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Broach Bryan - - 2012
The food borne pathogen Bacillus cereus produces uronic acid-containing glycans that are secreted in a shielding biofilm environment, and certain alkaliphilic Bacillus deposit uronate-glycan polymers in the cell wall when adapting to alkaline environments. The source of these acidic sugars is unknown and, in the present study, we describe the ...
Houze Jonathan B - - 2011
The discovery that certain long chain fatty acids potentiate glucose stimulated insulin secretion through the previously orphan receptor GPR40 sparked interest in GPR40 agonists as potential antidiabetic agents. Optimization of a series of β-substituted phenylpropanoic acids led to the identification of (S)-3-(4-((4'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-3-yl)methoxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoic acid (AMG 837) as a potent GPR40 agonist ...
Kogure Ryouta - - 2011
GPR119 is one of the G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in pancreatic β-cells and intestinal endocrine cells. Since agonists to GPR119 stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, GPR119 agonists are anticipated to promote anti-diabetic effects and control of glucose homeostasis. Here, we reported that an omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid metabolite, 5-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE), was ...
Kotagale N R - - 2011
A floating type of dosage form of ranitidine hydrochloride in the form of microspheres capable of floating on simulated gastric fluid was prepared by solvent evaporation technique. Microspheres prepared with ethyl cellulose, Eudragit(®) RS100 alone or in combination were evaluated for percent yield, drug entrapment, percent buoyancy and drug release ...
Malapaka Raghu R V - - 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty ...
Kazmi Imran - - 2012
A new stearoyl glucoside of ursolic acid, urs-12-en-3β-ol-28-oic acid 3β-D-glucopyranosyl-4'-octadecanoate and other compounds were isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara L. The structure of this new glycoside was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats it showed significant reduction in blood glucose level.
Chaleek N - - 2011
Background  Orexin-A is a novel peptide that appears to play a role in regulation of gastric acid secretion. However, little is known about sites of its action. In addition, evidences suggest that some of orexin-A neurons respond to glucose. In this study, we address the hypothesis which demonstrates that orexin-A ...
Xiao Jianbo - - 2011
An acidic polysaccharide conjugate from the tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) beyond the useful date was isolated and characterized. The crude polysaccharides (TPS) were extracted with hot water and separated on a DEAE sepharose FF gel filtration column to obtain ATPS2. The chemical structure of ATPS2 was investigated by GC, IC, ...
Li Tiangang - - 2012
Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndromes are increasingly recognized as health concerns worldwide. Overnutrition and insulin resistance are the major causes of diabetic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in humans. Studies in the past decade provide evidence that bile acids are not just biological detergents facilitating gut nutrient absorption, but also important metabolic ...
Okutucu Burcu - - 2011
Molecularly imprinted polymers were the new, simple and unexpensive materials that can be used in several clinical applications. Phenylboronic acid has been frequently used as functional monomer for the covalent imprinting of diols. In this study, the phenylboronic acid esters of fructose, galactose, glucose and raffinose were synthesized and then ...
Goodger Jason Q D - - 2011
The glycosylation of lipophilic small molecules produces many important plant secondary metabolites. The majority of these are O-glycosides with relatively fewer occurring as glucose esters of aromatic or aliphatic acids. In particular, monoterpene acid glucose esters have much lower structural diversity and distribution compared to monoterpene glycosides. Nevertheless, there have ...
Li Linlin - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Dysregulation of Akt has been implicated in diseases such as cancer and diabetes, although little is known about the role of Akt deficiency on cardiomyocyte contractile function. This study was designed to examine the effect of Akt2 knockout-induced cardiomyocyte contractile response and the effect of dietary supplementation ...
Xiao Jianbo - - 2011
The chemical compositions and bioactivities of crude tea polysaccharides (TPS) from the out-of-date tea leaves (beyond their useful date), namely Xihu Longjing (XTPS), Anxi Tieguanyin (TTPS), Chawentianxia (CTPS) and Huizhoulvcha (HTPS), in market were investigated. These TPS showed similar neutral sugar content and different distribution of molecular weight (1-800 kD). ...
Kale Sangram S - - 2011
This communication describes a general synthetic route to bicyclic amino acid-carbohydrate-conjugates, which would be useful as conformationally restricted hydroxyethylamine (HEA) transition-state isosteres. The synthesis was achieved in 12 steps starting from d-glucose. The striking features of this system are the bicyclic rigid core displaying an α-amino acid side chain and ...
Jeong Tae Su - - 2011
Two-stage acid hydrolysis was conducted on easy reacting cellulose and resistant reacting cellulose of fractionated Gelidium amansii (f-GA). Acid hydrolysis of f-GA was performed at between 170 and 200°C for a period of 0-5min, and an acid concentration of 2-5% (w/v, H(2)SO(4)) to determine the optimal conditions for acid hydrolysis. ...
Maclean Leann L - - 2011
Cronobacter turicensis, previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is a Gram-negative opportunistic food-borne pathogen that has been reported as a cause of life-threatening neonatal infections. From chemical and physical analyses involving composition analysis, methylation, two-dimensional high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry methods, the antigenic O-polysaccharide in the smooth-type lipopolysaccharide of ...
Jung I S - - 2011
A fish farm sludge high in P (2-6% w/w as dry matter), Fe (5-7%), C (40-50%) and N (0.8-4%) was subjected to a series of acid leaching treatments using HCl, organic acids, and biologically mediated acid production. Additions of biodegradable organic acid solubilized heavy metals better than HCl, while additions ...
Lanaspa Miguel A - - 2011
Excessive fructose consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Both conditions are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases. Uric acid synthesis is linked biochemically to fructose metabolism, thus the widespread consumption of this monosaccharide has been related to steady increasing levels of ...
Poudyal Hemant - - 2011
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyses the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids. Increased SCD-1 expression and activity has been implicated in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and obesity. Studies with humans, wild-type rodents, knock-out mice and cells in culture show that SCD-1 inhibition decreases ...
De Marchi Sergio - - 2012
To examine the effects of oral glucose load on forearm circulatory regulation before and after ascorbic acid administration in healthy subjects. Microcirculation study with laser Doppler was performed at the hand in basal conditions, after ischemia and after acetylcholine and nitroprusside; strain gauge plethysmography was performed at basal and after ...
Prabhakar Pranav Kumar - - 2011
Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary phenolic compounds. The effect of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, eugenol, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, alone and in combination with two commercial oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHD), namely, thiazolidinedione (THZ) and ...
Las Guy - - 2011
Recent studies have shown that autophagy is essential for proper β-cell function and survival. However, it is yet unclear under what pathogenic conditions autophagy is inhibited in β-cells. Here, we report that long term exposure to fatty acids and glucose block autophagic flux in β-cells, contributing to their toxic effect. ...
Lerch Thomas Z - - 2011
Combining lipid biomarker profiling with stable isotope probing (SIP) is a powerful technique for studying specific microbial populations responsible for the degradation of organic pollutants in various natural environments. However, the presence of other easily degradable substrates may induce significant physiological changes by altering both the rate of incorporation of ...
Gomes Ligia C - - 2011
Regulated changes in mitochondrial morphology and ultrastructure regulate several cellular processes, including apoptosis and as we recently described autophagy. Elongated mitochondria are spared from autophagic degradation and possess more cristae where activity of the ATP synthase is increased, maintaining ATP levels in periods of nutrient depletion. Ultimately, mitochondrial elongation is ...
Ramos-Roman Maria A - - 2012
This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to ...
Imamura Koji - - 2011
Sialic acid represents a critical sugar component located at the outermost position of glycoconjugates, playing important roles in extensive biological processes. To date, however, there have been only few probes which show affinity to α(2,3)-linked sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates. Agrocybe cylindracea galectin is known to have a relatively high affinity toward ...
Torvinen Mika - - 2011
The noncovalent complexation of three glucosylcalix[4]arenes (1-3) towards 23 mono- and dicarboxylic acid anions were studied by ESI-FTICR mass spectrometry. Competitive complexation, collision-induced dissociation and gas-phase H/D-exchange experiments were performed to obtain information on selectivity of calixarenes towards carboxylates and characteristics of their complexes. The flexibility and number of glucose ...
Gopinath Vipin - - 2011
Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived ...
Nakamura Akira - - 2012
Oral intake of nutrients is often compromised in elderly, multimorbid patients, but parenteral nutrition causes intestinal atrophy and impairs intestinal function. To uncover the molecular mechanisms by which amino acids are involved in intestinal atrophy and recovery, we studied whether the rapamycin-sensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) ...
Meng Junxiu - - 2011
A facile synthesis of a series of saccharide-binding arylboronic acid derivatives of indoloquinoline was described. The key synthetic steps were polyphosphoric acid (PPA) mediated cyclization, chlorinative aromatization, and amidation. Mass spectrometry experiments revealed these synthetic arylboronic acid derivatives of indoquinolines could bind to biologically important carbohydrates (sialic acid, fucose, glucose ...
Jung Jong Gab - - 2011
Elevated fatty acid levels have been thought to contribute to insulin resistance. Repression of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene as well as impaired GLUT4 translocation may be a mediator for fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. This study was initiated to determine whether palmitate treatment repressed GLUT4 expression, whether glucose/fatty acid ...
Shi Jian - - 2011
Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0wt.% at 140, 160, and 180°C and with 1 and 3wt.% sulfur dioxide at 180°C over a range of times. Sulfur dioxide loadings of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%wt.% of dry biomass were also tested at 180°C ...
Heß David - - 2011
Phenylboronic acid esters are formed by the three common 2-deoxy aldoses: 2-deoxy-d-erythro-pentose ('2-deoxy-d-ribose'), 2-deoxy-d-lyxo-hexose ('2-deoxy-d-galactose'), and 2-deoxy-d-arabino-hexose ('2-deoxy-d-glucose'). The major species that was formed from equimolar quantities of boronic acid and the aldose, was the 3,4-monoester of the pentopyranose in a skew-boat conformation, and the 4,6-monoester in the case of ...
Takahiro Tsujita - - 2011
Polyphenolic compounds from chestnut astringent skin (CAS) were purified by dialysis, using Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 columns. During purification, specific α-amylase inhibitory activities were increased about 3.4-fold and the 50% inhibition value was 5.71 μg/mL in the Sephadex LH-20 fraction (SE-fraction). The SE-fraction contained about 67 % of the ...
Cui Yi - - 2011
An oleaginous and psychrotrophic strain (F38-3) of Sporobolomyces roseus Kluyver & van Niel was isolated from a salt marsh environment in Nova Scotia, Canada following a screening program to select for high producers of 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Fatty acid production was characterised as a function of temperature at 20 g glucose L(-1), ...
Chiarla Carlo - - 2011
Little information is available on the patterns of changes and significance of plasma alpha-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA, μmol/L) in various conditions, particularly in sepsis. This study has been performed to assess the patterns of correlation among ABA, other amino acids, and other variables in a group of septic patients with various ...
Verbruggen Sascha C A T - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the effects of insulin infusion and increased parenteral amino acid intakes on whole body protein balance, glucose kinetics, and lipolysis in critically ill, insulin-resistant, septic adolescents. DESIGN:: A single-center, randomized, crossover study. SETTING:: A medicosurgical intensive care unit in a tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS:: Nine critically ill, ...
Zhang Yun-Feng - - 2011
Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera are sibling species with different host-plant ranges. We have previously reported electrophysiological and behavioral responses of H.armigera to sugars and amino acids. Here we describe a parallel study performed on H. assulta and compare the results obtained with the two species. In females, fourteen gustatory ...
Kutkowska J - - 2011
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii TA1 (RtTA1) and its mutant Rt120 in the pssBī€­pssA intergenic region as well as degraded polysaccharides (DPS) derived from the LPS were elucidated in terms of their chemical composition and biological activities. The polysaccharide portions were examined by methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, ...
Kaleta Christoph - - 2011
The question whether fatty acids can be converted into glucose in humans has a long standing tradition in biochemistry, and the expected answer is "No". Using recent advances in Systems Biology in the form of large-scale metabolic reconstructions, we reassessed this question by performing a global investigation of a genome-scale ...
Huang Hongxue - - 2011
A novel glycosyl amino acid hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase was prepared via click chemistry. The key intermediate N(3)-glycosyl d-phenylglycine was prepared by a three steps procedure, including selective condensation of amino glucose with N-succinimidyl ester of Boc-d-phenylglycine, deprotection and transformation of amino group to azido group. The structure ...
Feng Liheng - - 2011
A highly selective and sensitive switch for d-fructose is formed by 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) fluorescent dye and the tetra-boronic acid viologen receptor ToBV. The sensing system can not only recognize d-fructose among seven natural d-monosaccharides but also may distinguish the enantiomer of d/l-fructose. The research rationale and results ...
Kunert Christof - - 2011
Recent investigations led to the discovery of N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)aminopropionic acid as a taste modulator enhancing the typical thick-sour mouthdryness and mouthfulness imparted by stewed beef juice. In the present study, systematic model reactions were targeted towards the generation of a series of N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-α-amino acids by Maillard-type reactions between creatinine and ribose, ...
Jantzer Katharina - - 2011
A method to grow the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii in microtiter plates has been optimized and now allows the parallel generation of very reproducible growth curves. The doubling time in synthetic medium with glucose is around six hours. The method was used to optimize glucose and casamino acids concentrations, to ...
Li Guicun - - 2011
Poly(anilineboronic acid) (PABA) nanofibers with U-shaped and ring-shaped morphologies have been synthesized successfully by chemical polymerization of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and NaF. The morphologies and sizes of PABA nanofibers can be controlled by adjusting the synthetic parameters, such as the concentrations of CTAB ...
Collins Jennifer M - - 2011
The primary products of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are saturated fatty acids, which confer adverse cellular effects. Human adipocytes differentiated with no exogenous fat accumulated triacylglycerol (TG) in lipid droplets and differentiated normally. TG composition showed the products of DNL (saturated fatty acids from 12:0 to 18:0) together with unsaturated ...
Poudyal Hemant - - 2011
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyses the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids. Increased SCD-1 expression and activity has been implicated in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and obesity. Studies with humans, wild-type rodents, knock-out mice and cells in culture show that SCD-1 inhibition decreases ...
Millet Coralie O M - - 2011
The metabolism of Spironucleus vortens, a parasitic, diplomonad flagellate related to Giardia intestinalis, was investigated using a combination of membrane inlet mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, bioscreen continuous growth monitoring, and ion exchange chromatography. The products of glucose-fuelled and endogenous metabolism were identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR ...
Matysik Silke - - 2011
Monitoring bile acids as signal molecules in combination with a bile acid synthesis marker and the FXR regulator fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), this study addresses significant postprandial changes. The efficacy of the different pathways to regulate bile acid synthesis through short heterodimer partner (SHP) dependent FXR modulation in liver, ...
Yang H J - - 2011
Cleavage of plant cell wall arabinoxylans occurs by the action of ferulic acid esterase (FAE) and acetyl esterase (AE), which cleave feruloyl groups substituted at the 5'-OH group of arabinosyl residues and acetyl groups substituted at O-2/O-3 of the xylan backbone, respectively. In this study, we examined the enzyme profiles ...
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