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Results 301 - 350 of 1829
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Takahashi Yusuke - - 2005
We have recently reported that RPE65 from the retinal pigment epithelium is the isomerohydrolase, a critical enzyme in the visual cycle for regeneration of 11-cis retinal, the chromophore for visual pigments. Here, we demonstrated that mutation of any one of the absolutely conserved four histidine and one glutamic acid residues ...
Domercq María - - 2005
Glutamate uptake is crucial to terminate glutamate signaling and to prevent excitotoxicity. The present study describes the expression of functional glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 in oligodendrocytes by means of electrophysiology, uptake assays, and immunocytochemistry. Inhibition of glutamate uptake, both in oligodendrocyte cultures and in isolated optic nerves, increases glutamate ...
Shen Chi-Yen - - 2005
This study has investigated an improved surface acoustic wave (SAW) ammonia gas sensor based on L-glutamic acid hydrochloride. It presents an excellent reversibility, sensitivity, and repeatability to ammonia. The frequency shift versus ammonia concentration above 40 degrees C was a monotonic function, and the limit of detection of the sensor ...
Linka Marc - - 2005
Surprisingly, glutamine synthetase was recently shown to be dual targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria in Arabidopsis leaves. It is likely that mitochondrial glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonia, which is generated in large amounts in mitochondria during photorespiration. However, ammonia assimilation is a two-step process and the second step, catalyzed by glutamate ...
Yoshimune Kazuaki - - 2005
N-Acyl-D-glutamate amidohydrolase (D-AGase) was inhibited by 94 % when 1 mol/l N-acetyl-DL-glutamate was used as a substrate. The addition of 1 mM Co2+ stabilized D-AGase. Moreover, the substrate inhibition was weakened to 88% with the addition of 0.4 mM Co2+ to the reaction mixture. Although D-AGase is a zinc-metalloenzyme, the ...
Tomsho John W - - 2005
Folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase (FPGS, EC 6.3.2.17) catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of glutamic acid to reduced folates including (6S)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (H4PteGlu), as well as to anticancer drugs such as 5,10-dideaza-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate ((6R)-DDAH4PteGlu1, (6R)-DDATHF, Lometrexol). Synthesis of unlabeled mono- and polyglutamates, DDAH4PteGlu(n) (6R, n = 1-6; 6S, n = 1-2), as well as (6R)-DDAH4Pte[14C]Glu1, was ...
Yamada Takashi - - 2005
t Theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea and many researchers have compared theanine's effects with glutamic acid because the chemical structure is similar. In the previous study, we demonstrated that theanine can pass brain-blood barrier and may play as an agonist or an ...
Wejksza Katarzyna - - 2005
In the present study we demonstrate for the first time that both kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) isoforms I and II are present in the permanent immature rat oligodendrocytes cell line (OLN-93). Moreover, we provide evidence that OLN-93 cells are able to synthesize kynurenic acid (KYNA) from exogenously added L-kynurenine and we ...
Aoki Ryo - - 2005
Previously we reported that a mutant of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC14067 with reduced H+-ATPase activity, F172-8, showed an approximately two times higher specific rate of glucose consumption than the parent, but no glutamic acid productivity under the standard biotin-limited culture conditions, where biotin concentration was set at 5.5 microg/l in the ...
Srikrishna Geetha - - 2005
We previously reported that N-glycans from bovine lung contain novel carboxylate groups. Here, we provide evidence that the carboxylated glycans contain glutamic acid. We labeled HeLa cells with [2,3-(3)H]glutamate and used a carboxylate-specific monoclonal antibody to enrich for the desired proteins. PNGaseF digestion of these proteins released labeled N-glycans with ...
Yudkoff Marc - - 2005
Our objective was to study brain amino acid metabolism in response to ketosis. The underlying hypothesis is that ketosis is associated with a fundamental change of brain amino acid handling and that this alteration is a factor in the anti-epileptic effect of the ketogenic diet. Specifically, we hypothesize that brain ...
Zhang Qingfen - - 2005
A fragmentation mechanism for the neutral loss of 73 Da from dimethylformamidine glutamine isobutyl ester is investigated. Understanding this mechanism will allow to improve the identification and quantification of 15N-labeled and unlabeled glutamine and the distinguishing of glutamine and glutamic acid by electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry. Before mass spectrometry ...
Mungur R - - 2005
With about 200,000 phytochemicals in existence, identifying those of biomedical significance is a mammoth task. In the postgenomic era, relating metabolite fingerprints, abundances, and profiles to genotype is also a large task. Ion analysis using Fourier transformed ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) may provide a high-throughput approach to measure ...
Stark Timo - - 2005
Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D-NMR experiments and thiolytic degradation, revealed that, besides theobromine and caffeine, the flavan-3-ols epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B-2, procyanidin B-5, procyanidin C-1, [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](3)-epicatechin, and [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](4)-epicatechin were among the key compounds contributing ...
Stark Timo - - 2005
Application of chromatographic separation and taste dilution analyses recently revealed besides procyanidins a series of N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids as the key contributors to the astringent taste of nonfermented cocoa beans as well as roasted cocoa nibs. Because these amides have as yet not been reported as key taste compounds, this ...
Fedoryak Olesya D - - 2005
We have synthesized a biologically inert, photosensitive derivative of the major excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate (which we call MDNI-glu) that makes more efficient use of incident light than all other caged glutamates. Laser flash photolysis of MDNI-glu in acutely isolated hippocampal brain slices evoked a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ ...
Conti Paola - - 2005
N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids (S)-9a-9c and (R)-9a-9c, which are conformationally constrained analogues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested for activity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Some of them turned out to be selective for the ...
Yudkoff Marc - - 2005
Glutamic acid is an important excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain. Two key goals of brain amino acid handling are to maintain a very low intrasynaptic concentration of glutamic acid and also to provide the system with precursors from which to synthesize glutamate. The intrasynaptic glutamate level must be kept low ...
Greer J M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) differs from relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive MS (RR/SP-MS) in ways suggesting differences in the pathogenic pathways. Susceptibility to both PP-MS and RR/SP-MS is linked to carriage of the HLA molecule DRB1*1501. Several serologically defined HLA-DR groups (DR1, DR4, DR6, and DR9) occur less often ...
Kume Toshiaki - - 2005
We have previously reported that a sulfur-containing neuroprotective substance named serofendic acid was purified and isolated from lipophilic extract of fetal calf serum (FCS). In the present study, we investigated the effect of serofendic acid on glutamate neurotoxicity using embryonic rat spinal cord culture. When cultures were exposed to glutamate ...
Watts Jo - - 2005
Using in vivo microdialysis, we have monitored the release of three amino acids (arginine, glutamate and glutamine) in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in response to various drugs. In response to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) infusion, extracellular glutamate was increased, glutamine was decreased and arginine remained unchanged. By contrast, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid ...
Kwon Y H - - 2005
PURPOSE: Vitreous and retinal amino-acid concentrations were evaluated in a primate model of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) to study the role of glutamate excitotoxicity in acute retinal ischaemia. METHODS: Unilateral, acute CRAO was produced by temporary clamping of the central retinal artery for 190 min in four elderly rhesus ...
Leatherland John F - - 2005
The effects of glutamate and somatostatin-14 (SRIF) on the in vitro basal and cAMP-stimulated steroid production of mid-vitellogenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles were investigated. cAMP-stimulation was achieved by the addition of the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin (FS), or a membrane permeate cAMP agonist, 8-bromo-cAMP (BA), to the incubation ...
Watanabe T - - 2005
Blood shell, Scapharca broughtonii, contains large quantities of free D-aspartate comparable to free L-aspartate in its tissues. When the shell was reared in hypoxic seawater, D-aspartate as well as L-aspartate in the foot muscle decreased rapidly, and their total level became about one-fourth within 24 hr. None of the other ...
Hall Andrew J - - 2005
A series of urea-based vinyl monomers was synthesized and investigated for their ability to function as polymerizable hosts for the molecular imprinting of N-Z-D- or L-glutamic acid in polar media (DMSO or DMF). The monomers were synthesized in one step from a polymerizable isocyanate and a nonpolymerizable amine or vice ...
SinhaRoy Soumya - - 2005
We had previously shown that creatine exerted a protective effect against inhibition of cardiac mitochondrial respiration by methylglyoxal (SinhaRoy S, Biswas S, Ray M, Ray S. Biochem J 372: 661-669,2003). In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of this protective effect by specific amino acid modifying reagent and ...
Roberts Claire - - 2005
LPA1 is a Gi-coupled seven transmembrane receptor with high affinity for the ligand lysophosphatidic acid. We have investigated the effect of targeted deletion at the lpa1 locus on evoked release of amino acids from hippocampal slices, using in vitro superfusion techniques, and evoked 5-HT efflux from the dorsal raphe nucleus, ...
D'Aniello Salvatore - - 2005
In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in ...
Zachara Janusz - - 2005
The asymmetric unit of the alpha polymorph of (+)-N-tosyl-L-glutamic acid, C12H15NO6S, contains two independent molecules which differ in conformation. The carboxylic acid groups form an infinite zigzag chain with characteristic R(2)(2)(8) rings running along the b axis. Intermolecular N-H...O and C-H...O contacts mediate the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure ...
Walus Mariusz - - 2005
Tripeptidyl-peptidase I (TPP I) is a lysosomal aminopeptidase that sequentially removes tripeptides from small polypeptides and also shows a minor endoprotease activity. Mutations in TPP I are associated with a fatal lysosomal storage disorder--the classic late-infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. In the present study, we analyzed the catalytic mechanism ...
Ramirez-Montealegre D - - 2005
The pathogenic mechanisms underlying Batten disease are unclear. Patients uniformly possess autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) that are predominantly reactive with a region of GAD (amino acids 1 to 20) distinct from subjects with autoimmune type 1 diabetes or stiff-person syndrome. Batten patients did not possess autoantibodies against other ...
Nishii Masayuki - - 2005
We report on new thermotropic liquid-crystalline oligo(amino acid) derivatives forming columnar structures. These are based on branched oligo(glutamic acid)s and 2-(3,4-dialkyloxyphenyl)ethyl moieties. An oligo(glutamic acid) derivative, alpha,gamma-bis(L-glutamoyl) L-glutamic acid tetra[2-(3,4-dioctadecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]ester, shows a hexagonal columnar phase, whilst a glutamic acid derivative, alpha,gamma-bis[2-(3,4-dioctadecyloxyphenyl)ethyl] L-glutamate, does not show a mesophase. Hydrogen bonds formed ...
Sekimizu Kazuhisa - - 2005
Agonists for muscle contraction in silkworms were screened by injecting test solutions into the hemolymph of decapitated silkworm larvae. Kainic acid, a glutamate receptor agonist, and D-glutamic acid induced muscle contractions, and D-aspartic acid was partially effective, whereas NMDA and AMPA, representative mammalian glutamate receptor agonists, did not induce contraction. ...
Jin Hong - - 2005
In this work, we report that the recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-human L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (HGAD) isoforms, 65-kDa L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (GST-HGAD65) fusion protein or free truncated HGAD65, were activated by apocalmodulin (ApoCaM) to an extent of 60%. Both truncated forms of GAD67 (tGAD67), HGAD67(Delta1-70) and HGAD67(Delta1-90), were markedly activated ...
Chi Chih-Wen - - 2005
The effects of nine polyphenolic compounds on glutamate-mediated toxicity were investigated. The underlying mechanisms by which a polyphenolic compound confers its effect were also elucidated. Treatment of cortical neurons with 50 microm glutamate for 24 h decreased cell viability by 45.8 +/- 7.9%, and 50 microm of tournefolic acid B ...
Ferreira Vânia - - 2005
Spray-dried cells of Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 survived ca. 60% longer in the spray dried state when cells were grown in the presence of 20 g sucrose l(-1) or 12.5 g monosodium glutamate l(-1). No significant differences were observed in viability during storage in the freeze dried state with the ...
Ahmad Shagufta - - 2005
We have studied the effects of treatment with the anticonvulsants lamotrigine (LTG), phenytoin (PHN) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on basal and stimulated extracellular aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), taurine (TAU), GABA, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the hippocampus of freely moving rats using microdialysis. All of the drugs investigated have had ...
Lee Ki-Seog - - 2005
Glutamate racemase catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamic acid to D-glutamic acid and vice versa. Since D-glutamic acid is one of the essential amino acids present in peptidoglycan, glutamate racemase has been considered to be an attractive target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. Glutamate racemase from Lactobacillus fermenti has ...
Trotter Nicholas S - - 2005
The synthesis of nine GPE* analogues, wherein the alpha-carboxylic acid group of glutamic acid has been modified, is described by coupling readily accessible N-benzyloxycarbonyl-glycyl-L-proline 2 with various analogues of glutamic acid. Pharmacological evaluation of the novel compounds was undertaken to further understand the role of the glutamate residue on the ...
Brimble Margaret A - - 2005
The synthesis of eight GPE* analogues, wherein the gamma-carboxylic moiety of the glutamic residue has been modified, is described by coupling readily accessible N-benzyloxycarbonyl-glycyl-L-proline with various analogues of glutamic acid. Pharmacological evaluation of the novel compounds was undertaken to further understand the role of the glutamate residue on the observed ...
Thompson Charles M - - 2005
The vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) is responsible for the uptake of the excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate, into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT activity is coupled to an electrochemical gradient driven by a vacuolar ATPase and stimulated by low Cl-. VGLUT has relatively low affinity (K(m) = 1-3 mM) for glutamate and is ...
Zhang Shaomin - - 2005
The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral injuries evoked by ischemia/reperfusion was supported by a decrease of ...
Suzuki Akira - - 2005
Ammonium ion assimilation constitutes a central metabolic pathway in many organisms, and glutamate synthase, in concert with glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), plays the primary role of ammonium ion incorporation into glutamine and glutamate. Glutamate synthase occurs in three forms that can be distinguished based on whether they use NADPH ...
Shih Ing-Lung - - 2005
Bacillus subtilis(natto) Takahashi, used to prepare the fermented soybean product natto, was grown in a basal medium containing 5% (w/w) sucrose and 1.5% (w/w) L-glutamate and produced 58% (w/w) poly(gamma-glutamic acid) and 42% (w/w) levan simultaneously. After 21 h, 40-50 mg levan ml-1 had been produced in medium containing 20% ...
Thomas Philip M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to establish whether, in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), there are relative differences between the lateral and ipsilateral medial temporal lobe in the extracellular levels of 3 of the human brain's major neuroactive amino acids. METHODS: Seven generally anesthetized patients with TLE undergoing anatomically standardized resective ...
Basagan-Mogol Elif - - 2005
Increased release of glutamate is thought to contribute to ischemia-induced neuronal damage. Since general anesthetics such as thiopental and ketamine are thought to provide some degree of cerebral protection, this study was intended to 1) compare the effectiveness of ketamine and thiopental on ischemia-induced tissue damage; and, if so, 2) ...
Brennan Lorraine - - 2004
Gliotoxins are a group of amino acids that are toxic to astrocytes, and are substrates of high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. In the present study, C6 glioma cells were preincubated for 20 h in the presence of 400 microM L-alpha-aminoadipate, L-serine-O-sulphate, D-aspartate or L-cysteate, as well as in the presence of ...
Kinoshita Shukuo - - 2004
Screening tests for glutamate producing strains were carried out, with the media containing carbohydrate and ammonia source as chief ingredients. Glutamate as well as certain other amino acids was detected by paper chromatography in culture broth of many microorganisms tested. Accumulation of L-glutamate in a significant amount (at least a ...
Allen Aron - - 2004
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all organisms and catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. While this enzyme does not exhibit allosteric regulation in plants, bacteria, or fungi, its activity is tightly controlled by a number of compounds in mammals. We have previously shown that this regulation plays ...
Mallari Jeremy P - - 2004
A series of alkyl and aryl phosphonyl, thiophosphonyl, and dithiophosphonyl derivatives of (S)- and (R)-glutamic acid were prepared and examined for inhibitory potency against glutamate carboxypeptidase (carboxypeptidase G). The acquisition of the phosphonamidodithioic acids and the individual phosphonamidothioic acid diastereomers was achieved through a common phosphonamidothiolate precursor, which also allowed ...
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