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Results 351 - 400 of 1837
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Shih Ing-Lung - - 2005
Bacillus subtilis(natto) Takahashi, used to prepare the fermented soybean product natto, was grown in a basal medium containing 5% (w/w) sucrose and 1.5% (w/w) L-glutamate and produced 58% (w/w) poly(gamma-glutamic acid) and 42% (w/w) levan simultaneously. After 21 h, 40-50 mg levan ml-1 had been produced in medium containing 20% ...
Thomas Philip M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to establish whether, in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), there are relative differences between the lateral and ipsilateral medial temporal lobe in the extracellular levels of 3 of the human brain's major neuroactive amino acids. METHODS: Seven generally anesthetized patients with TLE undergoing anatomically standardized resective ...
Basagan-Mogol Elif - - 2005
Increased release of glutamate is thought to contribute to ischemia-induced neuronal damage. Since general anesthetics such as thiopental and ketamine are thought to provide some degree of cerebral protection, this study was intended to 1) compare the effectiveness of ketamine and thiopental on ischemia-induced tissue damage; and, if so, 2) ...
Zhang Shaomin S Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, P.R.China; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, - - 2005
The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral injuries evoked by ischemia/reperfusion was supported by a decrease of ...
Brennan Lorraine - - 2004
Gliotoxins are a group of amino acids that are toxic to astrocytes, and are substrates of high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. In the present study, C6 glioma cells were preincubated for 20 h in the presence of 400 microM L-alpha-aminoadipate, L-serine-O-sulphate, D-aspartate or L-cysteate, as well as in the presence of ...
Kinoshita Shukuo - - 2004
Screening tests for glutamate producing strains were carried out, with the media containing carbohydrate and ammonia source as chief ingredients. Glutamate as well as certain other amino acids was detected by paper chromatography in culture broth of many microorganisms tested. Accumulation of L-glutamate in a significant amount (at least a ...
Allen Aron - - 2004
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all organisms and catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. While this enzyme does not exhibit allosteric regulation in plants, bacteria, or fungi, its activity is tightly controlled by a number of compounds in mammals. We have previously shown that this regulation plays ...
Mallari Jeremy P - - 2004
A series of alkyl and aryl phosphonyl, thiophosphonyl, and dithiophosphonyl derivatives of (S)- and (R)-glutamic acid were prepared and examined for inhibitory potency against glutamate carboxypeptidase (carboxypeptidase G). The acquisition of the phosphonamidodithioic acids and the individual phosphonamidothioic acid diastereomers was achieved through a common phosphonamidothiolate precursor, which also allowed ...
Molchanova S - - 2004
Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid thought to be an osmoregulator, neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. Our objective was to establish how much taurine is released in the striatum and examine the mechanisms controlling extracellular taurine concentrations under resting conditions. The experiments were made on rats by microdialysis in ...
Ma Zhuo - - 2004
Escherichia coli prefers growth in neutral pH environments but can withstand extremely acidic conditions (pH 2) for long periods. Of the four E. coli systems that contribute to acid resistance, one, the glutamate-dependent system, is remarkable in its efficacy and regulatory complexity. The resistance mechanism involves the intracellular consumption of ...
Taylor-Burds Carol C - - 2004
Recent research has implicated T1R1/T1R3 as the primary taste receptor in mammals for detecting L-amino acids, including L-monosodium glutamate (MSG) and L-alanine. Previous behavioral studies with rodents found only minimal evidence that these two substances share perceptual qualities, but those studies did not control for the taste of sodium associated ...
Papageorgiou George - - 2004
1-Acyl-7-nitroindolines are useful reagents for rapid release of carboxylates upon flash photolysis in aqueous solution and have been particularly effective for rapid (submicrosecond) release of neuroactive amino acids such as l-glutamate in biological experiments. In model systems the efficiency of photorelease has been shown to be greatly improved by attachment ...
Ueki Takeshi - - 2004
Glucose oxidase [GOx-(PT-PEONH2)] hybrids are synthesized by attaching phenothiazine (PT) groups to aspartic and glutamic acid residues on the enzyme surface via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) spacers of different molecular weights. A fast oxidation of FADH2/FADH by PT+ with the aid of the local motion of a hydrophilic, long, flexible PEO ...
Bashkatova V - - 2004
The aim of this study was to clarify the role of nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes as well as the contribution of various neurotransmitters in pathophysiological mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by amphetamine (AMPH). NO level was determined directly in brain tissues using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy technique. ...
Park Chi Hye - - 2004
Most proteases are synthesized as inactive precursors which are processed by proteolytic cleavage into a mature active form, allowing regulation of their proteolytic activity. The activation of the glutamic-acid-specific extracellular metalloprotease (Mpr) of Bacillus subtilis has been examined. Analysis of Mpr processing in defined protease-deficient mutants by activity assay and ...
Bui Bang V - - 2004
We assessed the effect of the in vivo application of monocarboxylate transport inhibitors on retinal function and amino acid immunocytochemistry. We wanted to determine the impact that altered aerobic metabolite availability has on retinal function and the characteristics of amino acid shunting into metabolic pools. Electroretinograms were collected from anaesthetized ...
Funicello Marcella - - 2004
We characterized the interaction of two conformationally constrained aspartate and glutamate analogs, 3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid (HIP-A) and 3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-6-carboxylic acid (HIP-B), with excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in rat brain cortex synaptosomes. HIP-A and HIP-B were potent and noncompetitive inhibitors of [(3)H]L-glutamate uptake, with IC(50) values (17-18 microM) very similar to that ...
Park Geun woo - - 2004
Morganella, Providencia and Proteus strains were capable of surviving pH 2.0 for 1 h if glutamate was present. These strains did not have glutamic acid decarboxylase activity and the gadAB genes were not detected in any of these bacteria. When exposed to pH 2.0 acid shocks, the survival rate of ...
de Graaf Robin A - - 2004
Multivolume (1)H-[(13)C] NMR spectroscopy in combination with i.v. [1,6-(13)C(2)]glucose infusion was used to detect regional glucose metabolism and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the halothane-anesthetized rat brain at 7 T. The regional information was decomposed into pure cerebral gray matter, white matter, and subcortical structures by means of tissue segmentation based on ...
Tong Hua - - 2004
The acidic amino acid, such as aspartic acid (l-Asp), and glutamic acid are the primary active molecules of the glycoprotein on the organic/inorganic interface of biomineralized tissue. In this study, aspartic acid was used as the organic template in inducing the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate. With the analysis ...
Guyenet Patrice G - - 2004
Most of the CNS neurons that regulate circulation and respiration reside in regions of the brain characterized by extreme cellular heterogeneity (nucleus of the solitary tract, reticular formation, parabrachial nuclei, periaqueductal gray matter, hypothalamus, etc.). The chemical neuroanatomy of these regions is correspondingly complex and teasing out specific circuits in ...
Boumezbeur Fawzi - - 2004
We detected glutamate C4 and C3 labeling in the monkey brain during an infusion of [U-13C6]glucose, using a simple 1H PRESS sequence without 13C editing or decoupling. Point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spectra revealed decreases in 12C-bonded protons, and increases in 13C-bonded protons of glutamate. To take full advantage of the simultaneous ...
Caillé Stéphanie - - 2004
Several lines of evidence suggest that opiate-induced disinhibition of the ventral pallidum participates in the mediation of opiate reward, though direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. The present experiment tested this hypothesis by investigating alterations in ventral pallidal amino acid efflux using in vivo microdialysis ...
Novak D - - 2004
In primates, progesterone, secreted by the placenta, is important for the maintenance of pregnancy. Androstenedione, a progesterone metabolite, fulfils a similar role in the rodent. Prior work has suggested that glutamate sufficiency and subsequent oxidation is important to placental androgen synthesis, presumably because of the production of NADPH (Trophoblast Res ...
Jydegaard-Axelsen Anne-Marie - - 2004
Although carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is known to inhibit growth of most bacteria, very little is known about the cellular response. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is characterized by its ability to grow in high CO(2) concentrations at refrigeration temperatures. We examined the listerial responses of different strains to growth in ...
Sarig Sara - - 2004
This review concentrates on the physical state of bone mineral at the nanosize range, where it exists as ultrathin, tiny, platelike particles. They have a distinct X-ray pattern, different from that of apatite crystals, but shared by all bone matter irrespective of source or architecture. The main feature of this ...
García-Espinosa María A - - 2004
We review briefly 13C NMR studies of cerebral glucose metabolism with an emphasis on the roles of glial energetics and the glutamine cycle. Mathematical modeling analysis of in vivo 13C turnover experiments from the C4 carbons of glutamate and glutamine are consistent with: (i) the glutamine cycle being the major ...
Dionisi Davide - - 2004
Glutamic acid removal in the activated sludge process is studied herein, primarily the formation of storage polymers under dynamic conditions. The activated sludge process was operated by using a sequencing batch reactor (sludge age of 6 d) fed with a synthetic mixture of readily available carbon sources, including glutamic acid. ...
Kanie Kiyoshi - - 2004
Ellipsoidal anatase TiO2 nanoparticles of different aspect ratios were obtained by the gel-sol method in the presence of amino acids in which the resulting particles were basically single crystals, but highly rough surfaces or partly polycrystalline structures were observed with a high concentration of glutamic acid or aspartic acid.
Hoogland G - - 2004
High-affinity glutamate and GABA transporters found in the plasma membrane of neurons and glial cells terminate neurotransmission by rapidly removing extracellular transmitter. Impairment of transporter function has been implicated in the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis. We characterized glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport in synaptosomes, isolated from neocortical and hippocampal ...
Malik Nazreen - - 2004
The potential antibody directed prodrug therapy half-mustard prodrug 4-[(2-chloroethyl)(2-ethyl)amino]-phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid was synthesised by reductive alkylation of 4-[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid using acetaldehyde. 4-[(2-chloroethyl)[(11)C](2-ethyl)amino]phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid was synthesized with 18-22% decay corrected radiochemical yield in 45 min from EOB by reductive alkylation of 4-[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-phenoxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid using [(11)C]acetaldehyde. [(11)C]Acetaldehyde was prepared in 60% decay corrected ...
Böhm Hartmut - - 2004
Feeding of amino acids to hairy roots of the yellow beet (Beta vulgaris var. lutea) usually results in the formation of the respective betaxanthins. One exception is (S)-glutamate whose feeding leads to an increase in the betaxanthin vulgaxanthin I (glutamine as amino-acid moiety) instead of vulgaxanthin II (glutamate as amino-acid ...
Camper N D - - 2004
Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic ...
Ohtani Susumu - - 2004
Aspartic acid (Asp) is generally used for estimation of age by measuring the degree of racemization. For other amino acids, however, there are few reports regarding the usefulness of the degree of racemization for the estimation of age. Accordingly, in this study using the femur (obtained from 21 cadavers) as ...
Jamieson Matthew J - - 2004
The crystallization of DL-aspartic acid beneath nylon 6 spread films has been studied for 150% supersaturated systems using neutron reflectivity and external reflection FTIR. The neutron reflectivity data showed the gradual incorporation of DL-aspartic acid within a nylon 6 spread film layer over a period of 6-8 h, culminating in ...
Liu Der-Zen - - 2004
Two monohydroxamates of l-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate (AAH) and l-glutamic acid gamma-hydroxamate (GAH) were used for testing antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities in comparison with those of asparagine and glutamine, respectively. The half-inhibition concentrations, IC(50), of scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were 36 and 48 microM and against ...
Stanley Charles A - - 2004
The second most common form of congenital hyperinsulinism, the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA), is associated with dominantly expressed missense mutations of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). GDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate plus ammonia, using NAD or NADP as co-factor. HI/HA mutations impair GDH sensitivity to ...
Büyükuysal R L - - 2004
Ischemic incubation significantly increased amino acid release from rat striatal slices. Reoxygenation (REO) of the ischemic slices, however, enhanced only taurine and citrulline levels in the medium. Ischemia-induced increases in glutamate, taurine and GABA outputs were accompanied with a similar amount of decline in their tissue levels. Tissue final aspartic ...
Winkler Barry S - - 2004
We have investigated the dependence of the rate of lactic acid production on the rate of Na(+) entry in cultured transformed rat Müller cells and in normal and dystrophic (RCS) rat retinas that lack photoreceptors. To modulate the rate of Na(+) entry, two approaches were employed: (i) the addition of ...
Glevarec Gaëlle - - 2004
Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the couple glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in ammonium and amino acid metabolism during germination and post-germinative growth in the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. For this aim, amino acids were analyzed by HPLC and changes in gene ...
Hermit Mette B - - 2004
In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines. Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III ...
Gruss Marco - - 2004
Nitrous oxide, xenon, and cyclopropane are anesthetic gases that have a distinct pharmacological profile. Whereas the molecular basis for their anesthetic actions remains unclear, they behave very differently to most other general anesthetics in that they have little or no effect on GABAA receptors, yet strongly inhibit the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype ...
Thomas P M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The actual mechanisms underlying human hippocampal epileptogenicity, a process ultimately mediated by neurochemical events, remains to be fully elucidated. We submit early insight data regarding microdialysis (MD) recovery of the neuroactive amino acids glutamate, aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from the intraoperative and intact, spontaneously epileptiform human hippocampus. METHOD: ...
Pokorný Richard - - 2004
The U-(14)C-labelled glutamate uptake was measured in both sucrose- and glutamate-grown mycelia of Trichoderma viride. The biomass yield was five-fold lower with glutamate as a sole carbon source. The rate of glutamate transport measured at a glutamate concentration of 1 mM remained unchanged in glutamate-grown mycelia whereas the properties of ...
Silva E - - 2004
A combination of microdialysis in freely moving rats and capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to laser induced fluorescence detection was used to measure extracellular concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters in different hypothalamic areas during noxious stimulation. Arginine, glutamate and aspartate were monitored every 30 s before and after a s.c. injection ...
Wajner M - - 2004
Although the precise mechanisms underlying the CNS degeneration of patients with glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency are still the subject of intense debate, many studies have highlighted that excitotoxicity plays a fundamental role in the neuropathology of this disease, particularly involving the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Modulation of ...
Simon-Colin Christelle - - 2004
The red alga Grateloupia doryphora Montagne (Howe) (Cryptonemiales, Halymeniaceae) was used as a model to investigate the effects of changes in seawater salinity on the intracellular low-molecular-weight organic compounds. Carbon-partitioning into major organic solutes was followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on living algae incubated in NaH13CO3-enriched seawater, ...
Diez-Gonzalez F - - 2004
AIMS: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of growing conditions on the glutamate-, arginine- and lysine-dependent acid resistance (AR) systems of Escherichia coli O157:H7. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven E. coli O157:H7 strains were grown in five different media at neutral or acidic pH under aerobic or ...
Summers-Chase D - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine whether removing glucose and phosphate from media used for developing cleavage-stage embryos improves outcome following transfer of fresh or frozen embryos. Furthermore the study would evaluate the efficacy of adding nonessential amino acids and glutamate to media. METHODS: Embryo development was rotated on a weekly basis in ...
Ma Choong Je - - 2004
The CH (2)Cl (2) fraction of the bark of Machilus thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (Lauraceae) significantly protected primary cultures of rat cortical cells exposed to the excitotoxic amino acid, L-glutamate. (-)-Isoguaiacin, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, machilin A, (+)-galbelgin, licarin A, (-)-sesamin, and (+)-guaiacin were isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation from the CH (2)Cl ...
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