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Results 451 - 500 of 1836
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Prandota Joseph - - 2003
The hepatotropic viruses, measles, and herpesviruses as well as different drugs were repeatedly shown to act presumably as a trigger in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AI-H). On the other hand, it is known that viral infections stimulate interferon production, which inactivates the cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of ...
Kimura Eiichiro - - 2003
Since the discovery of Corynebacterium glutamicum as an efficient glutamate-overproducing microorganism in 1957, the production of L-amino acids by the fermentative method has become one of the most important research-target of industrial microbiology. Several research groups have developed metabolic engineering principles for L-amino acid-producing C. glutamicum strains over the last ...
González-Quevedo A - - 2002
The clinical and electroretinographic features of chronic methanol intoxication are scarce, and neurotransmitter studies have not been conducted. In addition, most of the studies in the field include results after acute administration. In the present work, a chronic methanol intoxication scheme (2 g/kg/day ip for 2 weeks) was carried out ...
Denton Travis - - 2002
Select trans-4,5-[bi]cyclohexenylglutamic and pyroglutamic acids (3,4-substituted glutamates) were synthesized in three steps and were screened as potential inhibitors of the sodium dependent excitatory amino acid transporters 2 (EAAT2) and 3 (EAAT3), the chloride dependent glial cystine/glutamate exchanger system x(c)(-), and the glutamate vesicular transport system (VGLUT). Two glutamate analogues and ...
Samartsev V N - - 2002
The effect of ethanol on the uncoupling activity of palmitate and recoupling activities of carboxyatractylate and glutamate was studied in liver mitochondria at various Mg2+ concentrations and medium pH values (7.0, 7.4, and 7.8). Ethanol taken at concentration of 0.25 M had no effect on the uncoupling activity of palmitic ...
Tapiero H - - 2002
Glutamine and glutamate with proline, histidine, arginine and ornithine, comprise 25% of the dietary amino acid intake and constitute the "glutamate family" of amino acids, which are disposed of through conversion to glutamate. Although glutamine has been classified as a nonessential amino acid, in major trauma, major surgery, sepsis, bone ...
Somogyi Jozsef - - 2002
Previous pharmacological and physiological data on GABA and glycine receptor-dependent components of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents show that the electrophysiological characteristics of synaptic transmission from inhibitory synapses on spinal motoneurons are highly variable. Although post-synaptic factors are thought to be the major underlying cause of this variability, quantitative immunohistochemical data ...
Fatemi S Hossein - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A limited number of reports have demonstrated abnormalities involving the glutamate and gamma amino butyric acid systems in blood and platelets of subjects with autism. To further investigate these studies, brain levels of rate limiting enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is responsible for normal conversion of glutamate to gamma ...
Zilm Peter S - - 2002
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobe that has been implicated in the aetiology of several diseases including periodontal diseases. Like other fusobacteria, it derives energy from the fermentation of amino acids and, in resting (non-growing) cells, this enables the organism to transport glucose and synthesise intracellular polyglucose (IP). The continued ...
Erikson Keith - - 2002
Neurotoxicity due to excessive brain manganese (Mn) can occur due to environmental (air pollution, soil, water) and/ or metabolic aberrations (decreased biliary excretion). Manganese is associated with oxidative stress, as well as alterations in neurotransmitter metabolism with concurrent neurobehavioral deficits. Based on the few existing studies that have examined brain ...
Kölker S - - 2002
White matter abnormalities (including dys-, hypo-, demyelination and delayed myelation) are frequently found in cerebral organic acid disorders, a recently delineated subgroup of inherited organic acid disorders presenting predominantly with a neurological symptomatology. Biochemically, this disease subgroup lacks metabolic derangements, such as hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia and acidosis, and is characterized by ...
Frak Ela - - 2002
The temporal dynamics of N remobilization was studied in walnut (Juglans nigra x regia) trees growing in sand culture. Trees were fed with labeled N ((15)N) during 1999 and unlabeled N in 2000. Total N and (15)N contents in different tree compartments were measured during 80 d after bud burst ...
Curti D - - 2002
METHOD: The activity and amount of SOD1 in erythrocyte lysates and the plasma amino acid content were evaluated in four familial ALS patients bearing the L84F SOD1 mutation (fALS), in an asymptomatic family member with the mutation (L84F(5)), in sporadic ALS patients (sALS) and controls. Three of the fALS patients ...
Murthy Chinta R K - - 2002
Cerebral edema with a rise in intracranial pressure is the hallmark of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and acute hyperammonemic (HA) states and is characterized by a poor survival rate. Astrocytes are the cells in brain which are swollen in these conditions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism ...
Schäbitz Wolf-R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Excitotoxic insults such as stroke may induce release of fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs), contributing to the downstream events in the ischemic cascade. We therefore studied release of FAEs such as anandamide, palmitylethanolamide (PEA), and oleylethanolamide (OEA) in the brain of a patient suffering from malignant hemispheric infarction treated with ...
Henry Pierre-Gilles - - 2002
Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) has gained acceptance as an animal model of Huntington's disease. In this study 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate in the rat brain after 3-NP treatment. The time course of both ...
Tolias Christos M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine, using a microdialysis technique, the extracellular levels of glutamate and non-transmitter amino acids in the brain of children with severe head injuries. METHODS: A microdialysis probe was inserted along side the intracranial pressure (ICP) bolt in 9 children (age range 2-14 years) with severe head injuries (Glasgow ...
Stazka Janusz - - 2002
Rat aortic slices produced and liberated the endogenous antagonist of glutamate receptors, kynurenic acid, upon exposure to L-kynurenine. Endothelium-denuded slices did not synthesize any measurable amount of kynurenic acid, indicating its endothelial origin. Aortic kynurenic acid production was diminished by modification of the ionic milieu, hypoxia and hypoglycemia, as well ...
Merle Michel - - 2002
[1-(13) C]glucose metabolism in the rat brain was investigated after intravenous infusion of the labelled substrate. Incorporation of the label into metabolites was analysed by NMR spectroscopy as a function of the infusion time: 10, 20, 30 or 60 min. Specific enrichments in purified mono- and dicarboxylic amino acids were ...
Deore Bhavana - - 2002
A column packed with carbon fibres modified with overoxidized polypyrrole was utilised for the enantioselective uptake of glutamic acid. The polypyrrole prepared with L-glutamate as a dopant was electrochemically overoxidised to create a complementary cavity for the dopant. The target amino acid enantiomers were taken up and released by applying ...
Niebroj-Dobosz I - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that an imbalance between glutamatergic and inhibitory neurotransmission may contribute to selective neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The efficacy of Riluzole in prolonging the survival of patients with ALS has been demonstrated in two large controlled trials. It is believed that Riluzole is a glutamate ...
Llewellyn-Smith I J - - 2002
Immunoreactivity for calbindin-D28K (calbindin) occurs in some bulbospinal vasopressor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and calbindin-immunoreactive terminals form synapses in the intermediolateral cell column (IML), where the cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located. In this study, we used post-embedding immunogold labelling to determine whether calbindin terminals in ...
Kodama Tohru - - 2002
Attention is reported to be maintained by monoamines, acetylcholine and amino acids systems. Changes in the releases of these neurotransmitters during the three stages comprising quiet wake (QW) and two arousal states (AW), which are activated from different sources, were investigated. Norepinephrine releases during AW were significantly higher than that ...
Forsch Ronald A - - 2002
N-[5-[N-(2-Amino-5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinazolin-6-yl)methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (6) and N-[5-[N-(5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-yl)methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (7), the first reported thiophene analogues of 5-chloro-5,8-dideazafolic acid, were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of tumor cell growth in culture. 4-Chloro-5-methylisatin (10) was converted stepwise to methyl 2-amino-5-methyl-6-chlorobenzoate (22) and 2-amino-5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxoquinazoline (19). Pivaloylation of the 2-amino group, followed by NBS bromination, condensation with ...
Harris G - - 2002
Studies were conducted on the effect of 6-aminohexanoic acid (6-AH) or fucoidan on the activation of glutamic plasminogen (glu-plg) by streptokinase using 0.05 mol/l Tris buffer containing a physiological concentration of NaCl. In contrast to the earlier reports where no NaCl was added to the buffer solution, addition of 6-AH ...
Kimmich George A - - 2002
Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyzes amino group transfer from glutamate (Glu) or aspartate (Asp) to a keto acid acceptor-oxaloacetate (OA) or alpha-ketoglutarate (KG), respectively. Data presented here show that AAT catalyzes two partial reactions resulting in isotope exchange between 3H-labeled Glu or 3H-labeled Asp and the cognate keto acid in the ...
LeBrun Laurie A - - 2002
We demonstrated earlier that the heme in cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP4A family is covalently attached to the protein through an I-helix glutamic acid residue [Hoch, U., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11339-11346]. As the critical glutamic acid residue is conserved in many ...
Gao Jinzhang - - 2002
An analytical method for the determination of glutamic acid by the sequential perturbation caused by different amounts of glutamic acid on the oscillating chemical system involving the Cu(II)-catalyzed oscillating reaction between hydrogen peroxide and sodium thiocyanate in an alkaline medium is proposed. The method relies on the linear relationship between ...
Mitaku Shigeki - - 2002
MOTIVATION: An amphiphilicity index of amino acid residues was developed for improving the method of transmembrane helix prediction. RESULTS: The transfer energy of a hydrocarbon stem group beyond the gamma-carbon was calculated from the accessible surface area, and used to index the amphiphilicity of the residue. Non-zero amphiphilicity index values ...
Friedlos Frank - - 2002
Three new prodrugs, [prodrug 1: 4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)amino]-phenyloxycarbonyl-L-glutamic acid; prodrug 2: 3-fluoro-4-[bis(2-chlorethyl)amino]benzoyl-L-glutamic acid; and prodrug 3: 3,5-difluoro-4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)amino]benzoyl-L-glutamic acid] have been assessed for use with a mutant of carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2, glutamate carboxypeptidase, EC 3.4.17.11,) engineered to be tethered to the outer tumor cell surface (stCPG2(Q)3) as the activating enzyme in suicide gene ...
Schlichtherle-Cerny Hedwig - - 2002
Hydrolyzed plant proteins are widely used as ingredients in culinary products for their glutamate-like ("umami") taste. Three hydrolysates were prepared from wheat gluten using different enzymatic approaches. Comparison of their taste profiles revealed the enzymatic hydrolysate of an acid-deamidated wheat gluten (WGH-3) to be the least bitter of all and ...
Li Yingzhe - - 2002
Carboplatin, a drug widely used against solid head and neck tumors, selectively destroys cochlear inner hair cells and type I auditory nerve fibers in chinchilla. This should affect neurotransmitter chemistry, involving amino acids, where the type I auditory nerve fibers terminate in the cochlear nucleus. Using microdissection combined with high-performance ...
Uyama Hiroshi - - 2002
Protease-catalyzed polymerization and copolymerization of L-glutamic acid diethyl ester hydrochloride (1) have been performed in a buffer of high concentration. Papain and bromelain showed high catalytic activity toward the polymerization. H-H COSY NMR analysis of the product showed the exclusive formation of poly(alpha-peptide), which was further confirmed by comparison with ...
Daisley Jonathan N - - 2002
Indirect evidence has implicated glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid in memory formation for one-trial passive avoidance learning. We have further examined this by following the time course of glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid release from slices prepared from the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale of day-old chicks (Ross 1 Chunky) trained ...
O'Shea Ross D - - 2002
Removal of L-glutamate (Glu) from the synapse is critical to maintain normal transmission and to prevent excitotoxicity, and is performed exclusively by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). We investigated the effects of substrates and blockers of EAATs on extracellular Glu and cellular viability in organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus. Seven-day ...
Cunchillos Chomin - - 2002
Among abiotic molecules available in primitive environments, free amino acids are good candidates as the first source of energy and molecules for early protocells. Amino acid catabolic pathways are likely to be one of the very first metabolic pathways of life. Among them, which ones were the first to emerge? ...
Sonnewald Ursula - - 2002
Metabolism of glutamine was determined under a variety of conditions to study compartmentation in cortical synaptosomes. The combined intracellular and extracellular amounts of [U-13C] GABA, [U-13C]glutamate and [U-13C]glutamine were the same in synaptosomes incubated with U-13C]glutamine in the presence and absence of glucose. However, the concentration of these amino acids ...
Pasantes-Morales Herminia - - 2002
Hyposmolarity activates amino acid efflux as part of the corrective volume process in a variety of cells. This review discusses the mechanism of amino acid release in brain cells preparations. Results present evidence of substantial differences between the efflux of taurine and that of GABA and glutamate, which besides a ...
Pedregal Concepción - - 2002
(+)-2-Aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740) is a conformationally restricted glutamate analogue that is a potent, selective and orally active group 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist possessing anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties. Herein, we describe a stereoselective and highly efficient synthesis of its 3-beta fluoro derivative using the Corey-Link methodology to create the amino ...
LeBrun Laurie A - - 2002
The prosthetic heme group in the CYP4A family of cytochrome P450 enzymes is covalently attached to an I-helix glutamic acid residue. This glutamic acid is conserved in the CYP4 family but is absent in other P450 families. As shown here, the glutamic acid is linked, presumably via an ester bond, ...
Maldonado M C - - 2002
Synthesis of ethylene in static cultures as well as the effect of endogenous and exogenous ethylene on the synthesis of polygalacturonase by Aspergillus niger were determined. This strain produced maximum ethylene amounts when cultured at 30 degrees C for 3 d. The effect of adding ethylene precursors (citrate-cycle intermediates) on ...
Lan W-Z - - 2002
AIMS: To evaluate the effect of glutamate on arachidonic acid production from Mortierella alpina. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cell growth, arachidonic acid production, proportions of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PuFAs) in fatty acids and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity were analysed when glutamate concentration was 0.8 g l(-1). Biomass and arachidonic acid production ...
Prabhu N - - 2002
The production of L-Glutamic acid has been studied using coimmobilized whole cells of pseudomonas reptilivora and micrococcus glutamicus in a two litre Tokyo Rikakikai fermentor using glucose as selected production medium. The process was carried out at an optimum temperature of 32 degree Celsius and a pH of 7.2. The ...
Hutchinson P J - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Increases in the extracellular concentration of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate during cerebral ischaemia in patients are well recognised. Less emphasis has been placed on the concentrations of the inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters, notably gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA), despite evidence from animal studies that GABA may act as ...
Brinton Karen L F - - 2002
We have analyzed the degree of racemization of aspartic acid in permafrost samples from Northern Siberia, an area from which microorganisms of apparent ages up to a few million years have previously been isolated and cultured. We find that the extent of aspartic acid racemization in permafrost cores increases very ...
Wang H - - 2002
It is generally believed that only L-amino acids have a physiological role in species other than bacteria. Recently, the existence of some D-amino acids, particularly D-aspartate, in various organs of several higher animals has been reported. Here we demonstrate that naturally occurring free D-aspartate is localized subcellularly to the heterochromatin ...
Chaudhry F A - - 2001
The system N transporter SN1 has been proposed to mediate the efflux of glutamine from cells required to sustain the urea cycle and the glutamine-glutamate cycle that regenerates glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for synaptic release. We now show that SN1 also mediates an ionic conductance activated by glutamine, and ...
Qu H - - 2001
The effects of glutamate on [U-(13)C]glucose metabolism were studied in cerebellar astrocytes using (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Labeled glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, lactate, and alanine were observed both in the cell extracts and in media, and, additionally, labeled glycogen was detected in the cell extracts. However, only labeled lactate and alanine ...
Yudkoff M - - 2001
The ketogenic diet has been utilized for many years as an adjunctive therapy in the management of epilepsy, especially in those children for whom antiepileptic drugs have not permitted complete relief. The biochemical basis of the dietary effect is unclear. One possibility is that the diet leads to alterations in ...
Takemoto Y - - 2001
L-Glutamate has been considered to be a neurotransmitter in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the afferent baroreflex pathway, though this has not yet been decisively shown. A bolus injection of a neurotransmitter candidate amino acid L-proline into the cisterna magna and that of L-glutamate shows the same pressor action ...
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