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Kang J-M - - 2011
SUMMARYLeucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) are a group of metalloexopeptidases that catalyse the sequential removal of amino acids from the N-termini of polypeptides or proteins. They play an important role in regulating the balance between catabolism and anabolism in living cells. LAPs of apicomplexa parasitic protozoa have been intensively investigated due to ...
Lodola Alessio - - 2011
QM/MM modelling of FAAH inactivation by O-biphenyl-3-yl carbamates identifies the deprotonation of Ser241 as the key reaction step, explaining why FAAH is insensitive to the electron-donor effect of conjugated substituents; this may aid design of new inhibitors with improved selectivity and in vivo potency.
Kitagawa Shuji - - 2011
We examined the intradermal delivery of a hydrophilic polyphenol chlorogenic acid by in vitro study using excised guinea pig dorsal skin and Yucatan micropig skin. Skin accumulation as well as the solubility of chlorogenic acid in aqueous vehicles was much greater than for other polyphenols such as quercetin and genistein. ...
Gibbs Neil K - - 2011
Located in the stratum corneum, urocanic acid is a major epidermal chromophore for UVR. This simple molecule has attracted a great deal of research interest over the past half century, initially as a putative "natural sunscreen" and later as a mediator of photoimmunosuppression with a consequent role in photocarcinogenesis. For ...
Bousquet Melanie - - 2011
We have recently identified a neuroprotective role for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in a toxin-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Combined with epidemiological data, these observations suggest that low n-3 PUFA intake is a modifiable environmental risk factor for PD. In order to strengthen these preclinical findings ...
Mokhtar Galila M - - 2010
Vincristine is considered as a backbone of therapy in the induction and consolidation phases of pediatric malignancies. Neurotoxicity is a principal side effect of its use. This study is a randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the role of glutamic acid in ameliorating neurotoxicity in pediatric patients with hematologic ...
Ahmed Bahar - - 2010
The whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. afforded a new terpenoid, characterised as p-menthane-5,6-dihydroxy-3-carboxylic acid (1), which has been designated as marrubic acid. Its structure has been elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses. The compound (1) also exhibited a significant antihepatotoxic activity by reducing the elevated levels ...
Pecivová Pavlína - - 2010
The influence of monoacylglycerol Rimulsoft Super(V) and L-glutamic acid added to wheat flour dough was studied. Properties of the doughs were evaluated on the basis of chemical analysis and rheological measurements on a farinograph. Bakery products made from these doughs were subsequently subjected to sensory analyses. It was found that ...
Claros M G - - 2010
In higher plants, ammonium is assimilated into amino acids through the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) cycle. This metabolic cycle is distributed in different cellular compartments in conifer seedlings: glutamine synthesis occurs in the cytosol and glutamate synthesis within the chloroplast. A method for preparing intact chloroplasts of pine cotyledons ...
Aggarwal A - - 2010
Folic acid supplementation is important in the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD). The study was conducted to assess the awareness amongst physicians regarding the role of Folic Acid (FA) in the prevention of NTD. Physicians were interviewed regarding the awareness of FA dose, timing of supplementation and knowledge about ...
Ozaydin Mehmet - - 2010
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinical arrhythmia. Recent investigations have suggested that inflammation might have a role in the pathophysiology of AF. In this review, the association between inflammation and AF, and the effects of several agents that have anti-inflammatory actions, such as statins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, corticosteroids ...
Liu Yan - - 2010
We report a facile method for the fabrication of spongelike gold/amino acid nanocomposites by the addition of NaBr to glutamic acid-stabilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at room temperature. The gold/glutamic acid (Glu) nanocomposite is characterized by TEM, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and XRD measurements. The results suggest that the three-dimensional spongelike gold/Glu ...
de Freitas Rivelilson Mendes - - 2011
This study was aimed at investigating the anticonvulsant activity of lipoic acid (LA) against pilocarpine-induced seizures as well as the effects of this metabolic antioxidant on the hippocampal extracellular concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate, aspartate, glycine and glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In vivo microdialysis demonstrated that an intraperitoneal ...
Kincses Zsigmond Tamas - - 2010
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major causes of dementia. The pathogenesis of the disease is not entirely understood, but the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and the formation of senile plaques seem to play pivotal roles. Oligomerization of the Aβ is thought to trigger a cascade of events, including ...
Chiriac Maria - - 2010
Our group has developed a stereospecific enzymatic method, which is very efficient for the in vitro synthesis of l-[(15)N]serine, l-[(15)N]methionine and l-[(15)N]glutamic acid. These amino acids were prepared from the corresponding alpha -ketoacids in the suitable enzymatic systems. The bacterial NAD-dependent amino acid dehydrogenases alanin dehydrogenase, leucin dehydrogenase and glutamate ...
Smerieri M - - 2010
Self-assembly of organic molecules at metal surfaces is of greatest importance in nanoscience; in fact, it opens new perspectives in the field of molecular electronics and in the study of biocompatible materials. Combining an experimental low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy investigation with ab initio calculations, we succeeded to describe in detail ...
Guo Li - - 2010
Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is attracting more attention gradually due to its particular biological properties. However, molecular characteristics of TPS are unclear since appropriate method is still absent. So, study on the molecular characteristics of TPS was carried out by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and viscosimetry. ...
Rao Raghavendra - - 2010
Hypoglycemia is common during development and is associated with the risk of neurodevelopmental deficits in human infants. The effects of hypoglycemia on the developing hippocampus are poorly understood. The sequential changes in energy substrates, amino acids and phosphocreatine were measured from the hippocampus during 180 min of insulin-induced hypoglycemia (blood ...
Chao Xiao-dong - - 2010
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ischemia brain injury. The regulation of glutamate neurotransmission is carried out by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) that act through reuptake of glutamate into cells. EAATs may also release glutamate into the extracellular space in a ...
Monier M - - 2010
In the present study, separation of L-glutamic acid from dilute aqueous solution by solid-phase extraction based on molecular imprinting technique using cross-linked chitosan/glutaraldehyde resin was investigated. L-Glutamic acid imprinted cross-linked chitosan (LGIC) was prepared by cross-linking of chitosan by glutaraldehyde cross-linker, in the presence of L-glutamic acid. Non-imprinted cross-linked chitosan ...
Samartsev V N - - 2010
The effect of acetoacetate on palmitate-induced uncoupling with the involvement of ADP/ATP antiporter and aspartate/glutamate antiporter has been studied in liver mitochondria. The incubation of mitochondria with acetoacetate during succinate oxidation in the presence of rotenone, oligomycin, and EGTA suppresses the accumulation of conjugated dienes. This is considered as a ...
Morran Michael P - - 2010
The objective of this study was to determine whether antigenic determinants localized within the extracellular domain of the neuroendocrine autoantigen tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 are targets of humoral responses in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Previous studies indicated that the immunodominant region of IA-2 is localized within its intracellular domain (IA-2ic; ...
Zhao Boyu - - 2010
Enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli have acquired a wide array of acid stress response systems to counteract the extreme acidity encountered when invading the host's digestive or urinary tracts. These acid stress response systems are both enzyme and chaperone based. The 3 main enzyme-based acid resistance pathways are glutamate-, ...
Meotti Flavia Carla - - 2010
In this study we compare the effect of a glutamate solution with pH adjusted to 7 (3-30 micromol/paw), a non-pH-adjusted glutamate solution (.3-30 micromol/paw, pH range 2.24-1.14), and an acid solution (2% acetic acid, pH 1.4-7) in terms of causing licking behavior in mice. The sum of licking seconds was ...
Yoshinaga Naoko - - 2010
Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a ...
Arany Szilvia - - 2010
Here, we report on an experimental approach of simultaneous determination of various amino acids racemization (AAR) rates in teeth. We evaluated the measurements of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamate (Glu), and alanine (Ala) isolated from dentin. Asx D/L rates from total amino acid fraction, generally used for age estimation, showed high ...
Chen Pei-Min - - 2010
The acid tolerance response (ATR) is one of the major virulence traits of Streptococcus mutans. In this study, the role of GlnR in acid-mediated gene repression that affects the adaptive ATR in S. mutans was investigated. Using a whole-genome microarray and in silico analyses, we demonstrated that GlnR and the ...
Jeong Jae-Hoon - - 2010
For the production of poly(gamma-glutamic acid), a newly isolated Bacillus sp. RKY3 was phylogenetically identified as Bacillus subtilis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The culture medium for the production of poly(gamma-glutamic acid) by B. subtilis RKY3 was optimized statistically. The parameters significantly affecting poly(gamma-glutamic acid) production were found ...
Loesch Angelika - - 2010
The registered entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii (BIPESCO 2) was tested for its virulence after one, five and 10 times sub-culturing on four types of selective synthetic nutrient media. Bioassays with third instar Melolontha melolontha larvae showed that sub-culturing negatively affects the virulence of the fungus after 10 transfers. With the ...
Coulibaly Ibourahema - - 2010
The protective effects of the fatty acid composition and membrane action of the acidification activity of two strains of Lactobacillus kept at 20 degrees C were studied. The addition of sorbitol, monosodium glutamate and glycerol during storage is causing the decline of acidification and increased concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids ...
Oliver Robert R - - 2010
Mitochondrial Krebs cycle keto acid pool depends upon input from pyruvate and glutamate to maintain homeostasis. We studied the affect of glucose-derived pyruvate removal on compensatory input from glutamine-derived glutamate by accelerated glutamate metabolism via glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). In glutamine minus glucose media (Gln-Glc), NH(4)(+) production increased 41% without an ...
Saraf S - - 2010
Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, ...
Krin Evelyne - - 2010
H-NS regulates the acid stress resistance. The present study aimed to characterize the H-NS-dependent cascade governing the acid stress resistance pathways and to define the interplay between the different regulators. We combined mutational, phenotypic and gene expression analyses, to unravel the regulatory hierarchy in acid resistance involving H-NS, RcsB-P/GadE complex, ...
Krastel Kirsten - - 2010
Glutamate contributes to the acid tolerance response (ATR) of many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, but its role in the ATR of the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans is unknown. This study describes the discovery and characterization of a glutamate transporter operon designated glnQHMP (Smu.1519 to Smu.1522) and investigates its potential role ...
Khanna Savita - - 2010
Our previous works have elucidated that the 12-lipoxygenase pathway is directly implicated in glutamate-induced neural cell death, and that such that toxicity is prevented by nM concentrations of the natural vitamin E alpha-tocotrienol (TCT). In the current study we tested the hypothesis that phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity is sensitive to ...
Chahomchuen Thippayarat - - 2009
Here we examined the significance of Avt6, a vacuolar exporter of glutamate and aspartate suggested by the in vitro membrane vesicle experiment, in vacuolar compartmentalization of amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Fluorescent microscopic observation of GFP-fused Avt6 revealed it to be exclusively localized to the vacuolar membrane, with the ...
Wan Tien-Chun - - 2009
The purpose of the study was to investigate bioactive compounds of in vitro cultured Calculus Suis and natural Calculus Bovis obtained as valuable by-products from animals used for meat production. The results showed that the components of natural Calculus Bovis were rich in bilirubin and biliverdin and had higher content ...
Zhao Min - - 2009
The role of enzymes and receptors of the prostanoid pathway in the inhibitory effect of 8-isoprostaglandin E2 (8-isoPGE2) on endogenous amino acid neurotransmitter levels was examined, ex vivo. Freshly isolated bovine eyeballs were injected intravitreally with IsoPs, incubated in Krebs buffer for 30 min and retina prepared for HPLC-ECD detection ...
Sorrequieta Augusto - - 2010
In tomato, free amino acids increase dramatically during fruit ripening and their abundance changed differentially. More evident is L-glutamate which gives the characteristic "umami" flavor. Glutamate is the principal free amino acid of ripe fruits of cultivated varieties. In this paper, we examined the capacity of tomato fruits to process ...
Etoga Jean-Louis G - - 2010
A panel of amino acid analogs and conformationally-restricted amino acids bearing a sulfonic acid were synthesized and tested for their ability to preferentially inhibit the obligate cysteine-glutamate transporter system x(c)(-) versus the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Several promising candidate molecules were identified: R/S-4-[4'-carboxyphenyl]-phenylglycine, a biphenyl substituted analog of 4-carboxyphenylglycine and ...
Kawakami Zenji - - 2010
Effects of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine, on thiamine deficiency (TD)-induced decrease of glutamate uptake were examined in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Yokukansan (100-500 microg/ml) ameliorated the TD-induced decrease in glutamate uptake by astrocytes, implying that yokukansan may contain active herbs and compounds possessing this effect. Among the seven constituent ...
Strieker Matthias - - 2009
The antifungal and antimicrobial kutznerides, hexadepsipeptides composed of one alpha-hydroxy acid and five nonproteinogenic amino acids, are remarkable examples of the structural diversity found in nonribosomally produced natural products. They contain D-3-hydroxyglutamic acid, which is found in the threo and erythro isomers in mature kutznerides. In this study, two putative ...
Dulermo Thierry - - 2009
Metabolic changes that occur in host tissues during a necrotrophic plant/fungal interaction have been poorly investigated. Whereas carbon metabolism reprogramming and photosynthesis disturbances have been studied, data on plant amino acids stores during infection are scarce. Here we report an analysis of sunflower cotyledon amino acid content during infection with ...
Bui Bang V - - 2009
Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also a key metabolite intimately coupled to amino acid production/degradation. We consider the effect of inhibition of two key glutamate metabolic enzymes: glutamine synthetase (GS) and aspartate aminotransferase on retinal function assessed using the electroretinogram to consider photoreceptoral (a-wave) and ...
Clausen Rasmus P - - 2009
The design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of a highly potent and selective glutamate GluR5 agonist is reported. (S)-2-Amino-3-((RS)-3-hydroxy-8-methyl-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (5) is the 8-methyl analogue of (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-6H-cyclohepta[d]isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid ((S)-4-AHCP, 4). Compound 5 displays an improved selectivity profile compared to 4. A versatile stereoselective synthetic route for this class of compounds is ...
Sano Chiaki - - 2009
In 1907 Kikunae Ikeda, a professor at the Tokyo Imperial University, began his research to identify the umami component in kelp. Within a year, he had succeeded in isolating, purifying, and identifying the principal component of umami and quickly obtained a production patent. In 1909 Saburosuke Suzuki, an entrepreneur, and ...
Stamler Jeremiah J Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2009
Data are available that indicate an independent inverse relationship of dietary vegetable protein to the blood pressure (BP) of individuals. Here, we assess whether BP is associated with glutamic acid intake (the predominant dietary amino acid, especially in vegetable protein) and with each of 4 other amino acids that are ...
Blachier François - - 2009
l-Glutamate is one of the most abundant amino acids in alimentary proteins, but its concentration in blood is among the lowest. This is largely because l-glutamate is extensively oxidized in small intestine epithelial cells during its transcellular journey from the lumen to the bloodstream and after its uptake from the ...
Akiba Yasutada - - 2009
The upper gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to endogenous and exogenous substances, including gastric acid, carbon dioxide, and foodstuffs. Physiologic processes such as secretion, digestion, absorption, and motility occur in the gastrointestinal tract in response to ingested substances, which implies the presence of mucosal sensors. We hypothesize that mucosal acid sensors ...
Ishizaki Takashi - - 2010
Glutamate plays a central role in nitrogen flow and serves as a nitrogen donor for the production of amino acids. In plants, some amino acids work as buffers: during photorespiration, ammonium derived from the conversion of glycine to serine is promptly reassimilated into glutamate by the glutamine synthetase (GS-2)/ferredoxin-dependent glutamate ...
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