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Results 501 - 550 of 1829
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Behar K L - - 2001
It has been recognized for many years that the metabolism of brain glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, is linked to a substrate cycle between neurons and astrocytes involving glutamine. However, the quantitative significance of these fluxes in vivo was not known. Recent in vivo ...
Kasuga T - - 2001
The effect of glutamate analogues on red-green opponent interaction was electrophysiologically investigated in anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Two approaches were employed: amplitude measurement and principal component analysis. Electroretinograms were recorded for 23 monochromatic stimuli (400-700 nm) at an equal energy with white light adaptation before and after treatment with ...
Fleck M W - - 2001
We examined the vesicular accumulation of the excitatory amino-acid (EAA) neurotransmitters, L-glutamate and L-aspartate, together with the non-metabolisable EAA analogue D-aspartate. Synaptosomes derived from whole brain were incubated in various concentrations of [3H]-amino acids under conditions to facilitate vesicular turnover. Synaptosomes were then lysed in hypotonic medium and vesicles immunoprecipitated ...
Trabace L - - 2001
The effects of oral ENA713 and CHF2819 (0.5, 1.5 and 4.5 mg/kg), two novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, on extracellular concentrations of amino acids in rat hippocampus, were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis. ENA713, at 4.5 mg/kg, but not CHF2819, significantly decreased glutamate, taurine, arginine and citrulline levels, without affecting aspartate concentrations. ...
Gören M Z - - 2001
The interaction of neurotransmitters has been a major interest in pathophysiological conditions like epilepsy. In vivo microdialysis has recently gained much validity in measuring neurotransmitter release in experimental animals. However, there is a paucity of data concerning its use in humans on the grounds of safety considerations. Microdialysis experiments were ...
Reimer R J - - 2001
The amino acid glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in a range of organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to mammals, and it mediates the information processing that underlies essentially all behavior. Recent advances in our understanding of glutamate storage and release now illuminate how this ubiquitous amino acid can function as ...
Benaiges A - - 2001
The present work studies the ability of a germinated seeds extract (alfalfa, radish, wheat, soy) to influence cell respiration of skin fibroblasts and the respiratory activity of sheep liver isolated mitochondria, and the cytotoxicity of the product on cultured skin fibroblasts. The content of free and total amino acids present ...
Samartsev V N - - 2001
The influence of the positively charged amphiphilic compound cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) on palmitate- and laurate-induced uncoupling and on carboxyatractylate and glutamate recoupling effects in liver mitochondria have been studied. CTAB (40 microM) in the presence of 3 mM MgCl2 had little (if any) effect on the palmitic acid-stimulated respiration ...
Allen J W - - 2001
The effect of methylmercury on glutamate metabolism was studied by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cerebral cortical astrocytes were pretreated with methylmercury, either 1 microM for 24 h, or 10 microM for 30 min, and subsequently with 0.5 mM [U-(13)C]glutamate for 2 h. Labeled glutamate, glutamine, aspartate and glutathione were present ...
Shih I L - - 2001
Bacillus licheniformis CCRC 12826 produced extracellularly an excellent biopolymer flocculant in a large amount when it was grown aerobically in a culture medium containing citric acid, glutamic acid and glycerol as carbon sources. The biopolymer flocculant was an extremely viscous material with a molecular weight over 2 x 10(6) by ...
Milgotina E I - - 2001
Glu,Asp-specific endopeptidases represent a new subfamily of chymotrypsin-like proteolytic enzymes. These enzymes prefer Glu or Asp residues in the P1 position of the substrates. p-Nitroanilides of N-acylated di-, tri- and tetrapeptides with C-terminal glutamic or aspartic acid residues have been obtained. Acyl peptide p-nitroanilides were synthesized via acylation of glutamic ...
Davis K - - 2001
The recombinant forms of the two human isozymes of glutamate decarboxylase, GAD65 and GAD67, are potently and reversibly inhibited by molecular oxygen (Ki = 0.46 and 0.29 mM, respectively). Inhibition of the vesicle-associated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) by molecular oxygen is likely to result in incomplete filling of synaptic vesicles with ...
Somogyi J - - 2001
Amino acid transmitters play a key role in regulating the activity of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. We investigated the anatomical substrate for this regulation by quantifying immunoreactivity for GABA, glutamate and glycine in terminals that contacted the dendrites of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive principal neurons in rat locus coeruleus. Pre-embedding ...
Poulsen M V - - 2001
1. The effects of niflumic acid on the substrate-gated currents mediated by the glutamate transporter EAAT4 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes were examined using radiolabelled substrate flux measurements and two-electrode voltage clamp techniques. 2. Niflumic acid significantly enhanced the substrate-gated currents in EAAT4, without affecting the affinity of the substrates ...
Odai K - - 2001
As a first approach to understanding the mechanism for the recognition of a ligand by its receptor, we first calculated the electronic and structural states of ionized gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ionized glutamic acid using the ab initio method with the 6-311++G (3df, 2pd) basis set. We paid special attention ...
van Gelder N M - - 2001
Epilepsy, trauma and other circumstances leading to hyperexcitable conditions in the CNS tend neurochemically to be associated with excessive stimulated release of glutamic acid and/or a failure of GABA modulated inhibition. Somewhat to a lesser extent, taurine and its homologue homotaurine, have also been shown to antagonize the excitatory actions ...
Chen J - - 2001
We studied the effect of 17 beta-estradiol on ischemia-induced increases in extracellular amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and taurine) in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region by a microdialysis-high-performance liquid chromatography system in vivo. Transient forebrain ischemia for 3 min produced a marked accumulation of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, and glycine (498%, ...
Qu H - - 2001
The effect of thiopental on [U-(13)C]glutamate metabolism was studied in cerebellar astrocytes from mice using (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cells were incubated with 0.5 mM [U-(13)C]glutamate for 2 h in the presence of 1 mM thiopental and 1 mM thiopental plus 0.2 mM gammaamino butyric acid (GABA). Labeled glutamate, ...
Cassady C J - - 2001
A rat four-vessel cerebral occlusion model was used to examine the effects of D-lactate and oxamate, a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, on cortical window superfusate levels of amino acids, glucose and L-lactate. Superfusate levels of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, GABA and phosphoethanolamine rose during ischemia and then declined during reperfusion. Glycine and ...
Takahashi N - - 2001
Although Porphyromonas gingivalis is known to utilize peptides preferentially, instead of free amino acids, as the source of energy and cell material, there is only limited information on what sizes and kinds of peptide this bacterium preferentially utilizes. In this study, therefore, we tested aspartate or glutamate monopolymers consisting of ...
Greaser M - - 2001
Repeating motifs of 26-28 amino acids have been identified in the PEVK region of the giant elastic protein titin. These motifs, termed PPAK for the four amino acids that often constitute the beginning of the motif, occur 60 times in human soleus titin. PPAK motifs occur in groups of 2-12 ...
Napper G A - - 2001
Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two of the dominant neurotransmitters in the retina and brain. The production/degradation of glutamate and GABA involves an intricate interrelationship between neurons and glia, as well as aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model ...
Bunch L - - 2001
Two hybrid analogues of the kainic acid receptor agonists, 2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ATPA) and (2S,4R)-4-methylglutamic acid ((2S,4R)-4-Me-Glu), were designed, synthesized, and characterized in radioligand binding assays using cloned ionotropic and metabotropic glutamic acid receptors. The (S)-enantiomers of E-4-(2,2-dimethylpropylidene)glutamic acid ((S)-1) and E-4-(3,3-dimethylbutylidene)glutamic acid ((S)-2) were shown to be selective and high ...
Toner C C - - 2001
Release of excitatory amino acids and dopamine plays a central role in neuronal damage after cerebral ischaemia. In the present study, we used an in vitro model of ischaemia to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on dopamine, glutamate and aspartate efflux from rat corticostriatal slices. Slices were superfused with artificial ...
Lamigeon C - - 2001
Astrocytes expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD67 directed by the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter were shown to provide enhanced protection of PC12 cells from H(2)O(2) treatment and serum deprivation in the presence of glutamate. In addition, they protected non-differentiated, but not differentiated, embryonic rat cortical neurons from glutamate toxicity. Glutamic ...
Lieth E - - 2001
The relationship between neuronal glutamate turnover, the glutamate/glutamine cycle and de novo glutamate synthesis was examined using two different model systems, freshly dissected rat retinas ex vivo and in vivo perfused rat brains. In the ex vivo rat retina, dual kinetic control of de novo glutamate synthesis by pyruvate carboxylation ...
Sticker L S - - 2001
Thirty-nine adult light horse mares, geldings, and stallions were used in two experiments to assess the pituitary hormone and insulin responses to infusions of arginine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, and N-methyl-D,L-aspartate (NMA). In Exp. 1, 27 horses were assigned to one of three infusion treatments: 1) physiological saline (1 ...
Vasserot Y - - 2001
AIMS: The purpose of this work was to study the effect of L-aspartic acid concentration on bacterial growth, D-glucose fermentation and L-malic acid consumption of Oenococcus oeni NCFB 1707. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial cultures were performed in synthetic media. Bacterial growth, D-glucose fermentation and L-malic acid consumption were reduced when ...
Castanie-Cornet M P - - 2001
Acid resistance is an important feature of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. It enables survival in the acidic regions of mammalian gastrointestinal tracts and is largely responsible for the small number of bacteria required for infection/colonization. Three systems of acid resistance have been identified, the most efficient of which ...
Pálhalmi J - - 2001
A method for the preparation of an in vivo eyecup and a complex stimulating-sampling device are described; these are suitable for long-term parallel neurochemical and electrophysiological experiments on the rat retina without any additives into the eyecup. In this in vivo eyecup the extracellular microenvironment is under the normal homeostatic ...
Fedele E - - 2001
During stereotaxic neurosurgery for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD), we performed a microdialysis study of the extracellular amino acid (aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and GABA) concentrations. Their levels were measured in the GPe/GPi of five and in the STN of four different PD patients, after prolonged therapy washout. The ...
Ueda Y - - 2001
We used northern and western blotting to measure the quantity of glutamate and GABA transporters mRNA and their proteins within the hippocampal tissue of rats with epileptogenesis. Chronic seizures were induced by amygdalar injection of kainic acid 60 days before death. We found that expression of the mRNA and protein ...
Baran H - - 2001
In the present study the effect of L-kynurenine, kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid on the heart mitochondrial function were investigated. Mitochondria were incubated with saturating concentrations of respiratory substrates glutamate/malate (5 mmol/l), succinate (10 mmol/l) or NADH (1 mmol/l), with and without kynurenines. The concentration of kynurenines varied between 1.25 ...
Guest I - - 2001
The stem cells of the bone marrow have the capacity for both self-renewal and derivation of all the blood cell lineages. Consequently, toxicity to these cells can result in neutropenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, or aplastic anemia. Many anticancer drugs adversely affect the bone marrow, and neutropenia is a common limiting ...
Raj D - - 2001
Previously published studies have shown D-glutamate to be the most potent natural inhibitor of glutathione synthesis known, yet how D-glutamate is handled in humans is unknown. Therefore, we administered an oral D-glutamate load to four healthy volunteers and monitored the plasma D-glutamate concentration and excretion over a 3-h postload period. ...
Papes F - - 2001
Lysine has long been recognized as an essential amino acid for humans and the lack or low supply of this compound in the diet may lead to mental and physical handicaps. Since lysine is severely restricted in cereals, the most important staple food in the world, the understanding of its ...
Martins L L - - 2001
Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, EC 2.6.1.1) catalyses the transamination of L-asparate to oxaloacetate. It has been reported that AAT from different plant sources can catalyse the transamination of other compounds structurally similar to the natural substrates. Specificity and kinetic studies were performed with two aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes (AAT-1 and AAT-2) from ...
Yamamoto T - - 2001
N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate is a putative neurotransmitter and acts as a weak agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate also acts as an agonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate is hydrolyzed by N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase to liberate N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Recently, a specific inhibitor of N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase, 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid, has ...
Lea P J - - 2001
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) catalyses the reversible decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to yield phosphoenolpyruvate and CO2. The role of the enzyme in gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic reactions in a range of organisms is discussed, along with the important function in C4 and CAM photosynthesis in higher plants. In addition, new data are presented ...
Baskar R - - 2001
The production of L-Glutamic acid has been studied using coimmobilized whole cells of pseudomonas reptilivora and micrococcus glutamicus in a three phase fluidized bed bioreactor with selected production medium enriched with glucose. The effect of initial substrate concentration, temperature, pH and aeration rate on the yield of glutamic acid has ...
Terakita A - - 2000
Retinochrome is a member of the rhodopsin family having a chromophore retinal and functioning as a retinal photoisomerase in squid photoreceptor cells. Unlike vertebrate rhodopsins, but like many invertebrate rhodopsins, retinochrome does not have a glutamic acid at position 113 to serve as a counterion for the protonated retinylidene Schiff ...
Gutheil W G - - 2000
A general method for formulating complex thermodynamic systems in terms of hierarchical interactions has been developed, and has been applied in a previous analyses to the theoretical analysis of cooperativity in a dimeric protein, to the statistical analysis of hemoglobin oxygen binding data, and to the protonation equilibria of inorganic ...
Tavares R G - - 2000
Maple syrup urine disease is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by tissue accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and their corresponding keto acids in the affected children. Although this disorder is predominantly characterized by neurological symptoms, only few studies were carried out to investigate its neuropathology. In this study we investigated ...
Godfrey D A - - 2000
Distributions of 10 amino acids were mapped in the cochlear nucleus and superior olive of rats by microdissection of freeze-dried sections combined with high performance liquid chromatography. Glutamate concentrations were relatively high in regions containing granule cell bodies, axons and terminals, whereas aspartate concentrations were higher in the rest of ...
Bergana M M - - 2000
N-Acetyl-L-glutamine decomposition products glutamine, glutamic acid, pyroglutamic acid, N-acetylglutamic acid, and a novel compound, N-(2,6-dioxo-3-piperidinyl) acetamide, have been identified by NMR and MS techniques. N-Acetylglutamine, a modified amino acid, offers greater chemical stability than glutamine in conditions that are experienced during typical sterilization and shelf storage of liquid nutritionals. However, ...
Ross I A - - 2000
Pronounced glutamic acid uptake was observed after only 15 min with glutamate concentrations of 60 nmol/mg protein when astrocytes were incubated with 1 mM glutamic acid. The uptake increased with time to a steady-state glutamate level of above 160 nmol/mg protein by 45 min. The uptake was energy dependent. Reduced ...
Kansal V K - - 2000
L-glutamate was transported into mammary tissue via Na(+)-dependent system XAG- that strongly interacted with both D- and L-isomers of aspartate but only with L-isomer of glutamate. Replacement of Cl- by gluconate from the extracellular medium did not affect the uptake of L-glutamate. Although neutral amino acids weakly inhibited the uptake ...
Hill E - - 2000
Glutamate is an important amino acid in the neocortex for metabolic and neurotransmitter functions. The objective of this study was to detect variations in cellular glutamate content using quantitative immunocytochemistry. We show that glutamate is present in almost all cortical cells and coexists with other amino acids such as aspartate, ...
Agostoni C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Previous short observational studies on the free amino acid (FAA) content of human milk have shown that glutamine and glutamic acid increase in the first 4 to 6 weeks of life. METHODS: Changes in human milk content of free amino acids (FAAs) was determined at colostrum, 1 month, and ...
Harada C - - 2000
Excessive glutamate receptor activation is thought to be involved in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after ischemic injury. In this study, we examined the effect of 2-PMPA (2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid) on RGC survival in an ischemia-reperfusion model using C57BL/6 mouse eyes. 2-PMPA is a NAALADase (N-acetylated-alpha-linked-acidic dipeptidase) inhibitor, an enzyme ...
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