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Results 201 - 250 of 1530
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Zhang Jie - - 2011
Nutrient sensing and coordination of metabolic pathways are crucial functions for all living cells, but details of the coordination under different environmental conditions remain elusive. We therefore undertook a systems biology approach to investigate the interactions between the Snf1 and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
Shaked Maayan - - 2011
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing ...
Azuma Kazuo - - 2011
We examined the effects of oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and d-glucose (Glc) administration on plasma total free amino acid (PFAA) concentrations in dogs. The PFAA concentrations increased in the control group and the GlcNAc group at one hour after feeding, and each amino acid concentration increased. On the ...
Lahtvee Petri-Jaan - - 2011
Lactococcus lactis is recognised as a safe (GRAS) microorganism and has hence gained interest in numerous biotechnological approaches. As it is fastidious for several amino acids, optimization of processes which involve this organism requires a thorough understanding of its metabolic regulations during multisubstrate growth. Using glucose limited continuous cultivations, specific ...
Ribeiro Daniela O - - 2011
The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated ...
Savić Jelena S JS Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade, Serbia. - - 2011
Six β-hydroxy-β-aryl propanoic acids were synthesised using a modification of Reformatsky reaction which has already been reported. These acids belong to the aryl propanoic acid class of compounds, structurally similar to the NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and an anti-inflammatory activity is thus expected. The aim of this work was to ...
Ouellette Scot P SP Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College, London, United - - 2011
Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole ...
Joh Lawrence D - - 2011
Previous studies on biological pretreatment of switchgrass by solid-state fermentation with Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B have shown that inhibitory compounds prevent growth on untreated switchgrass. A. cellulolyticus was grown in liquid medium containing cellobiose with phenolic monomers added to determine if the phenolic compounds are one possible source of inhibition. Cinnamic ...
Fiedler Tomas - - 2011
Several lactic acid bacteria use homolactic acid fermentation for generation of ATP. Here we studied the role of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on the general physiology of the three homolactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Of note, deletion of the ldh genes hardly affected the growth ...
Yang Xianfeng - - 2011
Stacks of multilayered rutile TiO(2) nanoflowers can grow on a titanium film through a simple acid vapour oxidation (AVO) method. The growth of this interesting hierarchical architecture is due to the formation of rutile {101} twinned structures and a subtle mismatching between the lattice spacings of the substrate and product.
Joh Lawrence D - - 2010
Previous studies on biological pretreatment of switchgrass by solid-state fermentation with Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B have shown that inhibitory compounds prevent growth on untreated switchgrass. A. cellulolyticus was grown in liquid medium containing cellobiose with phenolic monomers added to determine if the phenolic compounds are one possible source of inhibition. Cinnamic ...
Dhibi Madiha M Laboratory of Biochemistry, UR03/ES08 "Human Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders", Faculty of Medicine, 5019 Monastir, - - 2010
The present study has been inspired by the growing need for rigorously controlling the nutritional quality and safety of food products. The impact of application in the food industry on fatty acids composition, trans-fatty acids (TFAs), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profiles were investigated in a highly consumed candy byproduct ...
Hao N - - 2010
AmtR, the master regulator of nitrogen control in Corynebacterium glutamicum, plays important roles in nitrogen metabolism. To investigate the influence of AmtR on amino acids production in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, the amtR deletion strain C. glutamicum Q1 was constructed and cultured in modified CGXII minimal medium for 60 h. ...
Skalicka-Woźniak Krystyna - - 2010
Plants of the genus Peucedanum have been used in traditional medicine for a long time to treat different diseases including infectious diseases. The hexane fruits extracts of Peucedanum cervaria and P. alsaticum were examined for antimicrobial activity and analyzed for their fatty acid content. Fatty acid composition of oils were ...
Malpuech-Brugère Corinne - - 2010
Few studies report the individual effect of 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-CLA on human energy metabolism. We compared the postprandial oxidative metabolism of 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-CLA and oleic acid (9c-18:1) in 22 healthy moderately overweight volunteers. After 24 weeks supplementation with 9c,11t-, 10t,12c-CLA or 9c-18:1 (3 g/day), subjects consumed a single oral bolus of ...
Or-Rashid Mamun M - - 2011
Linoleic acid was differentially catabolized by the various rumen microbial fractions, such as rumen bacteria (B), protozoa (P), and their mixture (BP). The predominant isomer of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) synthesized by B, P, and BP from linoleic acid was 9c11t-CLA. The formation of 9c11t-CLA was higher (P < 0.05) in P ...
Marques Gisela - - 2011
The potential of the lipoxygenase from Gaeumannomyces graminis to remove lipophilic extractives from eucalypt and flax pulps was investigated. Pulp treatments were performed with the lipoxygenase both in the presence and absence of linoleic acid, and were followed by a peroxide bleaching stage. The main lipophilic extractives from eucalypt pulp ...
Matsuoka T - - 2010
Dietary (n-6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids influence cancer development, but the mechanisms have not been well characterised in gastric carcinoma. We used two in vivo models to investigate the effects of these common dietary components on tumour metastasis. In a model of experimental metastasis, immunocompromised mice were fed diets containing linoleic acid ...
Castillo Lucía - - 2010
A bioassay-guided fractionation of leaf extracts from Clytostoma callistegioides (Cham.) Bureau ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) led to isolation of a natural mixture of four fatty acids with anti-insect activity against aphids. The compounds were identified by GC-MS as palmitic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic acids and quantified as their methyl esters. The ...
Serhan Zeinab - - 2010
NAD 2D NMR spectroscopy using chiral mesophases made of poly-gamma-benzyl-l-glutamate and pyridine allowed us to evaluate, for the first time, the natural site-specific enantio-isotopomeric excesses at each methylene group of linoleic acid, a central, essential PUFA precursor of all conjugated triene fatty acids.
Christy Alfred A - - 2010
Isomers of conjugated linoleic acid from 7t9c through 12t14t can be induced by thermal treatment of triacylglycerol samples of 9c11t or 10t12c fatty acids in glass tubes. The formation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) has been observed during thermal induction of the above-mentioned triacylglycerols at 250, 280 and 320 degrees ...
Zaman Munir M - - 2010
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF ...
Zhai Jia-jie - - 2010
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce body fat mass in various experimental animals. It is valuable to identify its influence on enzymes involved in energy expenditure, apoptosis, fatty acid oxidation and lipolysis. We investigated isomer-specific effects of high dose, long treatment of CLA (75.4 μmol/L, 8 days) ...
Wu Zhifang - - 2010
The effect of human SCD1 heterologous expression on cellular fatty acid synthesis was investigated in the current study. The SCD1 gene expression cassette and PGK-neomycin-selectable marker cassette were co-introduced into HEK 293 cells by electroporation, and subsequently, SCD1 expression was evaluated by fatty acid analysis. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ...
Sorrentino Flavia - - 2010
This work proposes a novel approach for enhancing the yield of lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus cultures by exploiting linoleic acid-derived signalling molecules, which are potentially involved in fungal cell-cell communication. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that production of lovastatin was enhanced up to 1.8-fold upon exogenous addition of the oxylipin ...
Ecker Josef - - 2010
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are dietary fatty acids. Whereas cis-9,trans-11-(c9,t11)-CLA can be found in meat and dairy products, trans-9,trans-11-(t9,t11)-CLA is a constituent of vegetable oils. Previous studies showed that these two isomers activate different nuclear receptors and, thus, expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Here we show that these ...
Cocchi Massimo - - 2010
In our study we have evaluated the theme of the platelet fatty acid composition in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Major Depression (MD), in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) according to the coronary angiography and in control subjects. We have analyzed all the groups ...
Nigam Santosh - - 2011
Quorum sensing (QS) enables microorganisms to monitor their own density of population, and also their pathogenicity by intracellular signals, and synchronizing their specialized gene system in a particular cell density. QS system has been shown in Candida sp. as switching mechanism between successive phases in Candida cell morphology. The lag ...
Islam Mohammad A - - 2010
The anticarcinogenic activity of a mixture of trans,trans-conjugated linoleic acid (trans,trans-CLA) was investigated in rat mammary tumorigenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), with references to cis-9,trans-11-CLA and trans-10,cis-12-CLA isomers. Female, 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with MNU (50 mg/kg of body weight) and then subjected to one of five diets ...
Huang Yaw-Bin - - 2010
The aim of this study was to optimize hesperetin cream formulations by in vitro permeation study and evaluate topical whitening active effect and skin irritation by in vivo study. The results showed that the solubility of lipophilic compound of hesperetin was increased by short-chain alcohol including ethanol, glycerin, propylene glycol ...
Michishita T - - 2010
This single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of administering a mixture of four amino acids (lysine, proline, alanine and arginine) with or without conjugated linoleic acid to healthy overweight humans before and after exercising. Forty-one healthy subjects (body mass index >or= 23 to < 30 kg/m(2)) completed the ...
Patwardhan Amol M - - 2010
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is the principal detector of noxious heat in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 is expressed in many nociceptors and is involved in heat-induced hyperalgesia and thermoregulation. The precise mechanism or mechanisms mediating the thermal sensitivity of TRPV1 are unknown. Here, we have ...
Zobiole Luiz H S - - 2010
The cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has continuously increased worldwide in recent years mainly due to the importance of glyphosate in current weed management systems. However, not much has been done to understand eventual effects of glyphosate application on GR soybean physiology, especially those related to seed composition with potential ...
Jardim Bruno C - - 2010
Lipoxygenases (LOXs, EC 1.13.11.12) are a class of non-heme iron containing dioxygenases which catalyze the regiospecific and stereospecific hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with 1,4-pentadiene system such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid in plants. In this work we studied the LOX activity in damaged as well as in distal ...
Andreou Alexandra - - 2010
Lipoxygenases are enzymes that are found ubiquitously in higher animals and plants, but have only recently been identified in a number of bacteria. The genome of the diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. harbors two genes with homology to lipoxygenases. Here we describe the isolation of one gene, formerly named csplox2. ...
Kim Young S - - 2010
The differential anticarcinogenic activity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, including c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA, and t,t-CLA, was examined in a mouse forestomach carcinogenesis regimen induced by benzo(a)pyrene (BP). Female ICR mice (6-7 weeks of age, 26 +/- 1 g) were divided into six groups (30 mice/group, 5 mice/cage): control, linoleic acid, ...
Reynolds C M - - 2010
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), some isomers occurring naturally in beef and dairy products and others being formed as a result of bihydrogenation of vegetable oils to form margarine. Synthetic and natural sources of CLA may have beneficial effects in a range of ...
Petersson Helena - - 2010
AIM: To investigate the relationships of serum fatty acid (FA) composition and estimated desaturase activities with the liver fat marker alanine aminotransferase (ALT). METHODS: 546 Swedish elderly men of a population-based cohort participated in this cross-sectional study. FA composition was assessed in serum cholesterol esters to determine dietary fat quality ...
Huot Pedro S P - - 2010
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of biologically active fatty acids that exhibit anticarcinogenic properties; however, the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Caveolae are specialized plasma membrane structures that affect many facets of cancer cell function, including growth, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Therefore, one potential mechanism could ...
Goebel Alexandra S B - - 2010
In the basic therapy of chronic skin diseases characterized by xerosis, the local treatment is an essential strategy to reach ideal therapeutic effects. Suitable active ingredients for this aim are fatty acids, in particular linoleic acid, which is an essential component for the organization and perpetuation of the skin barrier. ...
Demir Ayhan S - - 2010
An efficient chemoenzymatic method for preparing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) using free linoleic acid (LA) as a substrate is described. In the first step, LA was transformed into 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HA) by the whole cells of Lactobacillus plantarum after 48 h of incubation. The preincubation of whole cells with 0.03% ...
Dugan M E R - - 2010
In western Canada, ethanol is produced mainly from wheat. As the demand for wheat increases, so do grain prices, which in turn creates incentives for feeding reduced-cost distillers coproducts to livestock. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) for barley grain may also create opportunities for enhancing beef ...
Bolton Bryson - - 2010
Discrimination of vapor-phase linoleic, oleic, and stearic fatty acids was studied using triangle tests. For each trial, 2 of the 3 modified odorant delivery containers (MODCs) had the same content and 1 was different. Contents were either mineral oil-diluted linoleic or oleic acids, with mineral oil in the other MODC ...
Brodhun Florian - - 2010
In Aspergillus nidulans Ppos [psi (precocious sexual inducer)-producing oxygenases] are required for the production of so-called psi factors, compounds that control the balance between the sexual and asexual life cycle of the fungus. The genome of A. nidulans harbours three different ppo genes: ppoA, ppoB and ppoC. For all three ...
Peng Y - - 2010
This experiment was conducted to determine if CLA could be transferred from sows to their offspring through the umbilical cord or milk. Eighteen pregnant Dalland sows of mixed parity were used in a completely randomized block design based on parity and BW. The sows were allotted to 1 of 3 ...
Jerner?n Fredrik - - 2010
Aspergilli express fusion proteins of an animal haem peroxidase domain with fatty acid dioxygenase (DOX) activity ( approximately 600 amino acids) and a functional or non-functional hydroperoxide isomerase/cytochrome P450 domain ( approximately 500 amino acids with EXXR and GPHXCLG motifs). 5,8-Linoleate diol synthases (LDS; ppoA) and 10R-DOX (ppoC) of Aspergillusnidulans ...
Jernerén Fredrik - - 2010
Oxygenation of linoleic acid by Aspergillus terreus was studied with LC-MS/MS. 9(R)-Hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9R-HpODE) was identified along with 10(R)-hydroxy-8(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid and variable amounts of 8(R)-hydroxy-9(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid. 9R-HpODE was formed from [11S-2H]18:2n-6 with loss of the deuterium label, suggesting antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygenation. Two polar metabolites were identified as 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic ...
Huh Sungran - - 2010
Ten fatty acid alkyl esters isolated from Oxalis triangularis, were evaluated for the effects on melanogenesis using mouse B16 melanoma cells. Treatment of methyl linoleate, methyl linolenate, ethyl linoleate and ethyl linolenate significantly blocked forskolin-induced melanogenesis and inhibited tyrosinase activity. In addition, we found that they inhibited cAMP production, suggesting ...
Stachowska Ewa - - 2010
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterised by the accumulation of lipids and their metabolites in the artery wall. During inflammation circulating LDL are taken up by macrophages through two major scavenger receptors: CD36 and scavenger receptor A (SRA). Fatty acids that are common in food, e.g. linoleic acid and n-3 ...
Sato Mayumi - - 2010
Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) contents in conifer leaves and their fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. The SQDG content was 16-36 mg/100 g, and was high in Picea glehnii. Palmitic and alpha-linolenic acid were the usually predominant FAs. In Picea, the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid was low, and those of oleic and ...
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