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Results 301 - 350 of 2186
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Chung Mina K - - 2008
Fish oil, or omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), supplements have been purported to produce potential health benefits. One of the strongest supported effects of n-3 PUFAs may be their potential benefits in reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death. This article reviews clinical and mechanistic studies that may explain ...
Lewis Jeremy S - - 2009
Despite the lack of robust evidence, there has been a steady increase in the use of dietary supplements, including Omega 3 fatty acids and antioxidants, in the management of musculoskeletal conditions. One reason for this is that unsatisfactory outcomes with conventional treatments have lead sufferers to seek alternative solutions including ...
Yamagishi Kazumasa K Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015, - - 2008
Some previous prospective studies showed that dietary intake of omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with lower risk of heart failure (HF), but no study has examined the association between plasma fatty acids and HF. We included 3,592 white participants from the Minneapolis field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in ...
Agbaga Martin-Paul - - 2008
Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) is a dominantly inherited juvenile macular degeneration that eventually leads to loss of vision. Three independent mutations causing STGD3 have been identified in exon six of a gene named Elongation of very long chain fatty acids 4 (ELOVL4). The ELOVL4 protein was predicted to be involved ...
Pawlosky Robert J RJ Laboratory of Metabolic Control, National Cancer Institute NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2009
The mechanism by which chronic ethanol consumption reduces concentrations of long chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) in tissues of humans was investigated in alcohol-dependent (AD) men during early withdrawal and to a well-matched control group by fitting the concentration-time curves of d(5)-labeled n-3 FA from plasma and liver, which ...
Kraffe E - - 2008
Thirty-five species of marine mollusk bivalves were analyzed for their fatty acid (FA) composition of cardiolipin (Ptd(2)Gro). All species showed a Ptd(2)Gro with strong selectivity for only a few polyunsaturated fatty acids, but three characteristic FA profiles emerged, with clear parallels to bivalve phylogeny. A first group of 12 species ...
Miyake Y - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that increased consumption of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have contributed to the recent increased prevalence of asthma. OBJECTIVES: The present cross-sectional study examined the association of intake of specific types of fatty acids with the prevalence of ...
Childs S - - 2008
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on embryo yield and quality in heifers. Animals were individually offered barley straw and concentrate diets supplemented with either palmitic acid (C16:0; CON) or a partially rumen protected n-3 PUFA-enriched supplement. ...
Onuki Yoshinori - - 2008
To understand more fully the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on lipid bilayers, we investigated the effects of treatment with fatty acids on the properties of a model membrane. Three kinds of liposomes comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and cholesterol (Ch) were used as the model membrane, and the ...
Helland Ingrid B - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) are essential for brain growth and cognitive development. We have reported that supplementing pregnant and lactating women with n-3 very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids promotes higher IQ scores at 4 years of age as compared with maternal supplementation with n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. ...
Ponte P I P - - 2008
Dehydrated forages are assumed to be good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds (vitamin E homologs and beta-carotene). The effects of including a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in a typical diet for broiler chicken, on performance, meat quality, and fatty acid composition were evaluated. One hundred sixty 1-d-old ...
Carpentier Yvon A - - 2008
Considering the changes in the fatty acid profile of liver lipids related to age, gender and nutritional status or occurring in pathological situations, this study aimed at investigating whether such changes could be judged from measurements conducted in plasma lipids. The fatty acid profile of both liver and plasma phospholipids ...
Sala-Vila A - - 2008
Summary There is a hypothesis causally linking excess intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to atopic disease. Under most dietary conditions, the main precursor of eicosanoids is the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA). AA-derived eicosanoids play many roles in sensitization to allergens and in allergic inflammation. Long chain n-3 ...
Porta Natacha - - 2009
PURPOSE: Recent studies have revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anticonvulsive properties. Clinical trials using PUFAs reported conflicting results. It was suggested that PUFAs have anticonvulsant effects via modifications of brain phospholipids. Moreover, some authors suggested that the effect of the ketogenic diet (KD) leads to a high PUFA ...
Taha Ameer Y - - 2009
PURPOSE: Linoleic and alpha-linolenic polyunsaturated fatty acids, derived from plant oils, have been reported to reduce neuronal excitability ex vivo and in cell culture. The evidence derived from animal seizure models, however, has been contradictory. The goal of the present study was to assess the dose-dependent anticonvulsant effects of a ...
Lloyd David A J - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long term parenteral nutrition rarely supplies the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The aim of this study was to assess long chain n-3 PUFA status in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). METHODS: Plasma phospholipid ...
Weaver Kelly L - - 2008
Changes in diet during the past century have caused a marked increase in consumption of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a concomitant decrease in the intake of n-3 PUFAs. Increased fish consumption has been shown to be the only realistic way to increase dietary quantities ...
Spahis Schohraya - - 2008
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children and the pathophysiology remains obscure. In addition to the pharmacotherapy, which is the primary treatment of ADHD, nutritional intervention may have a significant impact on ADHD symptoms. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles, fatty acid (FA) composition, and oxidant-antioxidant ...
Sato S - - 2008
Neobenedenia girellae, a capsalid monogenean, is a destructive fish parasite. We studied the lipid content and fatty acid composition of N. girellae and the skin and cutaneous mucus of a host fish, the amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae). The lipid content of adult N. girellae was less than one-fourth that of ...
Orr Sarah K - - 2008
Epidemiological studies have linked fish consumption to lower rates of neurological diseases. Fish contains high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), and several lines of evidence suggest that the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) acts in the brain via anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic pathways. In addition, DHA may ...
Parra Dolores - - 2008
Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC n-3 FA) are considered nutritional factors with a potential to modulate food intake. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine whether appetite could be affected by LC n-3 FA when included in a calorie-restricted diet to treat overweight or obesity. Appetite ...
Meguid Nagwa A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Estimation of free polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in blood and evaluation of behavior of autistic children before and after taking fish oil (Efalex) were performed. DESIGN AND METHODS: 30 autistic children (18 males and 12 females) aged 3-11 years and 30 healthy children as control group were included in ...
Leclercq Sabrina - - 2008
Peroxisomal ABC transporters encoded by the ABCD genes are thought to participate in the import of specific fatty acids in the peroxisomal matrix. ABCD1 deficiency is associated with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most frequent peroxisomal disorder which is characterized by the accumulation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). ABCD2 (the ...
Saito Hiroaki - - 2008
Novel fatty acids originated from the two cold-seep mussels Bathymodiolus japonicus and Bathymodiolus platifrons, which host methane-oxidizing bacteria, were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. The major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the two mussels belong to unusual n-4 and n-7 methylene interrupted PUFAs, such ...
Trushenski Jesse T - - 2008
Fatty acid (FA) composition of fillet tissue can be tailored by transitioning fish from alternative lipid-based, low long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) grow-out feeds to high LC-PUFA "finishing" feeds. To address whether grow-out feed composition influences the responsiveness of fillet tissue to finishing, sunshine bass (SB, Morone chrysops x M. ...
Cherian G - - 2008
The effects of broiler breeder hen age and dietary n-3 oils on yolk n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability were investigated. A total of 2,200 eggs were collected from wk 26 through 62 from Cobb breeder hens fed diets containing 1.75% fish oil + 1.75% ...
Romanelli Pedro Fernando - - 2008
The purpose of this work was to determine the proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of the Gastrocnemius pars interna intramuscular fat (IMF) of rhea (Rhea americana) thighs. The birds were bred in captivity, fed with balanced feed (Nutriavestruz Crescimento - Purina) and kept in a pen with grass ad ...
Solfrizzi V - - 2008
Currently available epidemiological evidence suggested that an increase of saturated fatty acids (SFA) could have negative effects on cognitive functions, while increased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) may be protective against cognitive decline. In a Southern Italian elderly population from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging ...
Leaf Alexander - - 2008
The first evidence that fish oil fatty acids might have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease came from the discovery that Greenland Eskimos, who have a diet high in n-3 fatty acids, have a lower mortality from coronary heart disease than do Danes and Americans. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids ...
de Souza Amanda Santos - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of malnutrition and nutritional rehabilitation on learning and memory performance and brain fatty acid composition. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were either fed ad libitum on a commercial laboratory chow or a multideficient diet from north-eastern Brazil (regional basic ...
Bidoli Ettore - - 2008
The role of selected macronutrients, fatty acids and cholesterol in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was analyzed using data from a case-control study conducted in 4 Italian areas between 1992 and 2004. Cases were 767 patients with incident, histologically confirmed RCC, admitted to major teaching and general hospitals ...
Deckelbaum Richard J - - 2008
After the symposium "Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids," faculty who presented at the conference submitted manuscripts relating to their conference topics, and these are presented in this supplement. The content of these manuscripts was reviewed, and 2 conference calls were convened. The ...
Verger P - - 2008
A study of 401 fish-eating adults living in a coastal region of France was undertaken to establish exposure to dioxins/polychlorinated biphenyls and the intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3 variety. Fish consumption was estimated using food frequency diaries and the dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl data collected by the French ...
Gavazza Mariana - - 2008
Lipid peroxidation is generally thought to be a major mechanism of cell injury in aerobic organisms subjected to oxidative stress. All cellular membranes are especially vulnerable to oxidation due to their high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, birds have special adaptations for preventing membrane damage caused by reactive oxygen ...
Jung Un Ju - - 2008
Dietary n-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients through the life cycle. Evidence from observational, clinical, animal, and in vitro studies indicates a beneficial role of n-3 fatty acids in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, clinical ...
Volcik Kelly A KA Human Genetics Center, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARA) regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The binding of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to PPARA results in rapid changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation, with long-chain n-3 fatty acids being potent activators of PPARA. We evaluated the potential effect ...
Cohen Beth E BE Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. - - 2008
Traditional cardiac risk factors only partially explain the biological mechanisms by which persons of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher cardiovascular risk. Dietary factors, resulting in lower circulating levels of (n-3) fatty acids, may also contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with low SES. We ...
Trushenski Jesse T - - 2008
Fatty acid (FA) profile of fish tissue mirrors dietary FA profile and changes in a time-dependent manner following a change in dietary FA composition. To determine whether FA profile change varies among lipid classes, we evaluated the FA composition of fillet cholesteryl esters (CE), phospholipids (PL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) of ...
Kraft Jana - - 2008
The objective of this investigation was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the total lipid composition of present-day retail beef meat available at the consumer level and to evaluate the total lipid composition with special emphasis on the nutritional value. For this purpose, 40 beef cuts were obtained from four ...
Richard Doriane - - 2008
The susceptibility of fatty acids to oxidation is thought to be directly dependent on their degree of unsaturation. However, some in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the relation between chemical structure and susceptibility to oxidation is not as straightforward as hypothesized from theoretical viewpoints. Indeed, long chain polyunsaturated ...
Rzehak Peter - - 2009
The present study gives further evidence for the recently found association between variants of the fatty acid desaturase 1 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS1 FADS2) gene cluster and PUFA in blood phospholipids and explores this association for cellular fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes. In a subgroup of adults participating in ...
Zhou Yunhua - - 2008
The early to mid-gestational period (days 28-78) in sheep is the period of most rapid placental development. Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in this phase has negative consequences on fetal growth and development, predisposing the fetus to disease in adult life. The influence of MNR on fetal tissue fatty acids has ...
Gabler Nicholas K - - 2009
The current study utilized Ussing chambers to examine the impact of supplementing maternal gestation and/or lactation diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) provided via a protected fish oil (PFO) product on intestinal fatty acid profiles and ex vivo glucose uptake in the jejunum of weanling piglets. Jejunum tissues were ...
Del Turco Serena - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Increased levels of microparticles exposing tissue factor circulate in the blood of patients with coronary heart disease, possibly disseminating their pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory potential. Because diets rich in n-3 (polyunsaturated) fatty acids have been associated with reduced incidence of coronary heart disease-related events, we investigated the in vivo effects ...
Hansen H S - - 2008
The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are bioactive lipids derived from the n-6 family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential fatty acids. Symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency in rats - growth retardation, scaly skin, and increased transepidermal water loss - can mainly be attributed to lack of ...
Igarashi Miki - - 2008
The extent to which the heart can convert alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA, 18:3n-3) to longer chain n-3 PUFAs is not known. Conversion rates can be measured in vivo using radiolabeled alpha-LNA and a kinetic fatty acid model. [1-(14)C]alpha-LNA was infused intravenously for 5 min in unanesthetized rats that had been fed ...
Jiang Hui - - 2008
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) plays an essential role in fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis, and most of the fatty acid synthases (FASs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) known to date are characterized with a single ACP for each cycle of chain elongation. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis is catalyzed by the ...
Gannon Richard H T - - 2008
Dietary intake has been shown to influence acid-base balance in human subjects under tightly controlled conditions. However, the net effect of food groups on alkali/acid loading in population groups is unclear. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify estimates of daily net endogenous acid production (NEAP) (mEq/d) ...
Raffaelli L - - 2008
Anti-inflammatory properties have been widely reported for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and some studies have been focalized on their possible role in the modulation of gingivitis and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal disease (PD). Increased formation of arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory eicosanoids and augmented oxidative stress are two molecular mechanisms ...
Ueda Yukiko - - 2008
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD), is a disorder characterized by diffuse inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The immune response and inflammation are mediated by polyunsaturated fatty acids and influenced by dietary fats and lipid metabolism. This study examined the qualitative and quantitative fat ...
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