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Popovic Tamara - - 2009
Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with ...
Di Nunzio Mattia - - 2009
The fatty acids regulate gene expression directly binding to nuclear receptors or affecting the protein content of transcription factors. In this work, supplementing primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with 60 microM EPA or DHA, we demonstrated by an ELISA assay an increased PPAR beta/delta binding to DNA. n-3 PUFA ...
Woods Margo N - - 2009
Elevated serum triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations have been reported in persons with HIV. The effect of a dietary intervention plus n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid supplementation on serum triglycerides and markers of insulin sensitivity was investigated. Fifty-four persons with HIV and elevated serum triglycerides (>150 mg/dL) and/or abnormal Quantitative Insulin ...
Garaulet Marta - - 2009
Disruption of the circadian system may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective was to study the associations of 5 CLOCK polymorphisms with MetS features by analyzing fatty acid (FA) composition from dietary and red blood cell (RBC) membrane sources. Participants (n = 1100) in the ...
Juárez M - - 2010
To examine the effect of co-extrusion on subsequent n-3 fatty acids in pig tissues, 8 pigs (barrows and gilts) were assigned to either a control treatment or one of nine treatments arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 levels of co-extruded flaxseed (5%, 10% and 15%) and ...
Lu Chaofu - - 2009
The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid (18:2) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3) in triacylglycerols (TAG) are major factors affecting the quality of plant oils for human health, as well as for biofuels and other renewable applications. These PUFAs are essential fatty acids for animals and plants, but also are the ...
Wood Craig C - - 2009
The assembly of multistep recombinant pathways in stably transformed plants is a cornerstone of crops producing new products yet can be a laborious and time-consuming process. Any heterologous expression platform capable of providing a rapid estimation of the functional assembly of an entire pathway would guide the design of such ...
Miyake Yoshihiro - - 2010
The present case-control study examined the relationship between dietary intake of individual fatty acids and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japan. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected ...
Motawi Tarek M Kamal - - 2009
Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. It results from an energy imbalance in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. The cellular fuel gauge 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein consisting of one catalytic subunit (alpha) and two non-catalytic subunits (beta and gamma), and approximately ...
Ambrozova Gabriela - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can affect various functions of the immune system including inflammatory responses. An oxidative burst of phagocytes accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) formation is one of the phagocyte functions that could be modulated by PUFAs. AIM OF THE STUDY: To ...
Hurst Samantha - - 2009
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is intimately involved in symptoms of arthritis while dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to be beneficial. In these experiments, using both bovine and human in vitro systems that mimic features of arthritis, we show that the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is able to reduce ...
Vineyard K R - - 2010
To determine the effect of different sources of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) on plasma and red blood cell (RBC) FA composition and immune response, 18 Quarter Horse yearlings were randomly and equally assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: encapsulated fish oil (n = 6), milled flaxseed (n = 6), ...
Perez-Martinez Pablo - - 2010
Excess lipid accumulation in nonadipose tissues may occur in the setting of high levels of plasma free fatty acids or triglycerides (TGs) in a process called "lipotoxicity". Evidence from human studies and animal models suggests that lipid accumulation in the heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas, and liver play an important role ...
Lopez-Alvarenga Juan C - - 2010
Serum fatty acids (FAs) have wide effects on metabolism: Serum saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increase triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce them. Traditionally, Eskimos have a high consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (omega3 FAs); but the Westernization of their food habits has increased their dietary ...
Wang Yiqun - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: In 1976, the Royal College of Physicians and the British Cardiac Society recommended eating less fatty red meat and more poultry instead because it was lean. However, the situation has changed since that time, with a striking increase in fat content of the standard broiler chicken. The aim of ...
Ney Jacqueline G - - 2009
We hypothesize that membrane stability of elite swimmers adapted to chronic intense training is dependent on polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and tocopherols in blood pools and that the composition of PUFA in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) might be associated with specific subcutaneous fat sites. Our aims were to investigate ...
Ozogul Yesım - - 2009
Fish is the best source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), specifically n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The objective of the present study was to determine the fat content and fatty acid compositions of 34 marine water fish species from the Mediterranean Sea. The fatty acid compositions ...
Rupp H - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dilatation is associated with impaired pump function, progression of heart failure and electrical instability. Risk of sudden death is associated with a low blood level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was, therefore, addressed that left ventricular dilatation as assessed by echocardiography is associated with a ...
Witt Petra M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the content of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in adipose tissue, a biomarker for the long-term intake of seafood, and the subsequent development of breast cancer (BC). DESIGN: We designed a case-cohort study based on a cohort ...
Howell George G - - 2009
Insulin coordinately up-regulates lipogenic gene transcription via induction of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Conversely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease lipogenic gene transcription via suppression of SREBP-1c. We therefore examined the ability of n-3 PUFA to mitigate induction of SREBP-1c and its downstream lipogenic targets by insulin in primary ...
Jiang T - - 2010
To investigate the impact of sampling fat location and cooking on fatty acid composition of beef steaks, 21 raw steaks from crossbred steers were dissected to obtain outer (OSC) and inner subcutaneous fat (ISC), seam fat, marbling, and lean muscle. Twenty-one cooked steaks were dissected to obtain OSC, ISC, seam ...
Hoffman L C - - 2009
Game meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. The SFA's percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total PUFA was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). Stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty ...
Shearer Gregory C - - 2010
The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) have beneficial health effects, but the molecular mediators of these effects are not well characterized. Oxygenated n-3 FAs (oxylipins) may be an important class of mediators. Members of this chemical class include epoxides, alcohols, diols, and ...
Kaya Yalçin - - 2009
Brown trout is one of the most preferred wild freshwater fish species in the east Black Sea region (Turkey) due to its nutritional value and palatable aroma as well as being popular for sport fishing. In this research, seasonal variations in the crude lipid, gonadosomatic index and fatty acid composition ...
Couplan Elodie - - 2009
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway controls the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In many tumors, the PI3K gene is mutated or overexpressed, and/or the PI3K pathway is hyperactive. PI3K is therefore a potential pharmacological target for the development of anti-tumor drugs. Some polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when ...
Betti M - - 2009
Consumers are becoming more aware of the effect of the food they eat on their health. One of the ways they hope to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease is by consuming more foods enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Due to the high content of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), ...
Coates W - - 2009
Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the ...
Solfrizzi Vincenzo - - 2010
Drugs currently used in the treatment of cognitive impairment and dementia have a very limited therapeutic value, suggesting the necessity to potentially individualize new strategies able to prevent and to slow down the progression of predementia and dementia syndromes. An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggested that elevated saturated fatty ...
Ng Ka-Hung - - 2009
Research has shown associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and erythrocyte long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) levels, with limited evidence for dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake and ADHD. The aims of the present study were to assess dietary PUFA intakes and food sources in children with ADHD, to compare these ...
Tepsic Jasna - - 2009
The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between ...
Tulk Hilary M F - - 2009
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) features chronic inflammation and exaggerated postprandial triacylglyceride (TAG) responses. Fasting concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), key inflammatory mediators, decrease after sustained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake; however, the ability of n-3 PUFA to attenuate postprandial inflammatory responses is not well studied. Thus, we ...
Barceló-Coblijn Gwendolyn - - 2009
There is little doubt regarding the essential nature of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), yet the capacity of dietary ALA to maintain adequate tissue levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids remains quite controversial. This simple point remains highly debated despite evidence that removal of dietary ALA promotes n-3 fatty acid inadequacy, ...
Tuo Jingsheng - - 2009
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading cause of blindness among the elderly; however, current therapy options are limited. Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet that is high in omega-3 polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids can slow disease progression in patients with advanced AMD. In this study, we ...
Clarke Gerard - - 2009
The rat maternal separation paradigm can be used to examine the biological consequences of early-life stress. Immunomodulatory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have recently attracted attention in the study of stress-related disorders. We established the plasma PUFA profile of maternally separated rodents compared to controls. Our results identify a proinflammatory PUFA ...
Richard Doriane - - 2009
Replacing saturated with polyunsaturated (PUFAs) rather than monounsaturated fatty acids or carbohydrates results in cardiovascular prevention over a wide range of intakes. The mechanisms by which PUFAs reduce cardiovascular risk are manifold, and the extent and precise nature of their activities is the subject of several investigations, spanning from in ...
Hussein Nahed - - 2009
The ability to control the fatty acid content of the diet during early development is a crucial requirement for a one-generation model of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) deficiency. A hand feeding method using artificial rearing (AR) together with sterile, artificial milk was employed for feeding mice from postnatal day 2-15. ...
Ando Akinori - - 2009
Gene manipulation tools for an arachidonic-producing filamentous fungus, Mortierella alpina 1S-4, have not been sufficiently developed. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was investigated for M. alpina 1S-4 transformation, using the uracil-auxotrophic mutant (ura5(-) strain) of M. alpina 1S-4 as a host strain and the homologous ura5 gene as ...
Fetterman James W JW - - 2009
PURPOSE: The potential therapeutic benefits of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in various diseases are reviewed, and the antiinflammatory actions, activity, and potential drug interactions and adverse effects of n-3 PUFAs are discussed. SUMMARY: Fish oils are an excellent source of long-chain n-3 PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid ...
Ji Shaonin - - 2009
The fat-1 gene, derived from Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes for a fatty acid n-3 desaturase. In order to study the potential metabolic benefits of n-3 fatty acids, independent of dietary fatty acids, we developed seven lines of fat-1 transgenic mice (C57/BL6) controlled by the regulatory sequences of the adipocyte protein-2 (aP2) ...
Altenburg Jeffrey D - - 2009
Metastasis is the leading cause of death from breast cancer. A major factor of metastasis is the migration of cancerous cells to other tissues by way of up-regulated chemokine receptors, such as CXCR4, on the cell surface. Much is known of the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 ...
Saito Kyoko - - 2010
Interest has increased in the possibility that maternal dietary intake during pregnancy might influence the development of allergic disorders in children. The present prospective study examined the association of maternal intake of selected foods high in fatty acids and specific types of fatty acids during pregnancy with the risk of ...
Laasonen Marja - - 2009
In project DyAdd, we compared the fatty acid (FA) profiles of serum phospholipids in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=26), dyslexia (n=36), their comorbid combination (n=9), and healthy controls (n=36). FA proportions were analyzed in a 2x2 design with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons. A questionnaire was used ...
Mazalli Mônica Roberta - - 2009
In this work, cholesterol oxide formation and alteration of fatty acid composition were analyzed in n-3 enriched eggs under different storage periods and two temperatures. The eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids were stored at 5 or 25 degrees C for 45 days and subsequently boiled or fried. For each ...
Ayer Julian G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: n-3 Fatty acid supplementation in adults results in cardiovascular benefits. However, the cardiovascular effects of n-3 supplementation in early childhood are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate blood pressure (BP) and arterial structure and function in 8-y-old children who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of dietary ...
Metherel A H - - 2009
Changes in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, > or =20 carbons and > or =3 carbon-carbon double bonds) at baseline, during fish oil supplementation (4 weeks) and during washout (8 weeks) were compared in venous plasma, erythrocytes, whole blood and fingertip prick blood (weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12) ...
Huws Sharon A - - 2009
Within this study, we investigated whether the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich nature of rumen protozoa is a consequence of ingestion of PUFA-rich chloroplasts. Four Hereford x Friesian steers were offered hay [low 18:3 (n-3) and low chlorophyll concentration] followed by freshly cut perennial ryegrass [high 18:3 (n-3) and high chlorophyll ...
Miyake Y - - 2009
BACKGROUND: One factor capable of modulating antenatal immune responses is diet. This prospective study examined the association between maternal intake of specific types of fatty acids, cholesterol, fish and meat during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in the offspring. METHODS: Subjects were 763 mother-child pairs. Data on ...
Lippmeier J Casey - - 2009
Schizochytrium produces long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) via a PUFA synthase. Targeted mutagenesis of one gene of this synthase was conducted to confirm PUFA synthase function and determine its metabolic necessity. The resulting mutants were auxotrophic and required supplementation with PUFAs. In vivo labeling experiments with radioactive fatty acids ...
Lausada N - - 2009
The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of cyclosporine (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL) on fatty acid (FA) desaturase activities. These enzymes (named Delta9, Delta6, and Delta5 desaturases) catalyze reactions leading to the biosynthesis of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA families. n-3 FA family, derived from alpha-linolenic ...
Baranowski M - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of myocardial lipid metabolism. In vitro studies on isolated cardiomyocytes showed that PPARalpha activation induces expression of numerous genes involved in virtually all steps of fatty acid catabolism. However, there is very few data on the effect ...
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