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Results 201 - 250 of 2187
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Lippmeier J Casey - - 2009
Schizochytrium produces long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) via a PUFA synthase. Targeted mutagenesis of one gene of this synthase was conducted to confirm PUFA synthase function and determine its metabolic necessity. The resulting mutants were auxotrophic and required supplementation with PUFAs. In vivo labeling experiments with radioactive fatty acids ...
Lausada N - - 2009
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL) on fatty acid (FA) desaturase activities. These enzymes (named Delta9, Delta6, and Delta5 desaturases) catalyze reactions leading to the biosynthesis of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA families. n-3 FA family, derived from alpha-linolenic ...
Baranowski M - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of myocardial lipid metabolism. In vitro studies on isolated cardiomyocytes showed that PPARalpha activation induces expression of numerous genes involved in virtually all steps of fatty acid catabolism. However, there is very few data on the effect ...
Alvaro Adriana - - 2010
Several transporter proteins regulate intestinal cholesterol absorption. Of these proteins, NPC1L1 is a major contributor to this process. Fatty acids (FAs) modulate cholesterol absorption by a mechanism that remains unknown. We evaluate the effect of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the ...
Iskandarov Umidjon - - 2009
The very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA), arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4omega-6) is a component of neuron tissues such as brain and retina cells and a primary substrate for the biosynthesis of biologically active eicosanoids. The green freshwater microalga Parietochloris incisa (Trebouxiophyceae) has been shown to accumulate an extraordinary high content of ...
de Roos Baukje - - 2009
Evidence from observational studies, prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical intervention studies indicate that moderate doses of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) significantly decrease risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). Higher doses and longer duration of intervention may also protect from non-fatal CHD events. The exact ...
Vaisman Nachum - - 2009
Phosphatidylserine (PS) extracted from bovine brain differs from transphosphatidylated soybean lecithin PS (SB-PS) in its n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content. Both, however, were suggested to affect cognitive performance. We compared the effect of chronic administration of a novel n-3 LC-PUFA PS conjugates (n-3 PS) versus SB-PS, fish oil ...
Zuidhof M J - - 2009
Consumer awareness of the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids is growing and is driving consumer demand for enriched food products. Enrichment of meat with n-3 fatty acids is an opportunity for the broiler production sector to add value to their product, but enrichment can increase the cost of production. ...
Amasheh Maren - - 2009
High dietary intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced disease risk. Therefore, clinical interest is growing in therapies based on dietary supplements and effects of food components. Immune-modulatory and barrier-protective effects have been described for the amino acid glutamine and the trace element zinc. In Caco-2-cells, zinc ...
Kilian Maik - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we observed decreased histopathological severity of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) by parenteral nutrition with n-3 fatty acids. Thus, we now sequentially analyzed the impact of n-3 fatty acids on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in ANP. METHODS: One hundred ninety-eight Sprague-Dawley rats (11 groups, n = 18) underwent intraductal ...
Rabbani Golam H - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mature green banana (GB) fruit is rich in amylase-resistant starch that stimulates colonic production of short-chain fatty acids (referred to as fatty acid) and is useful in treating diarrheal diseases. We studied therapeutic effects of GB in childhood shigellosis by determining colonic fatty acid production in a ...
Farmer C - - 2009
The impact of feeding flax as seed, meal, or oil to late-pregnant and lactating sows on fatty acid profiles in sows and their piglets was studied. Sixty second- and third-parity sows (Yorkshire x Landrace) were fed 1 of 4 diets from 68 d of gestation until 21 d of lactation. ...
Barnathan Gilles - - 2009
Marine organisms, in particular invertebrates, have proved to be a major source of unique fatty acid (FA) structures originating from unusual biosynthetic pathways. Among them, non-methylene-interrupted (NMI) FA occur in various molluscs in the wide ranges of concentrations (up to 20%), such as the most often encountered 20:2 Delta5,11, 20:2 ...
Francis David S - - 2009
Dietary fatty acids are known to modulate fatty acid metabolism in fish. However, the innate capability of fish to bioconvert short chain fatty acids to health promoting long chain fatty acids (LCPUFA) is insufficient to compensate for a reduced dietary intake. While many studies have focused on the dietary regulation ...
Muthayya Sumithra - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Fortification with multiple micronutrients has been shown to improve growth and cognitive performance among children in developing countries, but it is unknown whether higher concentrations are more effective than lower concentrations. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of 2 different concentrations of a combination of micronutrients and n-3 (omega-3) fatty ...
Jeffrey Brett G - - 2009
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid, is the major polyunsaturate in rod outer segments. The effect of long-term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rod and cone phototransduction was investigated in the rhesus monkey. From birth to approximately = 9 years rhesus monkeys were fed an n-3-deficient diet (n = ...
Micallef M A - - 2009
High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a marker of low-grade sustained inflammation. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma n-3 fatty acid concentration is related to hs-CRP concentration. A total of ...
Dai Jun - - 2009
Elevated levels of postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (ppTRLs) are atherogenic. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have exaggerated postprandial lipemia associated with elevation or prolonged residence of ppTRL remnants. We examined whether dietary fatty acid compositions (DFACs) decrease atherogenic lipid profiles in ppTRL subfractions in T2DM Chinese patients. A single-blind ...
Nagahuedi Simba - - 2009
Wild semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) eat n-3 fatty acids to prime their muscles for long migrations. Sedentary bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus) were used as a model to investigate the mechanisms for this natural doping. Our goal was to characterize the stimulating effects of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic ...
Riediger Natalie D - - 2009
Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain fatty acids in human health and disease has been continuously increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown positive roles for n-3 fatty acids in infant development; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; and more recently, in various mental illnesses, including depression, attention-deficit ...
Angela Liou Y - - 2009
High intakes of linoleic acid (LA,18:2n-6) have raised concern due to possible increase in arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) synthesis, and inhibition of alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) desaturation to eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). In healthy men, 10.5% energy compared to 3.8% energy LA with 1% energy ...
Lemaitre Rozenn N RN Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98101, USA. - - 2009
Higher levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membranes are associated with lower risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Whether membrane levels of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, show a similar association is unclear. We investigated the association of red blood cell membrane alpha-linolenic ...
Riediger Natalie D - - 2009
Cardiovascular benefits of dietary n-3 fatty acids have been shown. However, benefits of n-3 fatty acids as part of a high fat, low n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio diet has not been fully characterized. Aim of this study is to investigate cardiovascular and metabolic benefits of 'designer oils' containing a low ...
Babu Uma - - 2009
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of uptake of different commonly consumed long chain fatty acids on superoxide (O(2)(-)), nitric oxide (NO) production, and ability to kill Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium (S. typhimurium) by chicken macrophages (HD11 cells). All the fatty acids were taken up by ...
Extier Audrey - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are crucial for proper functioning of cell membranes, particularly in brain. Biologically important PUFA include docosahexaenoic acid (n-3 series) and arachidonic acid (n-6 series) which can be formed from their respective dietary essential precursors, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA). Steroid hormones are thought to ...
Smith Patrick J - - 2009
n-3 (omega-3) Fatty acids are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the relation between dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and ventricular arrhythmias has not been investigated among acute post-myocardial infarction (AMI) patients-a group at elevated risk of malignant arrhythmias. The objective was to examine the association ...
Lau Beatrice Y Y - - 2009
Incorporation of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into bone may optimize bone development. The study objective was to use the fat-1 mouse, a transgenic model that synthesizes n-3 PUFA from n-6 PUFA, to determine if bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical bone strength were favourably modulated by lowering the ...
Anderson Simon G - - 2009
Aortic stiffness predicts cardiovascular mortality and may be influenced by dietary fat composition. The hypothesis that plasma fat composition influences arterial stiffness and subsequent mortality was tested here in a prospective study. A total of 174 randomly sampled nondiabetic participants aged 45 to 74 years were recruited from local populations, ...
Taha Ameer Y - - 2009
Dogs demonstrate an age-related cognitive decline, which may be related to a decrease in the concentration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in the brain. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) increase fatty acid oxidation, and it has been suggested that this may raise brain n-3 PUFA levels by increasing mobilization ...
Sharma Prakash - - 2010
The proximate composition of the whole body and the fatty acid composition of the liver, muscle, eye and brain of wild and cultured rohu (Labeo rohita) were analyzed. The cultured species was found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipid contents than its wild counterpart. The saturated (SFA) and ...
Hisaka Shinsuke - - 2009
It is known that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are rapidly oxidized in vitro. Nvarepsilon-(propanoyl)lysine (propionyllysine, or PRL) is formed from the reaction of the oxidized products of n-3 PUFAs and lysine. To evaluate the oxidized n-3 PUFA-derived protein modifications in vivo, we ...
Suh Miyoung - - 2009
PURPOSE: Fat-1 mice can convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids endogenously, resulting in the accumulation of n-3 fatty acids in major tissues. This was a study of how this conversion affects the major fatty acid found in retina, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA, C24-C36), ...
Broughton K Shane - - 2009
Ovulation is a prostaglandin (PG)-dependent process. Although n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have differing effects in the body, both reduce PG synthesis. We hypothesized that dietary n-3 fatty acids and CLA would differentially alter ovarian PG profiles through reductions in expression of enzymes involved in ...
Margioris Andrew N - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postprandial inflammation is an independent factor in evaluating food quality in addition to the well known parameters of nutritional value, caloric content and amount of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins. Among the latter, the quality and quantity of fatty acids in a meal is a major ...
Fedor Dawn - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review results from recent human and animal studies regarding the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the prevention of insulin resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, results from animal studies indicate that fish oil and individual n-3 PUFA [alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid ...
Kim Wooki - - 2009
Over the past several decades, data from both experimental animal studies and human clinical trials have shown that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit anti-inflammatory bioactive properties, compared to n-6 PUFA. Collectively, these studies have identified multiple mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA affect immune cell responses. In this review, ...
Montero D - - 2009
In gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata held in groups of two, five or 10 fish, social hierarchies were observed. Subordinate S. aurata were characterized by elevation of basal levels of plasma cortisol, together with a reduced immunological potential. Subordinate fish also showed lower feed intake, feed utilization and lower growth. ...
Martín de Santa Olalla L - - 2009
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series are essential for normal growth and development. The health effects of these fatty acids include reduction of cardiovascular risk due to antiarrhythmic, antiinflammatory, anti-thrombotic and lipid lowering actions. An increase in unsaturation of the muscle membrane fatty acids is associated with improved ...
Park Woo Jung - - 2009
The mammalian Delta6-desaturase coded by fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2; HSA11q12-q13.1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. FADS2 is known to act on at least five substrates, and we hypothesized that the FADS2 gene product would have Delta8-desaturase activity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed ...
Schwartz J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of modified polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles of complementary food on long-chain (LC) PUFA composition in healthy infants. DESIGN: Double blinded, randomised, controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Dortmund, Germany. PATIENTS: Free-living sample of healthy term infants. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned within the first 2 months ...
Fedorova Irina - - 2009
In this study, the authors demonstrate that rats with n-3 fatty acid deficiency display spatial learning deficits in the Barnes circular maze. Dams were deprived of n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and their offspring were weaned to the same deficient diet. There was a 58% loss of brain ...
Huiskes Victor J B - - 2009
Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curaçao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCPomega3 and LCPomega6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with preeclampsia (n=28) in Mwanza had lower PUFA ...
Tsubura A - - 2009
International variation in breast and colon cancer incidence is positively related to total fat intake. However, total fat consists of different fatty acid families, e.g., saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that these fatty ...
Dalton Annalien - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In humans, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play a well-documented role in brain development and function. Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are major structural components of the brain and a deficiency thereof may bring about changes in the behaviour domains of the brain. OBJECTIVE: This trial investigated the effect ...
Serini Simona - - 2009
It has recently become clear the role played by alterations in apoptosis during the development of several chronic diseases (i.e. inflammatory, neurodegenerative and neoplastic pathologies). For this reason, the research for possible therapeutic strategies involving the modulation of the apoptotic pathways has attracted considerable interest in the past few years. ...
Meneses Flavia - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pregnancy in adolescents on the fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membrane, which was used as a proxy for status of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and also on the composition of plasma non-esterified fatty acids ...
Abbatecola Angela M - - 2009
Due to supporting evidence that dietary patterns may have a significant role in the maintenance of good physical performance with aging, we tested whether plasma fatty acids, saturated fatty acids (SFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids are cross-sectionally associated with different physical performance and predict changes in physical performance over ...
Morais Sofia - - 2009
Fish species vary in their capacity to biosynthesize the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids that are crucial to the health of higher vertebrates. The synthesis of LC-PUFA involves enzyme-mediated fatty acyl desaturation and elongation. Previously, a complementary DNA (cDNA) for an elongase, now ...
Loukin Stephen H - - 2009
Transient-receptor-potential channels (TRPs) underlie the sensing of chemicals, heat, and mechanical force. We expressed the rat TRPV1 and TRPV4 subtypes in yeast and monitored their activities in vivo as Ca(2+) rise using transgenic aequorin. Heat and capsaicin activate TRPV1 but not TRPV4 in yeast. Hypotonic shocks activate TRPV4 but not ...
Ibrahim Ahamed - - 2009
In recent years the intake of n-6 PUFA and trans-fatty acids (TFA) has increased, whereas n-3 PUFA intake has decreased. The present study investigated the effects of maternal diet high in n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA or TFA on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and fatty acid profile in male offspring. Female ...
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