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Results 201 - 250 of 1553
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Liang Zhenchang Z Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2011
Polyphenolic profiles in the berry samples of 344 European grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years. These cultivars represent a diverse collection of V. vinifera germplasm maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Vitis Clonal Repository in Davis of California, USA. A total of 36 polyphenolic compounds, including ...
Resmer Kelly L - - 2011
Metabolic footprinting of the anaerobic bacterium Fusobacterium varium demonstrated the accumulation of six carboxylic acids as metabolic end-products and revealed specific growth requirements and utilization capabilities towards amino acids. Guided by (1)H NMR determinations of residual amino acids in spent medium, a modified chemically defined minimal medium (CDMM*) was developed ...
Yoo Juhyun - - 2011
Thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass was investigated using soybean hulls as the substrate. The enzyme cocktail used to hydrolyze pretreated soybean hulls to fermentable sugars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Structural changes in substrate and sugar yields from thermo-mechanical processing were compared with two traditional pretreatment methods ...
Mueller Ryan S - - 2011
Proteomes of acid mine drainage biofilms at different stages of ecological succession were examined to understand microbial responses to changing community membership. We evaluated the degree of reproducibility of the community proteomes between samples of the same growth stage and found stable and predictable protein abundance patterns across time and ...
Jiang Shaoliang - - 2011
The plant-growth regulators, indole-3-carboxylic acids, were introduced into N-acyl ethanolamines, and a series of N-acyl O-indolylalkyl ethanolamines were prepared. Their biological activities to regulate rape hypocotyl elongation, cucumber cotyledon expansion and common wheat coleoptile growth were tested. The results indicate that the title compounds inhibited rape hypocotyl elongation, especially the ...
Liu Dawei - - 2011
To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying carbohydrate uptake and connected metabolic pathways of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705, the proteomic profiles of bacteria grown on different carbon sources including glucose, fructose, mannose, xylose, ribose, and galactose were analyzed. Our results show that all sugars tested were catabolized via the bifid shunt. Sixty-eight ...
Choudhary An - - 2011
The compounds, 2-(methylsulfonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (DM3), 2-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (DM(4)), and 2-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (DM(5)) were synthesized by coupling of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (DM(2)) with methanesulfonyl chloride, benzenesulfonyl chloride, and toluenesulfonyl chloride, which in turn, was synthesized by dissolving dilute aqueous ammonia with 2-(N-hydroxy methyl amino)-indol-3-yl-propanoic acid (DM(1)) which is the reaction product of ...
Devaraj V C - - 2011
Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and ...
Putra Deddi Prima - - 2011
Two known coloring constituents, methyl 4,4'-dimethoxyvulpinate (1) and 4,4'-dimethoxyvulpinic acid (2) have been isolated from the fruit body of fungus Scleroderma sinnamariense Mont. The methanolic extract, its fractions and compound (2) showed moderate activity to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic testing microbes used.
Seyedsayamdost Mohammad R MR Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2011
Emiliania huxleyi, an environmentally important marine microalga, has a bloom-and-bust lifestyle in which massive algal blooms appear and fade. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis belongs to the roseobacter clade of α-Proteobacteria, the populations of which wax and wane with that of E. huxleyi. Roseobacter are thought to promote algal growth by biosynthesizing and ...
Cheng L - - 2011
Galla chinensis extract (GCE) interferes with de- and remineralization of dental enamel and the growth and metabolism in planktonic bacteria. However, no information is available on GCE effects on biofilms formed with saliva as inoculum. The aim of the current experiments was to investigate the effects of GCE at different ...
Vigueira Patrick A - - 2011
Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, possesses two fatty acid synthesis pathways: a major de novo synthesis pathway in the ER and a mitochondrial pathway. The 2-carbon donor for both pathways is malonyl-CoA, which is synthesized from acetyl-CoA by Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Here, we show that T. ...
Hynes Michael J - - 2011
The flow of carbon metabolites between cellular compartments is an essential feature of fungal metabolism. During growth on ethanol, acetate, or fatty acids, acetyl units must enter the mitochondrion for metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the cytoplasm is essential for the biosynthetic reactions ...
Zhang Bo-Bo - - 2011
Fatty acids, organic solvents and surfactants were investigated for their stimulatory effects on the growth of fungal mycelium and production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) by submerged fermentation of an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. Addition of 3.0 g/L Tween 80 at the late stage of exponential growth phase provided the best stimulatory ...
Lee Jungmin J United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Horticultural Crops Research Unit Worksite, Parma, ID 83660, USA. Electronic address: - - 2011
This is a study on the influence that two rootstocks (110R, high vigour; 420A, low vigour) and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation - usual practise in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or tilled) had upon grape nitrogen-containing compounds (mainly ammonia and free amino ...
Wren Jodie F - - 2011
The toxicity of aldicarb on movement, life cycle, population growth rate and resource allocation, and the gene expression changes underpinning these effects, were investigated for Caenorhabditis elegans. A clear effect of aldicarb on nematode movement was found suggesting that this pesticide acts as a neurotoxicant. Aldicarb also had an effect ...
Yadav Supriya - - 2011
Probiotics and prebiotics, which can change the colonic microenvironment, are the areas of current interest. Unutilizable fractions of the foods and fortificants, which reach the colon can affect the profile of probiotics. Effects of eight such factors viz. zinc sulphate, zinc carbonate, ferrous sulphate, ferric citrate, quercetin, gallic acid, phytic ...
Sargsyan Ernest - - 2011
Elevated levels of lipids are detrimental for beta-cell function and mass. One of the mechanisms of how fatty acids induce apoptosis is development of the unfolded protein response (UPR). It is still far from understood how fatty acids activate the UPR, however. We examined how palmitate-induced activation of the UPR ...
Yadav Supriya - - 2011
Probiotics and prebiotics, which can change the colonic microenvironment, are the areas of current interest. Unutilizable fractions of the foods and fortificants, which reach the colon can affect the profile of probiotics. Effects of eight such factors viz. zinc sulphate, zinc carbonate, ferrous sulphate, ferric citrate, quercetin, gallic acid, phytic ...
Yang Zhi-Gang - - 2011
A new flavonol galactopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-(2'',3''-digalloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoide (1), and 23 known constituents, including myricetin 3-O-(2''-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoide (2), myricitrin (3), myricetin (4), quercetin 3-O-(2'', 3''-digalloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoide (5), quercetin 3-O-(2''-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoide (6), hyperin (7), isoquercetrin (8), quercetin (9), kaempferol (10), apigenin (11), luteolin (12), 3-O-methylquercetin (13), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavone (14), 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (15), 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (16), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (17), gallic acid ...
Dutot Mélody - - 2011
Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against cellular damages of high glucose were studied on retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Retinal epithelial cells were incubated with omega-3 marine oils rich in EPA and DHA and then with high glucose (25 mM) for 48 hours. Cellular responses were compared to normal ...
Ooi Beng Guat - - 2011
This study evaluates the pre-treatment of cellulose from kenaf plant to yield sugar precursors for the production of ethanol or butanol for use as biofuel additives. In order to convert the crystalline cellulosic form to the amorphous form that can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond to yield sugars, ...
Bondia-Pons Isabel - - 2011
The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) ...
Zhang Jie - - 2011
Nutrient sensing and coordination of metabolic pathways are crucial functions for all living cells, but details of the coordination under different environmental conditions remain elusive. We therefore undertook a systems biology approach to investigate the interactions between the Snf1 and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
Shaked Maayan - - 2011
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing ...
Azuma Kazuo - - 2011
We examined the effects of oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and d-glucose (Glc) administration on plasma total free amino acid (PFAA) concentrations in dogs. The PFAA concentrations increased in the control group and the GlcNAc group at one hour after feeding, and each amino acid concentration increased. On the ...
Lahtvee Petri-Jaan - - 2011
Lactococcus lactis is recognised as a safe (GRAS) microorganism and has hence gained interest in numerous biotechnological approaches. As it is fastidious for several amino acids, optimization of processes which involve this organism requires a thorough understanding of its metabolic regulations during multisubstrate growth. Using glucose limited continuous cultivations, specific ...
Ribeiro Daniela O - - 2011
The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated ...
Savić Jelena S JS Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade, Serbia. - - 2011
Six β-hydroxy-β-aryl propanoic acids were synthesised using a modification of Reformatsky reaction which has already been reported. These acids belong to the aryl propanoic acid class of compounds, structurally similar to the NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and an anti-inflammatory activity is thus expected. The aim of this work was to ...
Ouellette Scot P SP Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College, London, United - - 2011
Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole ...
Joh Lawrence D - - 2011
Previous studies on biological pretreatment of switchgrass by solid-state fermentation with Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B have shown that inhibitory compounds prevent growth on untreated switchgrass. A. cellulolyticus was grown in liquid medium containing cellobiose with phenolic monomers added to determine if the phenolic compounds are one possible source of inhibition. Cinnamic ...
Fiedler Tomas - - 2011
Several lactic acid bacteria use homolactic acid fermentation for generation of ATP. Here we studied the role of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme on the general physiology of the three homolactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Of note, deletion of the ldh genes hardly affected the growth ...
Yang Xianfeng - - 2011
Stacks of multilayered rutile TiO(2) nanoflowers can grow on a titanium film through a simple acid vapour oxidation (AVO) method. The growth of this interesting hierarchical architecture is due to the formation of rutile {101} twinned structures and a subtle mismatching between the lattice spacings of the substrate and product.
Joh Lawrence D - - 2010
Previous studies on biological pretreatment of switchgrass by solid-state fermentation with Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B have shown that inhibitory compounds prevent growth on untreated switchgrass. A. cellulolyticus was grown in liquid medium containing cellobiose with phenolic monomers added to determine if the phenolic compounds are one possible source of inhibition. Cinnamic ...
Dhibi Madiha M Laboratory of Biochemistry, UR03/ES08 "Human Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders", Faculty of Medicine, 5019 Monastir, - - 2010
The present study has been inspired by the growing need for rigorously controlling the nutritional quality and safety of food products. The impact of application in the food industry on fatty acids composition, trans-fatty acids (TFAs), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profiles were investigated in a highly consumed candy byproduct ...
Hao N - - 2010
AmtR, the master regulator of nitrogen control in Corynebacterium glutamicum, plays important roles in nitrogen metabolism. To investigate the influence of AmtR on amino acids production in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032, the amtR deletion strain C. glutamicum Q1 was constructed and cultured in modified CGXII minimal medium for 60 h. ...
Skalicka-Woźniak Krystyna - - 2010
Plants of the genus Peucedanum have been used in traditional medicine for a long time to treat different diseases including infectious diseases. The hexane fruits extracts of Peucedanum cervaria and P. alsaticum were examined for antimicrobial activity and analyzed for their fatty acid content. Fatty acid composition of oils were ...
Malpuech-Brugère Corinne - - 2010
Few studies report the individual effect of 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-CLA on human energy metabolism. We compared the postprandial oxidative metabolism of 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-CLA and oleic acid (9c-18:1) in 22 healthy moderately overweight volunteers. After 24 weeks supplementation with 9c,11t-, 10t,12c-CLA or 9c-18:1 (3 g/day), subjects consumed a single oral bolus of ...
Or-Rashid Mamun M - - 2011
Linoleic acid was differentially catabolized by the various rumen microbial fractions, such as rumen bacteria (B), protozoa (P), and their mixture (BP). The predominant isomer of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) synthesized by B, P, and BP from linoleic acid was 9c11t-CLA. The formation of 9c11t-CLA was higher (P < 0.05) in P ...
Marques Gisela - - 2011
The potential of the lipoxygenase from Gaeumannomyces graminis to remove lipophilic extractives from eucalypt and flax pulps was investigated. Pulp treatments were performed with the lipoxygenase both in the presence and absence of linoleic acid, and were followed by a peroxide bleaching stage. The main lipophilic extractives from eucalypt pulp ...
Matsuoka T - - 2010
Dietary (n-6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids influence cancer development, but the mechanisms have not been well characterised in gastric carcinoma. We used two in vivo models to investigate the effects of these common dietary components on tumour metastasis. In a model of experimental metastasis, immunocompromised mice were fed diets containing linoleic acid ...
Castillo Lucía - - 2010
A bioassay-guided fractionation of leaf extracts from Clytostoma callistegioides (Cham.) Bureau ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) led to isolation of a natural mixture of four fatty acids with anti-insect activity against aphids. The compounds were identified by GC-MS as palmitic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic acids and quantified as their methyl esters. The ...
Serhan Zeinab - - 2010
NAD 2D NMR spectroscopy using chiral mesophases made of poly-gamma-benzyl-l-glutamate and pyridine allowed us to evaluate, for the first time, the natural site-specific enantio-isotopomeric excesses at each methylene group of linoleic acid, a central, essential PUFA precursor of all conjugated triene fatty acids.
Christy Alfred A - - 2010
Isomers of conjugated linoleic acid from 7t9c through 12t14t can be induced by thermal treatment of triacylglycerol samples of 9c11t or 10t12c fatty acids in glass tubes. The formation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) has been observed during thermal induction of the above-mentioned triacylglycerols at 250, 280 and 320 degrees ...
Zaman Munir M - - 2010
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients display a fatty acid imbalance characterized by low linoleic acid levels and variable changes in arachidonic acid. This led to the recommendation that CF patients consume a high-fat diet containing >6% linoleic acid. We hypothesized that increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in CF ...
Zhai Jia-jie - - 2010
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce body fat mass in various experimental animals. It is valuable to identify its influence on enzymes involved in energy expenditure, apoptosis, fatty acid oxidation and lipolysis. We investigated isomer-specific effects of high dose, long treatment of CLA (75.4 μmol/L, 8 days) ...
Wu Zhifang - - 2010
The effect of human SCD1 heterologous expression on cellular fatty acid synthesis was investigated in the current study. The SCD1 gene expression cassette and PGK-neomycin-selectable marker cassette were co-introduced into HEK 293 cells by electroporation, and subsequently, SCD1 expression was evaluated by fatty acid analysis. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the ...
Sorrentino Flavia - - 2010
This work proposes a novel approach for enhancing the yield of lovastatin in Aspergillus terreus cultures by exploiting linoleic acid-derived signalling molecules, which are potentially involved in fungal cell-cell communication. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that production of lovastatin was enhanced up to 1.8-fold upon exogenous addition of the oxylipin ...
Ecker Josef - - 2010
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are dietary fatty acids. Whereas cis-9,trans-11-(c9,t11)-CLA can be found in meat and dairy products, trans-9,trans-11-(t9,t11)-CLA is a constituent of vegetable oils. Previous studies showed that these two isomers activate different nuclear receptors and, thus, expression of genes related to lipid metabolism. Here we show that these ...
Cocchi Massimo - - 2010
In our study we have evaluated the theme of the platelet fatty acid composition in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Major Depression (MD), in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) according to the coronary angiography and in control subjects. We have analyzed all the groups ...
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