Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1819
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Yudkoff Marc - - 2005
Our objective was to study brain amino acid metabolism in response to ketosis. The underlying hypothesis is that ketosis is associated with a fundamental change of brain amino acid handling and that this alteration is a factor in the anti-epileptic effect of the ketogenic diet. Specifically, we hypothesize that brain ...
Zhang Qingfen - - 2005
A fragmentation mechanism for the neutral loss of 73 Da from dimethylformamidine glutamine isobutyl ester is investigated. Understanding this mechanism will allow to improve the identification and quantification of 15N-labeled and unlabeled glutamine and the distinguishing of glutamine and glutamic acid by electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry. Before mass spectrometry ...
Mungur R - - 2005
With about 200,000 phytochemicals in existence, identifying those of biomedical significance is a mammoth task. In the postgenomic era, relating metabolite fingerprints, abundances, and profiles to genotype is also a large task. Ion analysis using Fourier transformed ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) may provide a high-throughput approach to measure ...
Stark Timo - - 2005
Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D-NMR experiments and thiolytic degradation, revealed that, besides theobromine and caffeine, the flavan-3-ols epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B-2, procyanidin B-5, procyanidin C-1, [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](3)-epicatechin, and [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](4)-epicatechin were among the key compounds contributing ...
Stark Timo - - 2005
Application of chromatographic separation and taste dilution analyses recently revealed besides procyanidins a series of N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids as the key contributors to the astringent taste of nonfermented cocoa beans as well as roasted cocoa nibs. Because these amides have as yet not been reported as key taste compounds, this ...
Fedoryak Olesya D - - 2005
We have synthesized a biologically inert, photosensitive derivative of the major excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate (which we call MDNI-glu) that makes more efficient use of incident light than all other caged glutamates. Laser flash photolysis of MDNI-glu in acutely isolated hippocampal brain slices evoked a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ ...
Conti Paola - - 2005
N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids (S)-9a-9c and (R)-9a-9c, which are conformationally constrained analogues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested for activity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Some of them turned out to be selective for the ...
Yudkoff Marc - - 2005
Glutamic acid is an important excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain. Two key goals of brain amino acid handling are to maintain a very low intrasynaptic concentration of glutamic acid and also to provide the system with precursors from which to synthesize glutamate. The intrasynaptic glutamate level must be kept low ...
Greer J M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) differs from relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive MS (RR/SP-MS) in ways suggesting differences in the pathogenic pathways. Susceptibility to both PP-MS and RR/SP-MS is linked to carriage of the HLA molecule DRB1*1501. Several serologically defined HLA-DR groups (DR1, DR4, DR6, and DR9) occur less often ...
Kume Toshiaki - - 2005
We have previously reported that a sulfur-containing neuroprotective substance named serofendic acid was purified and isolated from lipophilic extract of fetal calf serum (FCS). In the present study, we investigated the effect of serofendic acid on glutamate neurotoxicity using embryonic rat spinal cord culture. When cultures were exposed to glutamate ...
Watts Jo - - 2005
Using in vivo microdialysis, we have monitored the release of three amino acids (arginine, glutamate and glutamine) in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in response to various drugs. In response to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) infusion, extracellular glutamate was increased, glutamine was decreased and arginine remained unchanged. By contrast, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid ...
Kwon Y H - - 2005
PURPOSE: Vitreous and retinal amino-acid concentrations were evaluated in a primate model of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) to study the role of glutamate excitotoxicity in acute retinal ischaemia. METHODS: Unilateral, acute CRAO was produced by temporary clamping of the central retinal artery for 190 min in four elderly rhesus ...
Leatherland John F - - 2005
The effects of glutamate and somatostatin-14 (SRIF) on the in vitro basal and cAMP-stimulated steroid production of mid-vitellogenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles were investigated. cAMP-stimulation was achieved by the addition of the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin (FS), or a membrane permeate cAMP agonist, 8-bromo-cAMP (BA), to the incubation ...
Watanabe T - - 2005
Blood shell, Scapharca broughtonii, contains large quantities of free D-aspartate comparable to free L-aspartate in its tissues. When the shell was reared in hypoxic seawater, D-aspartate as well as L-aspartate in the foot muscle decreased rapidly, and their total level became about one-fourth within 24 hr. None of the other ...
Hall Andrew J - - 2005
A series of urea-based vinyl monomers was synthesized and investigated for their ability to function as polymerizable hosts for the molecular imprinting of N-Z-D- or L-glutamic acid in polar media (DMSO or DMF). The monomers were synthesized in one step from a polymerizable isocyanate and a nonpolymerizable amine or vice ...
SinhaRoy Soumya - - 2005
We had previously shown that creatine exerted a protective effect against inhibition of cardiac mitochondrial respiration by methylglyoxal (SinhaRoy S, Biswas S, Ray M, Ray S. Biochem J 372: 661-669,2003). In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of this protective effect by specific amino acid modifying reagent and ...
Roberts Claire - - 2005
LPA1 is a Gi-coupled seven transmembrane receptor with high affinity for the ligand lysophosphatidic acid. We have investigated the effect of targeted deletion at the lpa1 locus on evoked release of amino acids from hippocampal slices, using in vitro superfusion techniques, and evoked 5-HT efflux from the dorsal raphe nucleus, ...
D'Aniello Salvatore - - 2005
In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in ...
Zachara Janusz - - 2005
The asymmetric unit of the alpha polymorph of (+)-N-tosyl-L-glutamic acid, C12H15NO6S, contains two independent molecules which differ in conformation. The carboxylic acid groups form an infinite zigzag chain with characteristic R(2)(2)(8) rings running along the b axis. Intermolecular N-H...O and C-H...O contacts mediate the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure ...
Walus Mariusz - - 2005
Tripeptidyl-peptidase I (TPP I) is a lysosomal aminopeptidase that sequentially removes tripeptides from small polypeptides and also shows a minor endoprotease activity. Mutations in TPP I are associated with a fatal lysosomal storage disorder--the classic late-infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. In the present study, we analyzed the catalytic mechanism ...
Ramirez-Montealegre D - - 2005
The pathogenic mechanisms underlying Batten disease are unclear. Patients uniformly possess autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) that are predominantly reactive with a region of GAD (amino acids 1 to 20) distinct from subjects with autoimmune type 1 diabetes or stiff-person syndrome. Batten patients did not possess autoantibodies against other ...
Nishii Masayuki - - 2005
We report on new thermotropic liquid-crystalline oligo(amino acid) derivatives forming columnar structures. These are based on branched oligo(glutamic acid)s and 2-(3,4-dialkyloxyphenyl)ethyl moieties. An oligo(glutamic acid) derivative, alpha,gamma-bis(L-glutamoyl) L-glutamic acid tetra[2-(3,4-dioctadecyloxyphenyl)ethyl]ester, shows a hexagonal columnar phase, whilst a glutamic acid derivative, alpha,gamma-bis[2-(3,4-dioctadecyloxyphenyl)ethyl] L-glutamate, does not show a mesophase. Hydrogen bonds formed ...
Sekimizu Kazuhisa - - 2005
Agonists for muscle contraction in silkworms were screened by injecting test solutions into the hemolymph of decapitated silkworm larvae. Kainic acid, a glutamate receptor agonist, and D-glutamic acid induced muscle contractions, and D-aspartic acid was partially effective, whereas NMDA and AMPA, representative mammalian glutamate receptor agonists, did not induce contraction. ...
Jin Hong - - 2005
In this work, we report that the recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-human L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (HGAD) isoforms, 65-kDa L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (GST-HGAD65) fusion protein or free truncated HGAD65, were activated by apocalmodulin (ApoCaM) to an extent of 60%. Both truncated forms of GAD67 (tGAD67), HGAD67(Delta1-70) and HGAD67(Delta1-90), were markedly activated ...
Chi Chih-Wen - - 2005
The effects of nine polyphenolic compounds on glutamate-mediated toxicity were investigated. The underlying mechanisms by which a polyphenolic compound confers its effect were also elucidated. Treatment of cortical neurons with 50 microm glutamate for 24 h decreased cell viability by 45.8 +/- 7.9%, and 50 microm of tournefolic acid B ...
Ferreira Vânia - - 2005
Spray-dried cells of Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 survived ca. 60% longer in the spray dried state when cells were grown in the presence of 20 g sucrose l(-1) or 12.5 g monosodium glutamate l(-1). No significant differences were observed in viability during storage in the freeze dried state with the ...
Ahmad Shagufta - - 2005
We have studied the effects of treatment with the anticonvulsants lamotrigine (LTG), phenytoin (PHN) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on basal and stimulated extracellular aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), taurine (TAU), GABA, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the hippocampus of freely moving rats using microdialysis. All of the drugs investigated have had ...
Lee Ki-Seog - - 2005
Glutamate racemase catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamic acid to D-glutamic acid and vice versa. Since D-glutamic acid is one of the essential amino acids present in peptidoglycan, glutamate racemase has been considered to be an attractive target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. Glutamate racemase from Lactobacillus fermenti has ...
Trotter Nicholas S - - 2005
The synthesis of nine GPE* analogues, wherein the alpha-carboxylic acid group of glutamic acid has been modified, is described by coupling readily accessible N-benzyloxycarbonyl-glycyl-L-proline 2 with various analogues of glutamic acid. Pharmacological evaluation of the novel compounds was undertaken to further understand the role of the glutamate residue on the ...
Brimble Margaret A - - 2005
The synthesis of eight GPE* analogues, wherein the gamma-carboxylic moiety of the glutamic residue has been modified, is described by coupling readily accessible N-benzyloxycarbonyl-glycyl-L-proline with various analogues of glutamic acid. Pharmacological evaluation of the novel compounds was undertaken to further understand the role of the glutamate residue on the observed ...
Thompson Charles M - - 2005
The vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) is responsible for the uptake of the excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate, into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT activity is coupled to an electrochemical gradient driven by a vacuolar ATPase and stimulated by low Cl-. VGLUT has relatively low affinity (K(m) = 1-3 mM) for glutamate and is ...
Zhang Shaomin - - 2005
The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral injuries evoked by ischemia/reperfusion was supported by a decrease of ...
Suzuki Akira - - 2005
Ammonium ion assimilation constitutes a central metabolic pathway in many organisms, and glutamate synthase, in concert with glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), plays the primary role of ammonium ion incorporation into glutamine and glutamate. Glutamate synthase occurs in three forms that can be distinguished based on whether they use NADPH ...
Shih Ing-Lung - - 2005
Bacillus subtilis(natto) Takahashi, used to prepare the fermented soybean product natto, was grown in a basal medium containing 5% (w/w) sucrose and 1.5% (w/w) L-glutamate and produced 58% (w/w) poly(gamma-glutamic acid) and 42% (w/w) levan simultaneously. After 21 h, 40-50 mg levan ml-1 had been produced in medium containing 20% ...
Thomas Philip M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to establish whether, in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), there are relative differences between the lateral and ipsilateral medial temporal lobe in the extracellular levels of 3 of the human brain's major neuroactive amino acids. METHODS: Seven generally anesthetized patients with TLE undergoing anatomically standardized resective ...
Basagan-Mogol Elif - - 2005
Increased release of glutamate is thought to contribute to ischemia-induced neuronal damage. Since general anesthetics such as thiopental and ketamine are thought to provide some degree of cerebral protection, this study was intended to 1) compare the effectiveness of ketamine and thiopental on ischemia-induced tissue damage; and, if so, 2) ...
Brennan Lorraine - - 2004
Gliotoxins are a group of amino acids that are toxic to astrocytes, and are substrates of high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. In the present study, C6 glioma cells were preincubated for 20 h in the presence of 400 microM L-alpha-aminoadipate, L-serine-O-sulphate, D-aspartate or L-cysteate, as well as in the presence of ...
Kinoshita Shukuo - - 2004
Screening tests for glutamate producing strains were carried out, with the media containing carbohydrate and ammonia source as chief ingredients. Glutamate as well as certain other amino acids was detected by paper chromatography in culture broth of many microorganisms tested. Accumulation of L-glutamate in a significant amount (at least a ...
Allen Aron - - 2004
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all organisms and catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. While this enzyme does not exhibit allosteric regulation in plants, bacteria, or fungi, its activity is tightly controlled by a number of compounds in mammals. We have previously shown that this regulation plays ...
Mallari Jeremy P - - 2004
A series of alkyl and aryl phosphonyl, thiophosphonyl, and dithiophosphonyl derivatives of (S)- and (R)-glutamic acid were prepared and examined for inhibitory potency against glutamate carboxypeptidase (carboxypeptidase G). The acquisition of the phosphonamidodithioic acids and the individual phosphonamidothioic acid diastereomers was achieved through a common phosphonamidothiolate precursor, which also allowed ...
Molchanova S - - 2004
Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid thought to be an osmoregulator, neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. Our objective was to establish how much taurine is released in the striatum and examine the mechanisms controlling extracellular taurine concentrations under resting conditions. The experiments were made on rats by microdialysis in ...
Ma Zhuo - - 2004
Escherichia coli prefers growth in neutral pH environments but can withstand extremely acidic conditions (pH 2) for long periods. Of the four E. coli systems that contribute to acid resistance, one, the glutamate-dependent system, is remarkable in its efficacy and regulatory complexity. The resistance mechanism involves the intracellular consumption of ...
Taylor-Burds Carol C - - 2004
Recent research has implicated T1R1/T1R3 as the primary taste receptor in mammals for detecting L-amino acids, including L-monosodium glutamate (MSG) and L-alanine. Previous behavioral studies with rodents found only minimal evidence that these two substances share perceptual qualities, but those studies did not control for the taste of sodium associated ...
Papageorgiou George - - 2004
1-Acyl-7-nitroindolines are useful reagents for rapid release of carboxylates upon flash photolysis in aqueous solution and have been particularly effective for rapid (submicrosecond) release of neuroactive amino acids such as l-glutamate in biological experiments. In model systems the efficiency of photorelease has been shown to be greatly improved by attachment ...
Ueki Takeshi - - 2004
Glucose oxidase [GOx-(PT-PEONH2)] hybrids are synthesized by attaching phenothiazine (PT) groups to aspartic and glutamic acid residues on the enzyme surface via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) spacers of different molecular weights. A fast oxidation of FADH2/FADH by PT+ with the aid of the local motion of a hydrophilic, long, flexible PEO ...
Bashkatova V - - 2004
The aim of this study was to clarify the role of nitric oxide (NO) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes as well as the contribution of various neurotransmitters in pathophysiological mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by amphetamine (AMPH). NO level was determined directly in brain tissues using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy technique. ...
Park Chi Hye - - 2004
Most proteases are synthesized as inactive precursors which are processed by proteolytic cleavage into a mature active form, allowing regulation of their proteolytic activity. The activation of the glutamic-acid-specific extracellular metalloprotease (Mpr) of Bacillus subtilis has been examined. Analysis of Mpr processing in defined protease-deficient mutants by activity assay and ...
Bui Bang V - - 2004
We assessed the effect of the in vivo application of monocarboxylate transport inhibitors on retinal function and amino acid immunocytochemistry. We wanted to determine the impact that altered aerobic metabolite availability has on retinal function and the characteristics of amino acid shunting into metabolic pools. Electroretinograms were collected from anaesthetized ...
Funicello Marcella - - 2004
We characterized the interaction of two conformationally constrained aspartate and glutamate analogs, 3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid (HIP-A) and 3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-6-carboxylic acid (HIP-B), with excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in rat brain cortex synaptosomes. HIP-A and HIP-B were potent and noncompetitive inhibitors of [(3)H]L-glutamate uptake, with IC(50) values (17-18 microM) very similar to that ...
Park Geun woo - - 2004
Morganella, Providencia and Proteus strains were capable of surviving pH 2.0 for 1 h if glutamate was present. These strains did not have glutamic acid decarboxylase activity and the gadAB genes were not detected in any of these bacteria. When exposed to pH 2.0 acid shocks, the survival rate of ...
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