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Results 351 - 400 of 1819
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de Graaf Robin A - - 2004
Multivolume (1)H-[(13)C] NMR spectroscopy in combination with i.v. [1,6-(13)C(2)]glucose infusion was used to detect regional glucose metabolism and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the halothane-anesthetized rat brain at 7 T. The regional information was decomposed into pure cerebral gray matter, white matter, and subcortical structures by means of tissue segmentation based on ...
Tong Hua - - 2004
The acidic amino acid, such as aspartic acid (l-Asp), and glutamic acid are the primary active molecules of the glycoprotein on the organic/inorganic interface of biomineralized tissue. In this study, aspartic acid was used as the organic template in inducing the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate. With the analysis ...
Guyenet Patrice G - - 2004
Most of the CNS neurons that regulate circulation and respiration reside in regions of the brain characterized by extreme cellular heterogeneity (nucleus of the solitary tract, reticular formation, parabrachial nuclei, periaqueductal gray matter, hypothalamus, etc.). The chemical neuroanatomy of these regions is correspondingly complex and teasing out specific circuits in ...
Boumezbeur Fawzi - - 2004
We detected glutamate C4 and C3 labeling in the monkey brain during an infusion of [U-13C6]glucose, using a simple 1H PRESS sequence without 13C editing or decoupling. Point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spectra revealed decreases in 12C-bonded protons, and increases in 13C-bonded protons of glutamate. To take full advantage of the simultaneous ...
Caillé Stéphanie - - 2004
Several lines of evidence suggest that opiate-induced disinhibition of the ventral pallidum participates in the mediation of opiate reward, though direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. The present experiment tested this hypothesis by investigating alterations in ventral pallidal amino acid efflux using in vivo microdialysis ...
Novak D - - 2004
In primates, progesterone, secreted by the placenta, is important for the maintenance of pregnancy. Androstenedione, a progesterone metabolite, fulfils a similar role in the rodent. Prior work has suggested that glutamate sufficiency and subsequent oxidation is important to placental androgen synthesis, presumably because of the production of NADPH (Trophoblast Res ...
Jydegaard-Axelsen Anne-Marie - - 2004
Although carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is known to inhibit growth of most bacteria, very little is known about the cellular response. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is characterized by its ability to grow in high CO(2) concentrations at refrigeration temperatures. We examined the listerial responses of different strains to growth in ...
Sarig Sara - - 2004
This review concentrates on the physical state of bone mineral at the nanosize range, where it exists as ultrathin, tiny, platelike particles. They have a distinct X-ray pattern, different from that of apatite crystals, but shared by all bone matter irrespective of source or architecture. The main feature of this ...
García-Espinosa María A - - 2004
We review briefly 13C NMR studies of cerebral glucose metabolism with an emphasis on the roles of glial energetics and the glutamine cycle. Mathematical modeling analysis of in vivo 13C turnover experiments from the C4 carbons of glutamate and glutamine are consistent with: (i) the glutamine cycle being the major ...
Dionisi Davide - - 2004
Glutamic acid removal in the activated sludge process is studied herein, primarily the formation of storage polymers under dynamic conditions. The activated sludge process was operated by using a sequencing batch reactor (sludge age of 6 d) fed with a synthetic mixture of readily available carbon sources, including glutamic acid. ...
Kanie Kiyoshi - - 2004
Ellipsoidal anatase TiO2 nanoparticles of different aspect ratios were obtained by the gel-sol method in the presence of amino acids in which the resulting particles were basically single crystals, but highly rough surfaces or partly polycrystalline structures were observed with a high concentration of glutamic acid or aspartic acid.
Hoogland G - - 2004
High-affinity glutamate and GABA transporters found in the plasma membrane of neurons and glial cells terminate neurotransmission by rapidly removing extracellular transmitter. Impairment of transporter function has been implicated in the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis. We characterized glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport in synaptosomes, isolated from neocortical and hippocampal ...
Malik Nazreen - - 2004
The potential antibody directed prodrug therapy half-mustard prodrug 4-[(2-chloroethyl)(2-ethyl)amino]-phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid was synthesised by reductive alkylation of 4-[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid using acetaldehyde. 4-[(2-chloroethyl)[(11)C](2-ethyl)amino]phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid was synthesized with 18-22% decay corrected radiochemical yield in 45 min from EOB by reductive alkylation of 4-[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid using [(11)C]acetaldehyde. [(11)C]Acetaldehyde was prepared in 60% decay corrected ...
Böhm Hartmut - - 2004
Feeding of amino acids to hairy roots of the yellow beet (Beta vulgaris var. lutea) usually results in the formation of the respective betaxanthins. One exception is (S)-glutamate whose feeding leads to an increase in the betaxanthin vulgaxanthin I (glutamine as amino-acid moiety) instead of vulgaxanthin II (glutamate as amino-acid ...
Camper N D - - 2004
Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic ...
Ohtani Susumu - - 2004
Aspartic acid (Asp) is generally used for estimation of age by measuring the degree of racemization. For other amino acids, however, there are few reports regarding the usefulness of the degree of racemization for the estimation of age. Accordingly, in this study using the femur (obtained from 21 cadavers) as ...
Jamieson Matthew J - - 2004
The crystallization of DL-aspartic acid beneath nylon 6 spread films has been studied for 150% supersaturated systems using neutron reflectivity and external reflection FTIR. The neutron reflectivity data showed the gradual incorporation of DL-aspartic acid within a nylon 6 spread film layer over a period of 6-8 h, culminating in ...
Liu Der-Zen - - 2004
Two monohydroxamates of l-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate (AAH) and l-glutamic acid gamma-hydroxamate (GAH) were used for testing antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities in comparison with those of asparagine and glutamine, respectively. The half-inhibition concentrations, IC(50), of scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were 36 and 48 microM and against ...
Stanley Charles A - - 2004
The second most common form of congenital hyperinsulinism, the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA), is associated with dominantly expressed missense mutations of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). GDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate plus ammonia, using NAD or NADP as co-factor. HI/HA mutations impair GDH sensitivity to ...
Büyükuysal R L - - 2004
Ischemic incubation significantly increased amino acid release from rat striatal slices. Reoxygenation (REO) of the ischemic slices, however, enhanced only taurine and citrulline levels in the medium. Ischemia-induced increases in glutamate, taurine and GABA outputs were accompanied with a similar amount of decline in their tissue levels. Tissue final aspartic ...
Winkler Barry S - - 2004
We have investigated the dependence of the rate of lactic acid production on the rate of Na(+) entry in cultured transformed rat Müller cells and in normal and dystrophic (RCS) rat retinas that lack photoreceptors. To modulate the rate of Na(+) entry, two approaches were employed: (i) the addition of ...
Glevarec Gaëlle - - 2004
Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the couple glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in ammonium and amino acid metabolism during germination and post-germinative growth in the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. For this aim, amino acids were analyzed by HPLC and changes in gene ...
Hermit Mette B - - 2004
In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines. Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III ...
Gruss Marco - - 2004
Nitrous oxide, xenon, and cyclopropane are anesthetic gases that have a distinct pharmacological profile. Whereas the molecular basis for their anesthetic actions remains unclear, they behave very differently to most other general anesthetics in that they have little or no effect on GABAA receptors, yet strongly inhibit the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype ...
Thomas P M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The actual mechanisms underlying human hippocampal epileptogenicity, a process ultimately mediated by neurochemical events, remains to be fully elucidated. We submit early insight data regarding microdialysis (MD) recovery of the neuroactive amino acids glutamate, aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from the intraoperative and intact, spontaneously epileptiform human hippocampus. METHOD: ...
Pokorný Richard - - 2004
The U-(14)C-labelled glutamate uptake was measured in both sucrose- and glutamate-grown mycelia of Trichoderma viride. The biomass yield was five-fold lower with glutamate as a sole carbon source. The rate of glutamate transport measured at a glutamate concentration of 1 mM remained unchanged in glutamate-grown mycelia whereas the properties of ...
Silva E - - 2004
A combination of microdialysis in freely moving rats and capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection was used to measure extracellular concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters in different hypothalamic areas during noxious stimulation. Arginine, glutamate and aspartate were monitored every 30 s before and after a s.c. injection ...
Wajner M - - 2004
Although the precise mechanisms underlying the CNS degeneration of patients with glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency are still the subject of intense debate, many studies have highlighted that excitotoxicity plays a fundamental role in the neuropathology of this disease, particularly involving the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Modulation of ...
Simon-Colin Christelle - - 2004
The red alga Grateloupia doryphora Montagne (Howe) (Cryptonemiales, Halymeniaceae) was used as a model to investigate the effects of changes in seawater salinity on the intracellular low-molecular-weight organic compounds. Carbon-partitioning into major organic solutes was followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on living algae incubated in NaH13CO3-enriched seawater, ...
Diez-Gonzalez F - - 2004
AIMS: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of growing conditions on the glutamate-, arginine- and lysine-dependent acid resistance (AR) systems of Escherichia coli O157:H7. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven E. coli O157:H7 strains were grown in five different media at neutral or acidic pH under aerobic or ...
Summers-Chase D - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine whether removing glucose and phosphate from media used for developing cleavage-stage embryos improves outcome following transfer of fresh or frozen embryos. Furthermore the study would evaluate the efficacy of adding nonessential amino acids and glutamate to media. METHODS: Embryo development was rotated on a weekly basis in ...
Ma Choong Je - - 2004
The CH (2)Cl (2) fraction of the bark of Machilus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (Lauraceae) significantly protected primary cultures of rat cortical cells exposed to the excitotoxic amino acid, L-glutamate. (-)-Isoguaiacin, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, machilin A, (+)-galbelgin, licarin A, (-)-sesamin, and (+)-guaiacin were isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation from the CH (2)Cl ...
Orsi Nicolas M - - 2004
The accumulation of ammonium is a major artefact of in vitro embryo culture. This study has examined ammonium production and potential mechanisms of disposal in preimplantation bovine blastocysts. Embryos were produced by in vitro maturation and fertilisation of oocytes, and cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid containing amino acids and BSA ...
Wada Takehiko - - 2004
A novel nucleic acid model using peptide ribonucleic acid (PRNA), which contains 5-amino-5-deoxyribonucleoside as a recognition site for nucleic acids and consists D-glutamic acid (D-PRNA) instead of L-glutamic acid (L-PRNA) as a backbone structure, has been designed and synthesized. Difference between D-PRNA and L-PRNA oligomers was elucidated on the basis ...
Holladay Johnathan E - - 2004
Technology to convert biomass into chemical building blocks provides an opportunity to displace fossil fuels and increase the economic viability of biorefineries. Coupling fermentation capability with aqueous-phase catalysis provides novel routes to monomers and chemicals, including those not accessible from petrochemical routes. Glutamic acid provides a platform to numerous compounds ...
Oliveira Leida Calegário - - 2003
Several pools of neurotoxic peptides obtained from fractionated Phoneutria nigriventer venom induce different toxicological effects. One of them, PhTx4, is highly toxic towards insects and displays only a slight toxicity when injected in mice. Also, this fraction contains a class of peptides that are able to inhibit glutamate uptake in ...
MacCallum Justin L - - 2003
We calculated the free energy of solvation of the neutral analogs of 18 amino acid side-chains (not including glycine and proline) using the OPLS all-atom force field in TIP4P water, SPC water, and cyclohexane by molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic integration. The average unsigned errors in the free energies of ...
Salcedo Ernesto - - 2003
Invertebrates are sensitive to a broad spectrum of light that ranges from UV to red. Color sensitivity in the UV plays an important role in foraging, navigation, and mate selection in both flying and terrestrial invertebrate animals. Here, we show that a single amino acid polymorphism is responsible for invertebrate ...
Ambroggio Xavier I - - 2004
The JAMM (JAB1/MPN/Mov34 metalloenzyme) motif in Rpn11 and Csn5 underlies isopeptidase activities intrinsic to the proteasome and signalosome, respectively. We show here that the archaebacterial protein AfJAMM possesses the key features of a zinc metalloprotease, yet with a distinct fold. The histidine and aspartic acid of the conserved EX(n)HS/THX(7)SXXD motif ...
Kusaka Takashi - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine the validity of the hypothesis that excitatory amino acids are related to phosphorylation potential during primary and secondary cerebral energy failure observed in asphyxiated infants. We report here the results of experiments using newborn piglets subjected to severe transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia followed ...
Hall Andrew J - - 2003
The preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer against N-Z-L-glutamic acid using a novel bis-urea functional monomer is described. The polymer exhibits affinity for the template over N-Z-protected aspartic acid and glycine and, further, is capable of binding larger molecules, e.g., the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, containing the glutamate substructure.
Cavero S - - 2003
The malate-aspartate NADH shuttle in mammalian cells requires the activity of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier (AGC). Recently, we identified in man two AGC isoforms, aralar1 and citrin, which are regulated by calcium on the external face of the inner mitochondrial membrane. We have now identified Agc1p as the yeast counterpart ...
Gruss M - - 2003
In vivo microdialysis and behavioural studies in the domestic chick have shown that glutamatergic as well as monoaminergic neurotransmission in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) is altered after auditory filial imprinting. In the present study, using pharmaco-behavioural and in vivo microdialysis approaches, the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in this juvenile ...
Prabhu Ramamoorthy - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Our earlier work has shown that surgical manipulation of the intestine results in oxidative stress and mucosal damage along with alterations in the brush border membrane (BBM). Glutamine feeding is known to offer protection against damage to mucosa under various conditions and this study looked at the effect of ...
Retyunskaya M V - - 2003
We studied the effects of a new dipeptide neuroleptic Dilept (N-caproyl-L-prolyl-L-tyrosine methyl ester) on activity of neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Dilept possessed antidopamine, glutamate modulatory, and cholinomimetic properties. These data indicate that Dilept is of potential efficacy in relieving positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Xie Qiang - - 2003
Aspartate is an osmolyte found in some marine invertebrates and cyclostome fish. The aspartate-induced unfolding of N-acylamino acid amido hydrolase (aminoacylase) has been studied by measuring enzyme activity, fluorescence emission spectra, 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) fluorescence spectra and far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The results showed that aspartate caused the inactivation and ...
LeDay A M - - 2003
In a previous study, we showed evidence that oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can inhibit the release of [3H]-D-aspartate from the bovine isolated retina, in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of H2O2 on glutamate and glycine levels in the bovine retina ...
Milton Sarah L - - 2003
While frogs such as Rana temporaria are known to withstand 4-5 h anoxia at room temperature, little is known about the neurological adaptations that permit this. Previous research has shown that changes in neuroactive compounds such as glutamate and dopamine in anoxia-sensitive (mammalian) brains follow a strikingly different pattern than ...
Schmidt Jochen - - 2003
We have studied the feasibility of fast high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode for the quantitative determination of aspartic acid in an aspartate drug. Internal standardization was required, but mass spectrometric detection allowed for very short retention times of approximately 0.5 ...
Hernández José V - - 2003
Combination of a binaphthyl unit with chromenone benzoxazole fragments provided a chiral receptor that is enantioselective for glutamic acid and its derivatives. The receptor racemic mixture was resolved by TLCs impregnated with (R,R)-thiodilactic acid. High association constants were measured for dansylglutamic acid, using a fluorescent method. This receptor can be ...
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