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Alvarez Inma - - 2009
The effect of vitamin E supplementation on fatty acid composition during storage of lamb meat packed in a high-oxygen modified atmosphere was studied. Lambs were fed with diets supplemented with four levels of vitamin E (0, 250, 500, and 1000 mg acetate-alpha-tocopherol/kg feed). Slices of M. longissimus dorsi were packed ...
Poerschmann Juergen - - 2009
Fatty acid (FA) profiles of the Bt-maize line MON88017 expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein and its near-isogenic line DKC5143 were examined. Plant compartments under study included leaves taken from different internodes and roots. Sample preparation involved pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of the biomass, transmethylation of the extracted lipids to give fatty ...
Solakivi Tiina - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia and inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa leading to disturbed epithelial transport. In untreated CD, fat malabsorption can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of serum fatty acids in newly detected CD before ...
Jiang Hui - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be biosynthesized via aerobic pathways that rely on combinations of desaturases and elongases to convert saturated fatty acids to PUFAs or anaerobic pathways that exploit polyketide synthase (PKS)-like enzymes known as PUFA synthases for de novo synthesis from acyl CoA precursors. In contrast to most ...
Lattka Eva - - 2009
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) play an important role in several physiological processes and their concentration in phospholipids has been associated with several complex diseases, such as atopic disease. The level and composition of LC-PUFAs in the human body is highly dependent on their intake in the diet or on ...
Slagsvold Jens Erik - - 2009
Associations between and changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) concentrations and expression of delta 5 desaturase (D5D), delta 6 desaturase (D6D) and delta 9 desaturase (D9D) in leucocytes were investigated both before and during n-3 FA supplementation for 2 weeks in 20 healthy individuals. Participants were divided into two ...
Solfrizzi Vincenzo - - 2009
An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA) could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD). Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated ...
Zhang Jian - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate concentrations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in pregnant women and neonates from River/Lake, Coastal and Inland regions of China. Demographic, nutritional and anthropometric data, as well as blood samples (maternal and cord) were obtained. Plasma choline phosphglyceride (CPG) fatty acids were ...
Hanbauer Ingeborg - - 2009
Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which alpha-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low ...
Maggio M - - 2009
The essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) comprise 2 main classes: n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The most common source of n-6 fatty acids is linoleic acid (LA) which is found in high concentrations in various vegetable oils. Arachidonic acid (AA), the 20-carbon n-6 fatty acid, is obtained largely by synthesis ...
Solakivi Tiina - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Dietary fatty acids may modulate inflammation in macrophages of the atherosclerotic plaque, affecting its stability. The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) generally promotes inflammation, while the PUFAs of the n-3 series eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are considered anti-inflammatory. We determined ...
Zuliani G - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are a family of lipids including some subgroups identified by the position of the last double bond in their structure. PUFA n-3 include alpha linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), while PUFA n-6 include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). Since ...
Calviello G - - 2009
Many data support the beneficial effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of several chronic pathologies including cancer. Different molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain their effects, including alterations in arachidonic acid oxidative metabolism and metabolic conversion of n-3 PUFAs to ...
Freije Afnan - - 2009
We compared the fatty acid compositions including the n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids families in the red blood cell membranes of 26 healthy normal subjects to those with coronary heart disease. The main finding was a significant decrease in the level of docosahexanoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in coronary ...
Galli Claudio - - 2009
Fats in fish and marine animals are rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (FA with 5 or more double bonds) of the Omega 3 series. These FA, present in aquatic animals as an adaptation to the environmental conditions, reached the human diet through the food chain, with a significant impact ...
Sacco Sandra M - - 2009
A previous study showed that flaxseed (FS) combined with low-dose (LD) estrogen therapy, resembling LD transdermal estrogen therapy in postmenopaual women, inhibited loss of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and strength in lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats. Whether FS combined with an even lower dose of estrogen ...
Yaqoob Parveen - - 2009
The structure, size, stability, and functionality of lipid rafts are still in debate, but recent techniques allowing direct visualization have characterized them in a wide range of cell types. Lipid rafts are potentially modifiable by diet, particularly (but not exclusively) by dietary fatty acids. However, it is not clear whether ...
McNamara Robert K - - 2009
Major depression disorder (MDD) significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3) fatty ...
Taha Ameer Y - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), at high doses, have been demonstrated to possess anticonvulsant properties in animal seizure models. Little is known, however, about the possible metabolic or adverse effects of PUFA at these high, anticonvulsant doses. The goal of the present study was to assess the metabolic and potential adverse ...
Tinoco Sandra M Barboza - - 2009
Linoleic 18:2 (n-6) and alpha-linolenic 18:3 (n-3) essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential nutrients for growth and neonatal development. Consumption of preformed n-3 LC-PUFA has been shown to increase gestational duration and to decrease the incidence of premature birth in human studies. This study evaluated ...
Panagiotakos Demosthenes D Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. - - 2009
The purpose of the present work was to validate the MedDietScore by means of plasma fatty acid levels. The study sample consisted of 189 men (44+/-13 years old) and 185 women (40+/-15 years old), randomly selected from the ATTICA study database. All participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (the EPIC-Greek ...
Xie Lin L Department of Paediatrics, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., - - 2009
The FADS1/FADS2 gene cluster encodes Delta-5 and Delta-6 desaturase, rate-limiting enzymes in metabolism of linoleic (LA) to arachidonic (ARA) and alpha-linolenic to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1/FADS2 contribute to variability in blood lipid fatty acids. Altered n-6 and n-3 fatty acids have been related ...
Qin Yan - - 2009
Dietary essential fatty acids linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are converted to arachidonic-, eicosapentaenoic-, and docosahexaenoic acid under tight regulation by nutritional status and hormones. Hepatic fatty acid elongase 5 (Elovl5) elongates C18-20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and is important for biosynthesis of C20-22 PUFAs. We demonstrate that Liver X ...
Phivilay A - - 2009
Dietary consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) has increased during the 20th century and is a suspected risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. More recently, high TFA intake has been associated with a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the impact of TFA on an animal model genetically ...
Farzaneh-Far Ramin R Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94143-0124, United States. - - 2009
Dietary intake of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids has been associated with a reduced incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. The protective mechanisms involved are not fully understood, but may include anti-inflammatory factors. We sought to investigate the relationship between n-3 fatty acid levels in erythrocyte membranes and markers of systemic inflammation ...
Whelan Jay - - 2009
The therapeutic and health-promoting effects of (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish are well known, although these same benefits may not be shared by their precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). World-wide agencies and scientific organizations (i.e. FDA, AHA, International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids, Institute of Medicine, ...
Kennedy Arion - - 2009
This review highlights the inflammatory and insulin-antagonizing effects of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms responsible for these unhealthy effects of SFA include: 1) accumulation of diacylglycerol and ceramide; 2) activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, protein kinase C-, and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and subsequent ...
Saadatian-Elahi Mitra M International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, - - 2009
Plasma phospholipid fatty acids have been correlated with food intakes in populations with homogeneous dietary patterns. However, few data are available on populations with heterogeneous dietary patterns. The objective was to investigate whether plasma phospholipid fatty acids are suitable biomarkers of dietary intakes across populations involved in a large European ...
Miller Matthew R - - 2008
The present review examines renewable sources of oils with n-3 long-chain (> or = C20) PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA) as alternatives to oil from wild-caught fish in aquafeeds. Due to the increased demand for and price of wild-caught marine sources of n-3 LC-PUFA-rich oil, their effective and sustainable replacement in aquafeeds ...
Chung Hyoju H Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. - - 2008
Few studies have adequately considered the type of seafood and background dietary factors when evaluating diet-biomarker and diet-disease associations. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between different seafood meals and long-chain (n-3) fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] biomarkers in the Multi-Ethnic Study ...
Igarashi Miki - - 2009
Few studies have examined effects of feeding animals a diet deficient in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but with an adequate amount of n-3 PUFAs. To do this, we fed post-weaning male rats a control n-6 and n-3 PUFA adequate diet and an n-6 deficient diet for 15 weeks, and ...
Imbs Andrey B - - 2009
Seven zooxanthellae-free species of octocorals (the genera Acanthogorgia, Acabaria, Chironephthya, Echinogorgia, Menella, Ellisella, and Bebryce) and two zooxanthellate octocorals (the genera Paralemnalia and Rumphella) were examined to elucidate their fatty acid (FA) composition. Arachidonic (about 40% of the total FA) and palmitic acids were predominant in all the species studied. ...
Tanito Masaki - - 2009
The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and ...
Pérez-Palacios Trinidad - - 2009
The present work was aimed to study the feasibility of classifying Iberian pigs fattened with two different diets, acorns and grass (AG) and oleic acid enriched concentrate (HO), by means of comparing the fatty acid profile and the content of different compounds of the unsaponifiable lipid fraction (neophytadiene and α- ...
van Eijsden Manon - - 2009
Ethnicity-related differences in maternal n-3 and n-6 fatty acid status may be relevant to ethnic disparities in birth outcomes observed worldwide. The present study explored differences in early pregnancy n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition of maternal plasma phospholipids between Dutch and ethnic minority pregnant women in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, ...
Weseler Antje R - - 2008
Lactation hampers normalization of the maternal arachidonic acid (AA) status, which is reduced after pregnancy and can further decline by the presently recommended increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA]. This may be unfavorable for breast-fed infants, because they also require an optimum supply of (n-6) LCPUFA. We therefore ...
Xie Lin - - 2008
The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and FADS2 are rate-limiting enzymes in the desaturation of linoleic acid [LA; 18:2(n-6)] to arachidonic acid [ARA; 20:4(n-6)], and alpha-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3(n-3)] to eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)]. ARA, EPA, and DHA play central roles in ...
Ortega-Senovilla Henar - - 2009
Neonates of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reduced levels of arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6 n-3). To assess whether this is the result of impaired placental transfer or endogenous fetal metabolism, fatty acids in umbilical venous and arterial plasma were analyzed in neonates ...
Kumar V - - 2009
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the influence of gelatinized (G) to non-gelatinized (NG) starch ratio in the diet on fatty acids profiles and oxidative status in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Two hundred and thirty-four fingerlings (average weight: 2.53 g) were distributed in six treatment groups with each of ...
Matsuoka Kanae - - 2008
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-electroantennographic detection (EAD) analyses of the sex pheromone extract from a wasp moth, Syntomoides imaon (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Syntominae), showed that virgin females produced (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-henicosatriene and (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-henicosatetraene with a trace amount of their C(20) analogs. Identification of the chemical structures was facilitated by comparison with authentic ...
Moon Young-Ah - - 2009
Elongation of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVL)5 is one of seven mammalian fatty acid condensing enzymes involved in microsomal fatty acid elongation. To determine the in vivo substrates and function of ELOVL5, we generated Elovl5(-/-) mice. Studies using liver microsomal protein from wild-type and knockout mice demonstrated that the ...
Shahar Eyal - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Fish contain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, principally eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are known to interfere with the body's inflammatory response and may be of benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions. METHODS: We studied the relation between the dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...
Peltier Sebastien - - 2008
Considering the numerous features of the metabolic syndrome found in rats depleted in long-chain polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids and in the perspective of further work conducted in (n-3)-depleted mice, the fatty acid profile of plasma and liver lipids was assessed in both male and female control and second-generation (n-3)-depleted mice. ...
Boudrault Cynthia - - 2009
Dementia such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing health problem in aging populations in many countries around the world. Currently, there is no cure for AD; consequently, alternative therapies are urgently needed. Recent studies suggest that nutritional intervention may have therapeutic benefits for AD. Specifically, an increased intake of ...
Park Song-Yi SY Epidemiology Program, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, 1236 Lauhala Street, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. - - 2009
Dietary fat, including specific fatty acids, has been proposed to contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis, but findings from the studies based on biomarkers have been conflicting. We examined the association between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study within a multiethnic cohort of ...
Ueeda Masayuki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The relationship between serum fatty acid levels and the extent of coronary plaques and calcification was examined in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: The serum levels of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...
Nigam A - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Animal studies show that ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are effective for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance (IR). Data from human studies are contradictory. We sought to determine whether the relationships between plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) levels and IR ...
Weylandt Karsten H KH Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2008
Pancreatitis is a severe debilitating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment is mostly supportive, and until now there are no clinically useful strategies for anti-inflammatory therapy. Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are known to have anti-inflammatory effects, the utility of these fatty acids in the alleviation of ...
DeGiorgio Christopher M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the work described here was to determine the effect of high-dose n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentanoic acid+docosahexanoic acid, fish oil) on several outcomes in subjects with refractory epilepsy, including seizure severity, seizure frequency, cardiac risk factors, and heart rate variability, in a pilot, exploratory planning trial. METHODS: ...
Nakamura Norio - - 2008
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are reported to be associated with atherosclerotic and inflammatory diseases because they are the major components of the cytoplasmic membrane and are the precursor fatty acids for prostaglandins and leukotrienes. In the present study, the serum lipid profile and plasma fatty acid composition in hemodialysis (HD) ...
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