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Results 301 - 350 of 1553
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Ortiz Berenice - - 2009
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid obtained from ruminant products. Previous studies in rats and pigs showed that a dietary equimolar mixture of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers induces changes in serum and tissue levels of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives). However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these actions ...
Prandini Aldo - - 2009
CLA levels and fatty acid composition were measured to compare the fat composition in organic bulk milk, destined to the production of Grana Padano cheese, with those produced by conventional system. The curds and Grana Padano cheeses were also analysed to evaluate the effects of the production technology on the ...
Tooker John F - - 2009
Gall-inducing insects are accomplished plant parasites that can profoundly influence host-plant physiology. We recently reported that the caterpillar Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis failed to significantly alter emissions of host-plant volatiles that often recruit natural enemies of insect herbivores, and demonstrated that a caterpillar species feeding on linolenate-deficient plant tissues avoids inducing some ...
Yang Lin - - 2009
Interest in conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as functional lipids is growing. The present study was (i) to study the oxidative stability of individual CLnA isomers and (ii) to compare the oxidative stabilities of CLnA and CLA with their corresponding nonconjugated counterparts, α-linolenic acid (LN) and ...
Wall Rebecca - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic steatosis. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether the fat composition of host tissues might be influenced by oral administration of commensal bifidobacteria previously shown by us to produce ...
Sparagna Genevieve C - - 2009
Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial phospholipid that fundamentally contributes to the function of many proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it is actively involved in the integrity and flux of the electron transport chain. In the heart, functional CL is linoleic acid rich, and the loss of linoleic acid ...
Lall Rahul K - - 2009
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by soy oil linoleic acid (LA) photoisomerization, but CLA-rich oil triacylglycerol (TAG) characterization was not described. Therefore, the objectives were to identify and quantify new TAG fractions in CLA-rich oil by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC). Analytical NARP-HPLC with an ...
Yang F Q - - 2009
Ten free fatty acids namely lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, docosanoic acid and lignoceric acid and four free sterols including ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in natural (wild) Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Cordyceps gunnii, as well as cultured ...
Stachowska E - - 2009
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with have a potential anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammation properties. Metabolites of arachidonic acid--prostaglandins and thromboxans--are endogenous mediators of inflammation. Prostaglandin E(2) and thromboxan A(2) which are a products of two izoformes of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) in macrophages, play ...
Gemeinhardt Anja - - 2009
Phospholipase D (PLD) is a receptor-regulated signalling enzyme involved in biological functions, such as exocytosis, phagocytosis, actin dynamics, membrane trafficking, and is considered to be essential for stimulated degranulation of cells. The purpose of our investigation was to examine how the fatty acid pattern of cellular membranes influences the activities ...
Niisuke Katrin - - 2009
Biosynthesis of the leukotriene A (LTA) class of epoxide is a lipoxygenase-catalyzed transformation requiring a fatty acid hydroperoxide substrate containing at least three double bonds. Here, we report on biosynthesis of a dienoic analog of LTA epoxides via a different enzymatic mechanism. Beginning with homolytic cleavage of the hydroperoxide moiety, ...
Leone Vanessa A - - 2009
Effects of feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to hens on progeny chick development and composition at hatch (NHC) and three weeks of age (TWC) were assessed. CLA (0 or 0.5%, composed of mixed isomers of cis-9,trans-11 or trans-10,cis-12-CLA) was fed to hens with either safflower (SO) or olive oil (OO) ...
Ando A - - 2009
AIMS: Bio-process development for isomer selective and efficient production of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (CLA) from trans-vaccenic acid (t-VA, trans-11-octadecenoic acid) through microbial fatty acid Delta9-desaturation reaction. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 550 strains of fungi and yeasts were screened for CLA production from t-VA through Delta9 desaturation. Delacroixia coronata IFO ...
Piccione G - - 2009
In the sport field, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are important for the physical performance during the aerobic exercise of short intensity and long duration. In man, rat, goat and in the sedentary horse studies on the chronometabolism showed the presence of a circadian rhythm of the plasmatic concentration of NEFA ...
Devillard Estelle - - 2009
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is formed from linoleic acid (LA; cis-9,cis-12-18:2) by intestinal bacteria. Different CLA isomers have different implications for human health. The aim of this study was to investigate LA metabolism and the CLA isomers formed in two individuals (V1 and V2) with different faecal metabolic characteristics, and ...
Miranda Jonatan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on liver size and composition, as well as on hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, in adult hamsters. METHODS: Sixteen male Syrian Golden hamsters (8-month-old; initial body weight 167 +/- 5 g) were divided into two groups and fed ...
Hennessy A A - - 2009
AIMS: To determine the effect of a range of supplements on the bioconversion of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 in reconstituted skim milk (RSM). RESULTS: Seven supplements (yeast extract, casein hydrolysate, tryptone, l-cysteine hydrochloride, sodium acetate, sodium butyrate and sodium propionate) were identified ...
Hernández-Martín Estela - - 2009
New structured lipids essentially free of saturated fatty acids and rich in essential fatty acids and CLA were prepared from soybean oil using a selective enzymatic procedure of synthesis. Saturated fatty acids originally present in the oil were selectively removed in a selective alcoholysis step. Enzymatic re-esterification with conjugated linoleic ...
Lee Ju-Hye - - 2009
AIMS: This study was performed to elucidate whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the modulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells by fatty acids. MAIN METHODS: C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in differentiation medium containing 2% horse serum for 3 days, and treated with each fatty ...
Yilmaz-Dikmen B - - 2009
This research was carried out to investigate the correlations among age, yolk fatty acids content, and incubation results of broiler breeders. Egg samples were obtained from Ross 308 broiler breeder parent stock at 28, 45, and 65 wk of age. A total of 1,800 eggs were used for incubation results ...
Churruca Itziar - - 2009
The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, characterized by having conjugated double bonds, not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. CLA isomers appear as a minor component of the lipid fraction, found mainly in meat and dairy ...
Serra Iv?n - - 2009
Unsaturated free fatty acids (FFAs), such as palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids, have inhibitory actions on mutagenesis. These FFAs in bile may play a role in preventing cholecystopathy and their levels may be influenced by diet. However, the effects of dietary intake on biliary FFAs levels are not ...
McIntosh Freda M - - 2009
Faecal bacteria from four human donors and six species of human intestinal bacteria known to metabolize linoleic acid (LA) were incubated with LA in deuterium oxide-enriched medium to investigate the mechanisms of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) formation. The main CLA products in faecal suspensions, rumenic acid ...
Benjamin Sailas - - 2009
ABSTRACT: This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally ...
Gumus Koray - - 2009
To review and integrate recent advances in identifying the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of dry eye conditions and the biological rationale and practical clinical aspects of newer, antiinflammatory theories. A comprehensive literature survey. Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS) is a multifactorial and complex disorder in which ocular surface inflammations play ...
Donnelly Christina C Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, and the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, - - 2009
Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Harvatine and Bauman (1) reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues and ...
Wu Di - - 2009
This paper proposes an analytical method for simultaneous near-infrared (NIR) spectrometric determination of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acid in eight types of edible vegetable oils and their blending. For this purpose, a combination of spectral wavelength selection by wavelet transform (WT) and elimination of uninformative variables (UVE) was proposed to obtain ...
Vasta Valentina - - 2009
The aim of the present work was to study the effects of tannins from carob (CT; Ceratonia siliqua), acacia leaves (AT; Acacia cyanophylla) and quebracho (QT; Schinopsis lorentzii) on ruminal biohydrogenation in vitro. The tannins extracted from CT, AT and QT were incubated for 12 h in glass syringes in ...
Torres Carlos F - - 2008
We conducted a near quantitative esterification of phytosterols from soybean oil deodorizer distillate with conjugated linoleic acid. We used a 1:1 molar ratio of sterols to conjugated linoleic acid. For that matter, stepwise addition of sterols was investigated. Total sterols were divided into several portions and added sequentially to the ...
Zhou X-R - - 2008
We report the first isolation and characterization of insect fatty acid Delta12-desaturase genes, AdD12Des from house cricket (Acheta domesticus) and TcD12Des from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), responsible for the production of linoleic acid from oleic acid. Sequence analysis shows the cricket and flour beetle Delta12-desaturase genes have evolved ...
Chae S H - - 2009
It is proposed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) would depress the lipid oxidation caused by irradiation of cooked, aerobically stored ground beef patties. The free fatty acid (FFA-CLA) and triacylglycerol (TAG-CLA) preparations of CLA were added at 0%, 1%, 2%, or 4% during the grinding process. Patties were irradiated at ...
Xu H - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate the ability of selected probiotic bacterial strains to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and also to estimate the biohydrogenation kinetics of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the production of CLA from free linoleic acid (LA). METHODS AND RESULTS: Six probiotic bacteria, Lact. paracasei, Lact. rhamnosus GG, Lact. acidophilus ADH, ...
Maqbool Asim - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at increased risk for essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. OBJECTIVES: To investigate serum markers of EFA status in children with CF and PI and their association with growth, body composition, and lung function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum phospholipid fatty ...
Bannenberg Gerard - - 2009
Lipoxygenases (LOX) catalyze the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the first step in the biosynthesis of a large group of biologically active fatty acid metabolites collectively named oxylipins. In the present study we report the characterization of the enzymatic activity of the six lipoxygenases found in the genome of the ...
Ogorodnikova Anna V - - 2008
Incubations of linoleic acid with cell-free preparations from Lily-of-the-Valley (Convallaria majalis L., Ruscaceae) roots revealed the presence of 13-lipoxygenase and divinyl ether synthase (DES) activities. Exogenous linoleic acid was metabolized predominantly into (9Z,11E,1'E)-12-(1'-hexenyloxy)-9,11-dodecadienoic (etheroleic) acid. Its identification was confirmed by the data of ultraviolet spectroscopy, mass spectra, (1)H NMR, COSY, ...
Hodson Leanne - - 2009
There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over ...
Hornung Ellen - - 2008
Lipoxygenases (LOX) form a heterogeneous family of lipid peroxidizing enzymes, which catalyze specific dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to their positional specificity of linoleic acid oxygenation plant LOX have been classified into linoleate 9- and linoleate 13-LOX and recent reports identified a critical valine at the active site of ...
Martin Diana - - 2008
Three levels (0%, 1% and 2%) of an enriched conjugated linoleic acid oil (CLA) were combined with two levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (low (19%) average and high (39%) average) for pig feeding. The profile of volatile compounds of fresh and dry-cured loin as affected by dietary CLA, MUFA ...
Block Robert C RC Division of Epidemiology, Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. - - 2008
Although fatty acid intake has been associated with risk of coronary disease events, the association between blood omega-6 and trans fatty acids (FAs) at the time of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unknown. The relationship of blood FA composition to ACS was analyzed in 768 incident cases and 768 ...
Suh Han Na - - 2008
Fatty acids serve vital functions as sources of energy, building materials for cellular structures, and modulators of physiological responses. Therefore, this study examined the effect of linoleic acid on glucose production and its related signal pathways in primary cultured chicken hepatocytes. Linoleic acid (double-unsaturated, long chain) increased glucose production in ...
Won J - - 2008
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) were encapsulated with hydrated zinc oxide nanoparticles in an effort to improve their time and thermal stability. Encapsulated and nonencapsulated CLA and GLA were stored at 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees C for 49 d. At various time points, encapsulated CLA ...
Or-Rashid Mamun M - - 2008
The present study was designed to investigate the capability of mixed rumen protozoa to synthesize conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic (LA) and vaccenic acids (VA). Rumen contents were collected from fistulated cows. The protozoal fraction was separated and washed several times with MB9 buffer and then resuspended in autoclaved ...
Whelan Jay - - 2008
Linoleic acid is the most prominent polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the Western diet. It is virtually found in every food we eat and is the predominant PUFA in land-based meats, dairy, vegetables, vegetable oils, cereals, fruits, nuts, legumes, seeds and breads. Because linoleic acid is the metabolic precursor of ...
Adam O - - 2008
Long-chain conversion of linoleic acid (LA) and eicosanoid formation was followed in 6 healthy females who were given for 6 weeks liquid formula diets which contained no arachidonic acid but, for 2 weeks each, a LA supply of 0 energy% (en%), 4 en%, and 20 en%, respectively. higher LA intake ...
Zhao Zhan-yu - - 2008
We examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth, fatty acid composition and enzyme activity of fatty acid oxidation in the liver of large yellow croaker. We divided 1600 fish (average initial weight 150 g) into 4 groups and reared them in 8 cages. Four dietary treatments were ...
Jacquot Cyril C Roger Adams Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2008
The reaction of soybean lipoxygenase-1 with linoleic acid has been extensively studied and displays very large kinetic isotope effects. In this work, substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects as well as the viscosity dependence of the oxidation of arachidonic acid were investigated. The hydrogen atom abstraction step was rate-determining at ...
Puniya Anil K - - 2008
Lactobacilli isolated from the rumen of cattle were subjected to morphological and biochemical characterizations followed by PCR-based identification. Among isolates, Lactobacillus brevis was found to be the most prevalent species in the rumen. For in vitro conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production, the two isolates of L. brevis and one each ...
Nie Lina - - 2008
An alternative pathway of beta-oxidation for unsaturated fatty acids was studied in Escherichia coli. 9- cis,11- trans-Octadecadienoic acid (conjugated linoleic acid), a potential substrate of this pathway, was shown to support growth of E. coli in the absence of any other carbon source. The identification of 3,5-dodecadienoic acid in the ...
Liavonchanka Alena - - 2008
The biotransformation of linoleic acid (LA) into conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by microorganisms is a potentially useful industrial process. In most cases, however, the identities of proteins involved and the details of enzymatic activity regulation are far from clear. Here we summarize available data on the reaction mechanisms of CLA-producing ...
Lee Michael R F - - 2008
This study investigated the evolution of trans-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from cis-9 trans-11 CLA during methylation and its avoidance through a rapid base methylation of milk fat. The study examined three conditions shown to result in loss of cis-9 trans-11 CLA during methylation namely: temperature, methylation time, water ...
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