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Results 201 - 250 of 1829
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Adams A L - - 2008
Altered functioning of the glutamate system during critical periods of development is believed to play a role in various neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response is deficient in people with schizophrenia. This study investigated the theory that neonatal treatment with domoic acid (DOM), ...
Akizawa Hiromichi - - 2007
To establish a strategy for developing (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((111)In-DTPA)-octreotide, a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical agent for tumors, with reduced non-specific renal radio-accumulation, the compounds having D-glutamic acid (Glu) or gamma-carboxy-D-glutamic acid (carboxy-Glu) as the N-terminal amino acid were examined for in vivo radio-distribution. Compounds carrying Glu and carboxy-Glu containing one and two ...
Lim Julie - - 2007
PURPOSE: To correlate the distribution of glutathione (GSH) and its precursor amino acids (cysteine, glycine, and glutamate) with the expression of their respective amino acid transporters in the rat lens. METHODS: Whole rat lenses were fixed, cryoprotected, and cryosectioned in either an equatorial or axial orientation. Sections were double labeled ...
Isobe-Harima Yumiko - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To elucidate the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), we developed a new HE model with behaviour disorder. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups: a HE model: acetaminophen (APAP)+3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) group (APAP+MC group); control group: acetaminophen group; 3-methylcholanthrene group; and a no-treatment group. We monitored the ...
Morris Wayne L - - 2007
Vegetable flavor is an important factor in consumer choice but a trait that is difficult to assess quantitatively. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of the major umami compounds in boiled potato tubers, in cultivars previously assessed for sensory quality. The free levels of the major ...
Winter Harry C - - 2008
Noncyclic fluorine-substituted and cyclic analogs of glutamic acid were tested for their ability to inhibit glutamate uptake in isolated bovine presynaptic vesicles, in order to assess the specific structural requirements of the glutamate translocation system in the vesicle membrane. Cyclic analogs that permitted close interaction between the positive and negative ...
Vermeulen N - - 2007
AIMS: It was the aim of our work to investigate glutamine deamidation by lactic acid bacteria isolated from cereal fermentations and to elucidate the ecological and technological relevance in baking of the conversion of glutamine to glutamate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lact. reuteri were found to display glutaminase ...
Jiménez-Díaz Lydia - - 2007
The extracellular levels of selected amino acids in the cerebellar posterior interpositus nucleus (PIN) during classical eyeblink conditioning was analyzed in alert cats using a delay paradigm. Animals were prepared for the chronic recording of eyelid movements (with the magnetic search-coil technique) and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi ...
Guiry Kevin P - - 2007
Paracetamol, sulfathiazole and L-glutamic acid are presented as examples of pharmaceutical crystal polymorphic systems. The effect of N-acylated sulfathiazole derivatives (3-6) on sulfathiazole crystallisation is discussed, and possible modes of action presented. Methods for the control of the crystal polymorphism of L-glutamic acid which utilise the principles of conformation mimicry ...
Struys E A - - 2007
Employing lymphoblasts derived from two non related patients with L-2-HG aciduria, we examined the origin of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) through incubation with [(13)C6]glucose and [(2)H5]glutamic acid. Formation of labelled 2-ketoglutaric acid (2-KG), citric acid and L-2-HG was determined by GC-MS. The quantitative and qualitative isotopomer pattern following incubation with [(13)C6]glucose ...
Mahlert Christoph - - 2007
The acidic lipopeptides, including the calcium-dependent antibiotics (CDA), daptomycin, and A54145, are important macrocyclic peptide natural products produced by Streptomyces species. All three compounds contain a 3-methyl glutamate (3-MeGlu) as the penultimate C-terminal residue, which is important for bioactivity. Here, biochemical in vitro reconstitution of the 3-MeGlu biosynthetic pathway is ...
Murray Joseph S - - 2007
The aim of this work was to design and utilize a bifunctional peptide inhibitor called glutamic acid decarboxylase-bifunctional peptide inhibitor to suppress the progression of type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. The hypothesis is that glutamic acid decarboxylase-bifunctional peptide inhibitor binds simultaneously to major histocompatibility complex-II and intercellular adhesion ...
Jankovic Slobodan M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: While the neurotransmitter role of glutamate in the gastrointestinal tract has been shown, its effects on smooth muscle of the human ureter have not previously been investigated. In our study we have investigated the effects of exogenous glutamate on the spontaneous activity of isolated human ureter, taken from 14 ...
Richard Hope - - 2007
Enteric bacteria must survive the extreme acid of the stomach (pH 2 or less) before entering the intestine where they can colonize and cause disease. Escherichia coli is superior to most other Enterobacteriaceae in surviving pH 2 acid stress because it has four known acid-resistance systems, the most studied of ...
Martos G I - - 2007
AIMS: To evaluate the effect of protective agents upon survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus during freeze-drying and storage, and selective amino acids on cell membrane fluidity. METHODS AND RESULTS: The protective effect of amino-acids and sugars at different concentrations was studied by determining the viability of lyophilized cells after ...
- - 2007
Acidic solutions have been used for decades to treat a variety of skin conditions. Many of these solutions consist of organic acids with a hydroxy group on a carbon adjacent to the carbonyl carbon and are referred to as alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA). Organic acids with hydroxy groups on the second ...
Terauchi Taro - - 2007
We present efficient syntheses of serofendic acids A and B (SA-A and SA-B), novel neuroprotective substances isolated from fetal calf serum. Biological and pharmacological evaluation showed that SA-A and SA-B have potent protective action against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, but do not interact directly with glutamate receptors. A pharmacokinetic study showed that ...
Katritzky Alan R - - 2007
N-Z-pyroglutamyl pseudopeptides 3a-c are shown to be conveniently prepared from glutamyl-bis-Bt 1a by cyclization of an N-terminal glutamic acid residue. Structures are supported by 2D NMR studies and by comparison with the same products prepared by direct coupling of the C-terminus activated N-pGlu 1b and free amino acids 2a-c.
Dimpfel Wilfried - - 2007
The in-vitro hippocampus slice preparation was used to mimic a physiological situation where nervous tissue is exposed directly to the water soluble extract of green tea and some of its constituents. This investigation provides evidence that L-theanine- and theogallin-enriched decaffeinated green tea extract is able to change the physiological pattern ...
Bosch Oliver J - - 2007
Brain oxytocin (OT) regulates aspects of emotionality and stress coping including maternal behavior and maternal aggression. Maternal aggression correlates with the amount of OT released within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the central amygdala (CeA). OT, a key neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, is likely to modulate other neurotransmitter systems. Here, we ...
LeBlanc A K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: L-Asparaginase (Elspar(a)), is an Escherichia coli-derived enzyme that depletes lymphoma cells of asparagine, inhibiting protein synthesis and resulting in cell death. The single agent response rate in cats with lymphoma and impact of L-asparaginase on plasma amino acid concentrations is unknown. HYPOTHESES: L-Asparaginase significantly reduces plasma asparagine concentrations and ...
Yoshinaga Naoko - - 2007
Fatty acid amides (FAAs) are known elicitors that induce plants to release volatile compounds that, in turn, attract foraging parasitoids. Since the discovery of volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] in the regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua, a series of related FAAs have been identified in several other species of lepidopteran caterpillars. We screened ...
Zhong Zhenqi - - 2007
A hybrid foldamer containing six cholate units and two glutamic acids was labeled with two pyrenyl groups at the chain ends. Folding was particularly favorable in the presence of zinc(II), as shown by the enhanced emission of the pyrene excimer. The sensitivity of the detection depended on the relative population ...
Oruna-Concha Maria-Jose - - 2007
A difference in taste characteristics between the outer flesh and the inner pulp of tomatoes has been observed; in particular the pulp, which contains the seeds, had more umami taste. Analysis of the free amino acids and 5'-ribonucleotides in the different parts of 13 varieties of tomatoes showed that in ...
Lehmann Teresa - - 2008
In germinating seeds of legumes, amino acids liberated during mobilization of storage proteins are partially used for synthesis of storage proteins of the developing axis, but some of them are respired. The amino acids are catabolized by both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and transaminases. Ammonium is reassimilated by glutamine synthetase (GS) ...
Yamashita Nobuo - - 2007
We cloned the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD)-encoding gene from Aspergillus oryzae. The promoter of ivdA was subjected to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assays in which certain amino acids were used as a major carbon source. L-leucine most strongly induced GUS-activity, while in the case of L-glutamate, significantly low activity was found, indicating ...
Nakamura Jun - - 2007
Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotroph that secretes L-glutamic acid in response to biotin limitation; this process is employed in industrial L-glutamic acid production. Fatty acid ester surfactants and penicillin also induce L-glutamic acid secretion, even in the presence of biotin. However, the mechanism of L-glutamic acid secretion remains unclear. ...
Broadhurst, Edward Ross
In attempts to grow CC9C10 hybridoma cells on less ammoniagenic media by substituting glutamate for glutamine, it was found that elevated glutamate levels were inhibitory to cell growth. Attempts to alleviate inhibition or adapt cells to growth were unsuccessful. It is proposed that elevated glutamate levels impair adequate uptake of ...
Chmiel-PerzyƄska Iwona - - 2007
We have evaluated the effect of diabetes-mimicking conditions on the inhibition of kynurenic acid (KYNA) production exerted by mitochondrial toxins: 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), by endogenous agonists of glutamate receptors: L-glutamate and L-cysteine sulfinate, and by a risk factor of atherosclerosis, D,L-homocysteine. Hyperglycemia (30 mM; 2 h) ...
Leick Vagn - - 2007
The ciliate Tetrahymena responds very efficiently by chemoattraction to a group of trichloroacetic acid-soluble oligopeptides isolated from a commercial bioprotein from Methanococcus. When fractionated by reversed phase C18-high-pressure liquid chromatography, this group of very efficient chemoattractants turned out to consist of a heterogeneous group of oligopeptides with molecular weight ranging ...
Schachter David - - 2007
These studies test the hypothesis that l-glutamine at its physiological plasma concentration, approximately 0.5 mM, can increase tissue content and net synthesis of glutamate in rat aortic segments in vitro, thereby mediating relaxation of the underlying smooth muscle in the elastic reservoir region of the thoracic aorta. Aortic segments were ...
Khan Masil - - 2008
The main objective of this laboratory scale experiment was to study the effect of l-glutamic acid on the growth in media and removal of ammonium from ammonium solution and natural wastewater by Chlorella vulgaris NTM06. It was observed that higher levels (1.0% and 1.5%) of l-glutamic acid compared to control ...
Xiao Gang - - 2007
We have developed a new method for identification and quantification of succinimide in proteins. The method utilizes 18O water to monitor succinimide hydrolysis. 18O-labeled isoaspartic acid and aspartic acid peptides were produced by hydrolysis of a succinimide-containing protein in 18O water (H218O) followed by tryptic digestion in regular water (H216O). ...
Sun Yizhe - - 2007
Although there is a close relationship between the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) and the cerebellum, little is known about the contribution of cerebellar inputs to amino acid neurotransmission in the VNC. Microdissection of freeze-dried brain sections and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were combined to measure changes of amino acid concentrations ...
Scolari M J - - 2007
Gliotransmission is a process in which astrocytes are dynamic elements that influence synaptic transmission and synaptogenesis. The best-known gliotransmitters are glutamate and ATP. However, in the past decade, it has been demonstrated that D-serine, a D-amino acid, acts as a gliotransmitter in glutamatergic synapses. The physiological relevance of D-serine is ...
Nagatomo Keiko - - 2007
In this study, we attempted to elucidate whether or not an acute inhibition of glutamate transports activity with l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (l-trans PDC) would cause neuroexcitoxicity in the hippocampus. We used in vivo microdialysis and X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to measure the changes in the redox state during the ...
Feldkamp Thorsten - - 2007
Kidney proximal tubules develop a severe but highly reversible energetic deficit due to nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA)-induced dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) during reoxygenation after severe hypoxia. To assess the mechanism for this behavior, we have compared the efficacies of different NEFA for inducing mitochondrial deenergization in permeabilized tubules ...
Brautaset Trygve - - 2007
Amino acids are among the major products in biotechnology in both volume and value, and the global market is growing. Microbial fermentation is the dominant method used for industrial production, and today the most important microorganisms used are Corynebacteria utilizing sugars. For low-prize bulk amino acids, the possibility of using ...
Moreau Patrice L - - 2007
Conflicting results have been reported for the rate and extent of cell death during a prolonged stationary phase. It is shown here that the viability of wild-type cells (MG1655) could decrease >or=10(8)-fold between days 1 and 14 and between days 1 and 6 of incubation under aerobic and anaerobic phosphate ...
Shirai Tomokazu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum has several anaplerotic pathways (anaplerosis), which are essential for the productions of amino acids, such as lysine and glutamate. It is still not clear how flux changes in anaplerotic pathways happen when glutamate production is induced by triggers, such as biotin depletion and the addition of the ...
Whittaker Anne - - 2007
Both sucrose and amino acids accumulate in desiccation-tolerant leaf material of the C(4) resurrection plant, Sporobolus stapfianus Gandoger (Poaceae). The present investigation was aimed at examining sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and various metabolic checkpoints involved in the co-ordination of carbon partitioning between these competing pathways during dehydration. In the ...
Yudkoff Marc - - 2007
In many epileptic patients, anticonvulsant drugs either fail adequately to control seizures or they cause serious side effects. An important adjunct to pharmacologic therapy is the ketogenic diet, which often improves seizure control, even in patients who respond poorly to medications. The mechanisms that explain the therapeutic effect are incompletely ...
Forde Brian G - - 2007
Glutamate occupies a central position in amino acid metabolism in plants. The acidic amino acid is formed by the action of glutamate synthase, utilizing glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. However, glutamate is also the substrate for the synthesis of glutamine from ammonia, catalysed by glutamine synthetase. The alpha-amino group of glutamate may ...
Pulido Jose E - - 2007
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss. The primary clinical hallmarks are vascular changes that appear to contribute to the loss of sight. In a number of neurodegenerative disorders there is an appreciation that increased levels of excitatory amino acids are excitotoxic. The primary amino acid responsible appears ...
Hall Andrew J - - 2006
A range of 2-acrylamidopyridines, showing subtle differences in solution binding toward carboxylic acids, has been investigated as functional monomers in molecular imprinting. Imprinting of N-Z-L-glutamic acid with one such monomer is shown to be effective in the creation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with recognition properties for its template ...
Diaz-Ruiz Araceli - - 2007
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to an alteration of energetic metabolism. As a consequence, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate and other important amino acids are altered after damage, leading to important disregulation of the neurochemical pathways. In the present study, we characterized the acute-phase changes in tissue concentration of amino acids involved ...
Ochiai H - - 2006
The transport system responsible for glutamine, alanine and glutamate in MOLT4 human T4 leukemia cell line were characterized. Kinetic studies of sodium-dependent glutamine and alanine transport exhibited a single saturable high-affinity carrier with a Michaelis constant of 152 +/- 26 microm and 203 +/- 36 microm and a maximal transport ...
Hutchinson Robin I - - 2006
The biosynthesis of the chlorinated amino acid [R-(Z)]-4-amino-3-chloro-2-pentenedioic acid (ACPA) was investigated. Feeding studies with Streptomyces viridogenes were conducted in resting cells. Substantial incorporation from [(15)N]- and [(13)C]-enriched glutamate and proline indicated that the biosynthetic origin of ACPA is one of these amino acids. Experiments with deuterated glutamate and proline ...
Natera V - - 2006
In the present study, the effect of acid stress on ammonium assimilation in Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 (Arachis hypogaea L.) microsymbiont was analyzed. The bacterial growth rate was decreased by 50%, and a significant increase in intracellular glutamate concentration was detected when the strain grew at acid pH (5.5). Assays ...
Formánek P - - 2007
The effects of demineralized water (DEMI H(2)O) and 0.5 M ammonium acetate (0.5 M AAc) on losses of L-glutamic acid and L-arginine in the course of shaking and filtration at low temperature (6 degrees C) were tested. The concentration of L-glutamic acid decreased by 6.3% in DEMI H(2)O and by ...
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