autism. To further investigate these studies, brain levels of rate limiting enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is responsible for normal conversion of glutamate to gamma ...
Zilm Peter S - - 2002
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobe that has been implicated in the aetiology of several diseases including periodontal diseases. Like other fusobacteria, it derives energy from the fermentation of amino acids and, in resting (non-growing) cells, this enables the organism to transport glucose and synthesise intracellular polyglucose (IP). The continued ...
Erikson Keith - - 2002
Neurotoxicity due to excessive brain manganese (Mn) can occur due to environmental (air pollution, soil, water) and/ or metabolic aberrations (decreased biliary excretion). Manganese is associated with oxidative stress, as well as alterations in neurotransmitter metabolism with concurrent neurobehavioral deficits. Based on the few existing studies that have examined brain ...
Kölker S - - 2002
White matter abnormalities (including dys-, hypo-, demyelination and delayed myelation) are frequently found in cerebral organic acid disorders, a recently delineated subgroup of inherited organic acid disorders presenting predominantly with a neurological symptomatology. Biochemically, this disease subgroup lacks metabolic derangements, such as hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia and acidosis, and is characterized by ...
Frak Ela - - 2002
The temporal dynamics of N remobilization was studied in walnut (Juglans nigra x regia) trees growing in sand culture. Trees were fed with labeled N ((15)N) during 1999 and unlabeled N in 2000. Total N and (15)N contents in different tree compartments were measured during 80 d after bud burst ...
Curti D - - 2002
METHOD: The activity and amount of SOD1 in erythrocyte lysates and the plasma amino acid content were evaluated in four familial ALS patients bearing the L84F SOD1 mutation (fALS), in an asymptomatic family member with the mutation (L84F(5)), in sporadic ALS patients (sALS) and controls. Three of the fALS patients ...
Murthy Chinta R K - - 2002
Cerebral edema with a rise in intracranial pressure is the hallmark of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and acute hyperammonemic (HA) states and is characterized by a poor survival rate. Astrocytes are the cells in brain which are swollen in these conditions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism ...
Schäbitz Wolf-R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Excitotoxic insults such as stroke may induce release of fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), contributing to the downstream events in the ischemic cascade. We therefore studied release of FAEs such as anandamide, palmitylethanolamide (PEA), and oleylethanolamide (OEA) in the brain of a patient suffering from malignant hemispheric infarction treated with ...
Henry Pierre-Gilles - - 2002
Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) has gained acceptance as an animal model of Huntington's disease. In this study 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate in the rat brain after 3-NP treatment. The time course of both ...
Tolias Christos M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine, using a microdialysis technique, the extracellular levels of glutamate and non-transmitter amino acids in the brain of children with severe head injuries. METHODS: A microdialysis probe was inserted along side the intracranial pressure (ICP) bolt in 9 children (age range 2-14 years) with severe head injuries (Glasgow ...
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