Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2187
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Ueda Yukiko - - 2008
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD), is a disorder characterized by diffuse inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The immune response and inflammation are mediated by polyunsaturated fatty acids and influenced by dietary fats and lipid metabolism. This study examined the qualitative and quantitative fat ...
Mehta Samir P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest a reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in populations with a high consumption of fish, and n-3 fatty acids inhibit experimental carcinogenesis. One possible explanation is the suppression of eicosanoid production through inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effects of dietary ...
Okada T - - 2008
This study was conducted to develop an immobilized-enzyme system to entrap lipase in chitosan-alginate-CaCl(2) beads for the purpose of concentrating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) from sardine oil. Lipase was immobilized by an ionotropic gelatin method analyzed for characteristics. Optimum pH of immobilized lipase shifted from pH 7.0 to ...
van Eijsden Manon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Maternal n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids are claimed to affect fetal growth, yet evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between maternal n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids measured early in pregnancy and fetal growth. DESIGN: Amsterdam pregnant women (n = 12 373) were invited to complete ...
Theodoratou Evropi E Public Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. - - 2008
In a large Scottish case-control study, we investigated the effects of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) Asp1822Val (rs459552) and APC Glu1317Gln substitutions on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and whether these associations were influenced by lifestyle and dietary factors. We did not observe any associations between the variants and CRC risk in ...
Zhu Guiming - - 2008
The functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been widely investigated. In mammals, levels of n-3 PUFAs are relatively low compared to those of n-6 PUFAs. Either a lack of n-3 PUFAs or an excess of n-6 PUFAs could potentially cause health problems in humans. Hence, methods to increase the ...
Beavers Kristen M - - 2008
AIM: Elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are commonplace among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients increasing risk for poor cardiovascular outcomes. Specifically, when plasma levels become significantly elevated, tHcy levels appear to contribute to vascular damage and premature atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an ...
Malerba Giovanni - - 2008
Polymorphisms of the human Delta-5 (FADS1) and Delta-6 (FADS2) desaturase genes have been recently described to be associated with the level of several long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum phospholipids. We have genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on the FADS1-FADS2-FADS3 gene cluster (chromosome 11q12-13.1) ...
Mayer Konstantin - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss recent advances in the role of n-3 lipids derived from fish oil in clinical nutrition in an intensive care setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplies n-3 fatty acids which compete with arachidonic acid (n-6) for the conversion to lipid ...
Sasaki Naho - - 2008
BACKGROUND: alpha-Amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) is a key enzyme in NAD biosynthesis from tryptophan. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown to suppress hepatic ACMSD activity and its mRNA level in rat. However the mechanism of the suppressive action has not been clarified yet. Although the phenomena that fatty acids ...
Salari Pooneh - - 2008
Osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women, delineates a major health and economic problem in the world. Regarding the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and the interaction between various cells and mediators, many studies have been conducted to evaluate the benefit of different therapeutic options. Over the past several years evidence has been growing ...
Erkkilä Arja - - 2008
The quality of dietary fat in relation to cardiovascular disease forms the basis of the diet-heart hypothesis. Current recommendations on dietary fat now emphasise quality rather than quantity. The focus of this review is to summarise the results from prospective cohort studies on dietary fat and cardiovascular disease outcomes. Relatively ...
Or-Rashid Mamun M - - 2008
The esterified fatty acid composition of cheese (YC) from yak ( Bos grunniens), reared in the highlands of the Nepalese Himalayas, was studied using capillary gas-liquid chromatography and compared with that of dairy cow Cheddar cheese (DC) purchased in a local market. The YC was collected from Dolakha, Nepal. The ...
Densupsoontorn Narumon - - 2008
Because the mechanisms of (n-3) fatty acid-enriched triglyceride-rich particle [(n-3)-TGRP] uptake are not well characterized, we questioned whether (n-3)-TGRP are removed via "nonclassical" pathways, e.g., pathways other than an LDL receptor and/or involving apolipoprotein E (apoE). Chylomicron-sized model (n-3)-TGRP labeled with [3H]cholesteryl ether were injected into wild-type (WT) and CD36 ...
Griffin Bruce A - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been much debate over the practical utility of the dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in optimizing the benefits of n-3 fatty acids (C18-C22) on cardiovascular health. This review examines the supporting evidence from the OPTILIP study within the context of the ...
Delgado-Lista Javier - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hemostasis is the result of a complex equilibrium between coagulation and fibrinolysis, and the influence of different dietary models on this equilibrium is not entirely known. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic intake of different dietary models on postprandial hemostasis. DESIGN: In a randomized ...
Elvevoll Edel O - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Health aspects of seafood have primarily been linked to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Although animal studies have suggested beneficial contributions from taurine, highly abundant in seafood, its effect in humans is obscure. This study evaluates the combined effects of n-3 PUFA ...
Maeda Hiroshi - - 2008
Tocopherols (vitamin E) are synthesized in plastids and have long been assumed to have essential functions restricted to these organelles. We previously reported that the vitamin e-deficient2 (vte2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is defective in transfer cell wall development and photoassimilate transport at low temperature (LT). Here, we demonstrate that ...
Lithander Fiona E - - 2008
Little is known about the effects of alterations in fatty acid classes on adiponectin, a hormone secreted by the adipocyte known to be important in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Any factor, including diet, that may positively influence adiponectin gene expression or increase circulating levels might be ...
Ruf Thomas - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor in mammals. High dietary PUFA contents were found to increase proneness for torpor, decrease body temperatures, prolong torpor bout duration, and attenuate hibernation mass loss. The mechanism by which PUFAs enhance torpor and hibernation is unknown, however. ...
Leaf Alexander - - 2008
Starting in the 1970s the hypothesis that the low mortality from coronary heart disease among the Greenland Eskimos was due to their high consumption of n-3 fish oil fatty acids, initiated many studies to find if the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils (PUFAs) could prevent cardiac atherosclerosis. To ...
Yen Chiung-Hui - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with impaired delta-6 desaturase activity and the subsequent altered composition of n-6 essential fatty acids (EFAs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether n-6 EFA deficiency accounts for AD by affecting transepidermal water loss or the immune response. METHODS: Serum levels of ...
Hou Ching T - - 2008
Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed ...
Moussavi Nadiah - - 2008
This review focuses on the possible association between types of fatty acids and weight change. It examines the biological plausibility underlining these associations and the evidence obtained to date from clinical trials and epidemiological studies. Animal studies have shown that dietary short- and medium-chain fatty acids compared to long-chain fatty ...
Selmi Salah - - 2008
Little tuna (Euthynnus alletteratus) is an important Mediterranean commercial fish species. In this study, the lipids of tuna filet, head, viscera, liver, and gonads fished in Tunisian waters were examined in summer and winter. Total lipid content in most organs showed a significant variation due to seasonal change. The highest ...
Kornsteiner Margit - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of the study was to collect data on dietary fat intake of omnivores, vegetarians, vegans and semi-omnivores as well as its impact on n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in long-term markers such as sphingolipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as well as the calculated sphingo- and ...
Masoodi Mojgan - - 2008
Bioactive lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit a range of tissue- and cell-specific activities in many physiological and pathological processes. Electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC/ESI-MS/MS) is a sensitive, versatile analytical methodology for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipid mediators. Here we ...
Cocchi Massimo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The range of the fatty acids has been largely investigated in the plasma and erythrocytes of patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper we investigate, for the first time, whether the study of the platelet fatty acids from such patients may be facilitated by means of artificial neural ...
Zhang Xinxin - - 2008
A cDNA sequence putatively encoding a omega(3)-fatty acid desaturase gene was isolated from methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris GS115. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cloned cDNA showed high identity to known fungal omega(3)-fatty acid desaturases. Functional identification of this gene heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl indicated that the ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2008
Tissue availability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is of major relevance for health, and it depends on both dietary intake and metabolic turnover. We found close associations between variants in the human genes of Delta5- and Delta6-desaturase, FADS1 and FADS2, and serum phospholipid contents of PUFAs and long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs). ...
Boland Linda M - - 2008
Arachidonic acid (AA) was found to inhibit the function of whole-cell voltage-gated (VG) calcium currents nearly 16 years ago. There are now numerous examples demonstrating that AA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) modulate the function of VG ion channels, primarily in neurons and muscle cells. We will review and ...
Ponte P I P - - 2008
Over the last centuries, Western diets acquired a dramatic imbalance in the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) with a concomitant reduction in the dietary proportion of n-3 PUFA. Pastures are a good source of n-3 fatty acids, although the effect of forage intake in ...
Wei Na - - 2008
In this study, the effects of dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid compositions and lipid metabolic-related genes expression in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis were evaluated. The 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were intervened by different dietary fats (15% wt/wt), including saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-6 ...
Elizondo Alejandra - - 2008
Our aim was to study the influence of weight loss on the fatty acid (FA) composition of liver and erythrocyte phospholipids and oxidative stress status in obese, non-alcoholic, fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Seven obese NAFLD patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy with a gastro-jejunal anastomosis in roux and Y were ...
Innis Sheila M - - 2008
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disorder among Caucasians and results from mutation in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. In addition to its multisystem clinical effects, the disease is characterized by increased proinflammatory mediators and oxidant stress, and systemic redox imbalance with reduced glutathione ...
Hlavatý P - - 2008
Short-term weight-reducing regimens were shown to influence fatty acid composition of serum lipids unfavorably. Adding long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA) to a low-calorie diet (LCD) could avoid these changes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term in-patient weight-reducing regimen including ...
Louw Louise - - 2008
Human papilloma virus-induced recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis is considered a troublesome and dangerous disease, because it can cause airway obstruction. Better understanding of metabolic pathways followed under pathological conditions can contribute to improved therapies by which growth and recurrence may be obviated. Part I of this study presents a clinically relevant ...
Miyake Yoshihiro - - 2008
Dietary factors may be important in the development of atopic eczema. It remains controversial whether n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake is preventive against allergic disorders and whether n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake increases the risk of allergic disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between intake of fatty acids ...
Soltan Saharrobert S A M - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the quantity of omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids in commonly consumed species of South Australian fish. Omega 3 fatty acids ranged from 17.7% to 53.7% of total fat with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) as the major omega 3 fatty acid in all ...
da Silva Eduardo Simão - - 2008
In the present study, the acute behavioral and ingestive effects of ICV injections of mammalian orexin-A (ORXA; vehicle, 0.2, 0.6 or 2 nmol) and of orexin-B (ORXB; vehicle, 0.2, 0.6 or 2 nmol), as well as possible long-term effects (through 24 h of continuous intake monitoring after 0.6 nmol of ...
Schmitz Gerd - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be classified in n-3 fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids, and in westernized diet the predominant dietary PUFAs are n-6 fatty acids. Both types of fatty acids are precursors of signaling molecules with opposing effects, that modulate membrane microdomain composition, receptor signaling and gene expression. ...
Bailey-Hall Eileen - - 2008
An assay involving a finger stick and filter paper blood spotting was developed to determine polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in blood. Capillary whole blood from a finger stick was blotted on antioxidant impregnated filter paper, air dried, saponified and methylated using sodium hydroxide and boron trifluoride in methanol. The ...
Armstrong Jeff M - - 2008
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) dietary intakes and tissue levels are positively associated with various health benefits. The development of cost efficient, high throughput methodologies would enable research in large clinical and population studies, and clinical fatty acid profiling. Microwave heating for the transesterification of blood fatty acids was examined. ...
Speers-Roesch Ben - - 2008
We investigated the influence of environments with different average temperatures and different salinities on plasma NEFA in elasmobranchs by comparing species from tropical vs. cold temperate marine waters, and tropical freshwater vs. tropical marine waters. The influence of the environment on plasma NEFA is significant, especially with regard to essential ...
Byberg Kristine - - 2008
Atopy is suggested to be linked to the balance between levels of n-6 and n-3 series of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the diet. In a nested case-control study, levels of fatty acids, IgE and soluble low affinity IgE receptor (sCD23) were measured in cord blood in 35 ...
Hansen Susan N - - 2007
The role of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC n-3 FAs) as cardioprotective agents has become even clearer with the recent publication of the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study. This was the largest randomized controlled trial in the field, and it demonstrated that even in a population with one of ...
Ghosh Arnab - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The precise etiology and mechanisms leading to the development of increasing incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Asian Indians remains incompletely understood. There is evidence that women in this population may have comparatively greater risk factors (e.g., dyslipidemia) for CHD than men. OBJECTIVE: To determine how dietary fatty ...
Dekker Mark J - - 2007
The impact of dietary fat on postprandial metabolic biomarkers for obesity-related chronic diseases, such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has received significant recent attention. However, there is no standard method to evaluate the postprandial response to dietary fat alone. Our goals were to develop a novel oral fat tolerance ...
Stanley John C - - 2007
This report summarises a workshop convened by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) on 11 September 2006 to review the results of three FSA-funded studies and other recent research on effects of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health. The objective of this workshop was to reach a ...
Krachler Benno - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The respective roles of dietary fatty acids in the pathogenesis of diabetes are as yet unclear. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition may provide an estimate of dietary fatty acid intake. This study investigates the relation between EMFA composition and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS ...
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