Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2185
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Chapkin Robert S RS Center for Environmental and Rural Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. - - 2008
We recently generated nutritional data suggesting that chemoprotective dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are capable of displacing acylated proteins from lipid raft microdomains in vivo [D.W. Ma, J. Seo, L.A. Davidson, E.S. Callaway, Y.Y. Fan, J.R. Lupton, R.S. Chapkin, n-3 PUFA alter caveolae lipid composition and resident protein ...
Yeung David K W - - 2008
High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy as a complementary method in the analysis of human bone marrow fatty acid (FA) composition was examined. Marrow FA composition in 10 bone samples measured by NMR and gas chromatography (GC) were compared. NMR T1 relaxation time of FA was determined and reproducibility tests were performed ...
Stark Ken D - - 2008
A blood biomarker of omega-3 fatty acid intake and tissue status could serve as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The percentage of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA > or = 20 carbons and > or =3 double bonds) in the total HUFA pool (the n-3 HUFA score) ...
Krauss-Etschmann Susanne - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Altered intakes of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were suggested to modulate allergic disease, but intervention trials yielded inconclusive results. Because allergies are primed in early infancy and in utero, the fetus might be more accessible to nutritional intervention strategies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate how supplementation of ...
Poulsen Raewyn C - - 2007
The role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the regulation of bone remodeling is well established. There is increasing evidence that various long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), as well as nonprostanoid LCPUFA metabolites, also have critical roles in regulating bone metabolism and may have therapeutic potential in the management of postmenopausal ...
Crowe Francesca L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests that there is an association between n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression; however, this association has yet to be examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids are associated with mental ...
Ben-Shabat Shimon - - 2007
Fatty acids (FA) are well known as efficient enhancers for transdermal delivery of drugs; however, their frequent dermal toxicity limits their regular use. In order to utilize the fatty acid as a safe enhancer devoid of its irritant effect, we have synthesized and evaluated a series of fatty acids conjugated ...
McLaughlin J - - 2007
The gastrointestinal tract actively responds to the presence of nutrients in the lumen, and there is a high level of specificity to these responses. This specificity exists for different nutrient types and anatomical regions, with physiologically appropriate target end-organ responses. This review will journey from outlining the effects of dietary ...
Al-Turkmani M Rabie - - 2007
Specific fatty acid alterations have been described in the blood and tissues of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The two most consistent alterations include decreased levels of linoleic acid (LA) and decreased levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Increased arachidonic acid (AA) release from membrane phospholipids, as well as changes in levels ...
Fedorova Irina - - 2007
Deficiency in n-3 fatty acids has been accomplished through the use of an artificial rearing method in which ICR mouse pups were hand fed a deficient diet starting from the 2nd day of life. There was a 51% loss of total brain DHA in mice with an n-3 fatty acid-deficient ...
Torrejon C - - 2007
Cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Epidemiological studies and randomized control intervention trials have reported that n-3 fatty acids reduce cardiovascular events. A variety of biologic and molecular effects of n-3 fatty acids can modulate the mechanisms of development and progression of atherosclerosis. ...
Kang Jing X JX Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. - - 2007
An appropriate animal model that can eliminate confounding factors of diet would be very helpful for evaluation of the health effects of nutrients such as n-3 fatty acids. We recently generated a fat-1 transgenic mouse expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 ...
Zhukova Natalia V - - 2007
Two nudibranch mollusks, Chromodoris sp. and Phyllidia coelestis, collected from tropical waters of the Northwestern Pacific, were analyzed for lipids. The aim of this study was to fill the gap in knowledge of lipid biochemistry of mollusks. Phospholipids (PL) were the dominating lipid class followed by sterols (13%). Neutral lipids ...
Li Qiurong - - 2008
Defects in tight junction barrier have been considered as an important etiologic factor of Crohn's disease. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disorders. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. We found that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) changed lipid environment ...
Moazedi A A - - 2007
In this study, the effects of oleic acid (10%) and palmitic acid (10%) on spatial learning and motor activity have been investigated. So, adult male Wister rats divided into four groups (n=10). Control group was fed with ordinary diet. other groups were fed with a diet containing oleic acid (10%) ...
Wang Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, little work has been done to investigate the effect of fatty acids on bone marrow lesions and knee cartilage in healthy subjects. We examined this in a cohort of healthy middle-aged subjects without clinical ...
Mustonen Anne-Mari - - 2007
Previous studies on laboratory rodents, rabbits and humans have demonstrated that fatty acid (FA) mobilization from white adipose tissue (WAT) is selective and its efficiency is related to FA structure. Selective FA mobilization was also documented in a carnivore, the farmed raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fasted for 8 weeks. The ...
Scano P - - 2008
13C NMR spectroscopy, in conjunction with HPLC and GC techniques, has been used to study the molecular composition of lipids extracted from commercial products of bottarga. To this goal, both the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of lipid extracts were also examined by 13C NMR. Among the major lipid classes wax ...
Shapira Niva - - 2007
My hypothesis is that higher female sensitivity to increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their carcinogenic effect may contribute to the recent Israeli 'cancer shift' over heart disease mortality (23.1 vs. 22.3%, 1999). High n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake was the presumed dietary risk underlying the 'Israeli paradox', the unexpected ...
Calder Philip C - - 2007
Surgery, trauma, burns and injury induce an inflammatory response that can become excessive and damaging in some patients. This hyperinflammation can be followed by an immunosuppressed state which increases susceptibility to infection. The resulting septic syndromes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A range of nutrients are able to ...
Innis Sheila M - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regardless of social, cultural and behavioural environments, obesity is usually caused by an energy intake above requirements, which is accommodated by the accumulation of triacylglycerols. The composition of dietary fat impacts tissue fatty acids, which are important modulators of multiple cell functions, including differentiation, lipogenesis, lipolysis and ...
Bongiovanni Kathleen D - - 2007
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of the neonatal brain has been associated with cognitive capability in mice. Previously, transgenic mice expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) n-3 fatty acid (FA) desaturase gene under the control of a lactation-induced mammary gland promoter were found to produce milk containing significantly ...
Harbige Laurence S - - 2007
Epidemiological, biochemical, animal model and clinical trial data described in this overview strongly suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly n-6 fatty acids, have a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Data presented provides further evidence for a disturbance in n-6 fatty acid metabolism in MS. Disturbance ...
Siddiqui Rafat A - - 2008
Epidemiological evidence from Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishing villages suggests that eating fish oil and marine animals can prevent coronary heart disease. Dietary studies from various laboratories have similarly indicated that regular fish oil intake affects several humoral and cellular factors involved in atherogenesis and may prevent atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, thrombosis, ...
McKeever T M TM University of Nottingham, Clinical Science Building, City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK. - - 2008
A reduced dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, in association with increased n-6 fatty acid intake, has been proposed as a potential aetiological factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. However, the relative importance of individual fatty acids within the n-3 and n-6 categories on this effect has ...
Ventrella Vittoria - - 2008
Soft body tissue and gill and mantle microsomal membranes of Mytilus galloprovincialis, were analyzed to assess geographical and temporal effects on fatty acid distribution with special focus on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. Mussels and plankton samples were collected in April and in October from three locations of the ...
Sarrazin Jean-Francois - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This open-label canine study assessed whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent vagally induced atrial fibrillation (AF) and influence atrial tissue expression levels of connexins (CXs). BACKGROUND: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils protect against sudden cardiac death and reduce postoperative AF. Changes in spatial organization of gap ...
El-Badry Ashraf Mohammad - - 2007
Linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids are the fatty acids designated as "essential" since they are not synthesized by mammalian cells and must be provided in the diet. The recent dietary shift towards the consumption of n-6 (omega-6) at the expense of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is thought to be ...
Garattini Silvio - - 2007
Emerging evidence indicates that dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids changes the lipid composition of lipid rafts and caveolae, which are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane. Membrane proteins that are involved in signal transduction events relevant to inflammation are specifically localised to these microdomains. By altering ...
De Caterina Raffaele - - 2007
Omega-3 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display a variety of beneficial effects on various organ systems and diseases. Evidence for cardiovascular protective effects was among the first reasons for biomedical interest in these fats. Following these initial reports, evidence has continued to emerge demonstrating the cardioprotective effects of n-3 ...
Masson Serge - - 2007
Current evidence suggests that at least part of the cardioprotective benefits of consumption of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relates to their incorporation into the phospholipids of cardiac cell membranes. Dietary supplementation with purified extracts of n-3 PUFAs derived from fish oil rapidly alters the composition of fatty acids ...
Christensen Jeppe Hagstrup - - 2007
Animal and in-vitro studies have shown profound antiarrhythmic effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the heart. Because n-3 PUFAs (in particular docosahexaenoic acid) are abundant in nervous tissue, this antiarrhythmic effect may be mediated by effects of n-3 PUFAs on autonomic control or tone. This paper reviews the ...
Willett Walter C - - 2007
n-6 Fatty acids, like n-3 fatty acids, play essential roles in many biological functions. Because n-6 fatty acids are the precursors of proinflammatory eicosanoids, higher intakes have been suggested to be detrimental, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids has been suggested by some to be particularly important. ...
Ghosh Sanjoy - - 2007
Although dietary fat has been associated with inflammation and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), most studies have focused on individuals with preexisting diseases. However, the role of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory pathways before the onset of any abnormality may be more relevant for identifying initiating factors and interventions for CVD prevention. ...
Fritsche Kevin - - 2007
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are noted for their ability to diminish inflammatory and immune responses in vitro and in a variety of animal-based models of autoimmunity and inflammation. Yet, recent systematic reviews suggest that the evidence for these fatty acids having beneficial effects on inflammation or autoimmunity in ...
Imbs Andrey B - - 2007
Sixteen scleractinian species of six coral families (Acroporidae, Pocilloporidae, Poritidae, Faviidae, Pectiniidae, and Fungiidae) from Vietnam were analyzed for fatty acid (FA) composition. Except for the Poritidae species, total lipids of the corals had the same set of FAs, about 50% of them being unsaturated acids. Some coral families had ...
Rossary Adrien - - 2007
The strong ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, part of an antioxidant response of human fibroblasts triggered by DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; C(22:6,n-3), served as a model for deciphering the relative contribution of NOX (NADPH oxidase) to ROS production, as the role of this enzymatic system remains controversial. Using hydroxyethidium fluorescence for ...
Ylönen S K - - 2008
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Data on associations between marine n-3 fatty acids and glucose metabolism are inconsistent. Therefore, we explored effects of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2 gene on associations of fish intake and dietary and plasma eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid with glucose metabolism. The design comprises of the cross-sectional ...
Porsgaard Trine - - 2007
Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil ...
Pongrac Julie L - - 2007
Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)] is enriched in brain membrane phospholipids and is important to brain development and function through its influence on neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter secretion. Fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane involving SNARE [soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion (NSF) protein attachment protein receptor] protein assembly, membrane fusion, and ...
Kusunoki Masataka - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) improves the lipid metabolism of diabetics, leading to prevents of arteriosclerosis. Exact relationship between saturated fatty acids (SFA) or PUFA and the insulin resistance of diabetics are unknown. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated the relationship between the serum concentrations of saturated and unsaturated ...
Judé Sébastien - - 2007
The effects of an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on cardiac cell membrane phospholipid fraction compositions and associated protein kinase-C (PKC) translocation modification have never been studied in higher mammals. This is of importance since membrane fatty acid composition has been shown to influence PKC signalling pathways. In the present study, we ...
Damsgaard Camilla T - - 2008
Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO-supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. ...
Schubert Ralf - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the immune-modulating effect of two different fat blends enriched with a low dose of anti- or proinflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid status and subsequently on the immune response of healthy volunteers. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly ...
Kaplas Niina - - 2007
It has previously been shown that maternal nutrition affects the fetal environment, with consequences for the infant's health. From early pregnancy onwards participants here received a combination of dietary counseling and probiotics (Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12; n = 10), dietary counseling with placebo (n = 12), or placebo ...
Kuriki Kiyonori - - 2007
Dietary intake of fish rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been proposed to decrease cancer risk. In contrast to results from laboratory studies, however, protective effects for breast cancer have proved equivocal in epidemiological studies. In the present ...
Fair, Denise Elizabeth
Soy protein slows disease progression and modifies fatty acid status in kidney and liver tissues after 6 weeks of feeding in the Han:SPRD-' cy' rat model of poly ystic kidney disease. To determine whether early dietary soy protein feeding alters the progression of chronic renal disease, renal and hepatic fatty ...
Beydoun May A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Recent research indicates that n-3 fatty acids can inhibit cognitive decline, perhaps differentially by hypertensive status. DESIGN: We tested these hypotheses in a prospective cohort study (the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Dietary assessment using a food-frequency questionnaire and plasma fatty acid exposure by gas chromatography were completed in 1987-1989 ...
Astorg P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To measure the correlations between habitual intakes of individual n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their percentages in total plasma fatty acids in a population of adult men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-six men and 257 women aged 45-60 (men) or 35-60 (women) at baseline, ...
Järvenpää S - - 2007
Our aim was to develop a prototype of a functional spread cheese containing both a specific probiotic and n-3 fatty acids and to analyze the viability of the probiotic and stability of n-3 fatty acids during 4 wk of shelf life. Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 (Lf ME-3) isolated from a healthy ...
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