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Fang Shiu-Hui - - 2013
Streptococcus thermophilus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium which is used as the starter organism for the fermentation of yoghurt and some cheese. In the present study, S. thermophilus BCRC 14085 was subjected to cold shock treatment by exposure at 10 °C for 2 h. The effect of cold shock on the susceptibility ...
Chu Shijian - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the regulation of gastric exocrine and endocrine secretion, both basic science and clinical. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid secretion facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications as well as ...
Shukla Sanket Kumar - - 2012
CagL is a pilus protein of Helicobacter pylori that interacts with host cellular α5β1 integrins through its arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif, guiding proper positioning of the T4SS and translocation of CagA. Deletion or sequence variations of cagL significantly diminished the ability of H. pylori to induce secretion of IL-8 by the ...
Tarnawski Andrzej - - 2012
This article updates current views on gastric mucosal defense, injury, protection and ulcer healing with a focus on mucosal protective and ulcer healing actions of antacids.  The gastric mucosa is continuously exposed to a variety of noxious factors, both endogenous such as: 0.1N hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bile acids, lysolecithin, H. ...
Shah Jigna S - - 2012
The present study is designed to explore the mechanism of action of herbal formulation Lucer against experimentally induced gastric ulcers. The aqueous extract (120 and 180 mg/kg) of Lucer was tested against aspirin and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The drug has been found to be very effective in ...
Hwang In Young - - 2012
This study examined the inhibitory effects of 4-guanidinobutyric acid (4GBA), an alkaloid, against gastric lesions by assessing the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gastric cancer cells. Acute and chronic gastritis were also observed using HCl/ethanol (EtOH) and indomethacin-induced gastric lesion models, respectively. 4GBA inhibited the growth of H. ...
Pacheco António - - 2012
In this work we aimed at manipulating the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce lactic acid and search for the potential influence of the acid transport across plasma membrane in this process. S. cerevisiae W303-1A is able to use L-lactic acid but its production in our laboratory conditions has never ...
Somporn Chanyarin - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Environmental conditions, including shading, generally influence the physical and chemical qualities of coffee beans. The present study assessed the changes in some phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and agronomic characters of coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catimor) as affected by different shading conditions including full sun, three artificial shading ...
Negoro Nobuyuki - - 2012
The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)/free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) has emerged as an attractive target for a novel insulin secretagogue with glucose dependency. We previously identified phenylpropanoic acid derivative 1 (3-{4-[(2',6'-dimethylbiphenyl-3-yl)methoxy]-2-fluorophenyl}propanoic acid) as a potent and orally available GPR40/FFA1 agonist; however, 1 exhibited high clearance and low oral ...
Wang Rong - - 2012
Three new γ-butenolide derivatives 1–3, named spiculisporic acids B–D, were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. HDf2, a marine-derived fungus that resides in the sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina. The structures of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including MS and 2D NMR techniques. Their in vitro ...
Huilgol Shobha V - - 2012
Antioxidants are reported to have antiulcer activity. We investigated silymarin, a bioflavonoid antioxidant, for antiulcer potential. Pylorus-ligated Shay rats (n=5) were used as the experimental gastric ulcer animal model. The rats, separated into three groups, were administrated silymarin (50 mg/kg), omeprazole (3.6 mg/kg), or saline (5 ml/kg) per orally daily ...
Kousoulis Antonis A AA History of Medicine Department, Medical School, University of Athens, - - 2012
The stomach's secretion has been a mystery for centuries. Even after the first indications of its function and role appeared, every formulated idea on the nature of the gastric liquid remained open to controversy. After the ancient Greek perceptions which identified acids as bitter-sour liquids, the physicians of the Iatrochemical ...
Horkay F - - 2011
Because the boronic acid moiety reversibly binds to sugar molecules and has low cytotoxicity, boronic acid-containing hydrogels are being used in a variety of implantable glucose sensors under development, including sensors based on optical, fluorescence, and swelling pressure measurements. However, some method of glucose selectivity enhancement is often necessary, because ...
Härtel Tobias - - 2012
The metabolism of Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied by isotopologue profiling after bacterial cultivation in chemically defined medium supplemented with [U-(13)C(6)]- or [1,2-(13)C(2)]glucose. GC/MS analysis of protein-derived amino acids showed lack of (13)C label in amino acids that were also essential for pneumococcal growth. Ala, Ser, Asp, and Thr displayed high ...
Caruso Marisa - - 2011
In this study the characterization of white wines produced from the monovarietal "Greco Bianco" grape variety is presented for the first time. A total of forty commercial wines, from two different Southern Italian regions, Calabria and Campania, from the same grape variety and two different vintages, were investigated. The analyses ...
Yeh Kuei-Ling - - 2011
The growth and lipid productivity of an isolated microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 were investigated under different media and cultivation conditions, including phototrophic growth (NaHCO(3) or CO(2), with light), heterotrophic growth (glucose, without light), photoheterotrophic growth (glucose, with light) and mixotrophic growth (glucose and CO(2), with light). C. vulgaris ESP-31 preferred ...
Yum Kyungsuk - - 2011
We describe the high throughput screening of a library of 30 boronic acid derivatives to form complexes with sodium cholate suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to screen for their ability to reversibly report glucose binding via a change in SWNT fluorescence. The screening identifies 4-cyanophenylboronic acid which uniquely causes a ...
Hohenester Simon - - 2011
Nuclear hormone receptors regulate diverse metabolic pathways and the orphan nuclear receptor LRH-1 (also known as NR5A2) regulates bile acid biosynthesis. Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we show that an unusual phosphatidyl-choline species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty ...
Wang Fang - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves carbohydrate chains of heparan sulfate. We have recently reported that high fatty acid increased the nuclear content of endothelial heparanase. Here, we examined the mechanism and the consequences behind this nuclear translocation of heparanase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bovine coronary artery endothelial cells ...
Yao Lingyun - - 2011
Polysaccharides from cultivated Saussurea involucrata (CSIP) were purified, two major fractions (CSIP1-2 and CSIP2-3) were investigated for their molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions and in vitro antioxidant activities. The results suggested that the molecular weights of CSIP1-2 and CSIP2-3 were approximately 163.5kDa and 88.6kDa, respectively. CSIP1-2 was composed of glucose, galactose, ...
Fraga Carolina Miguel - - 2011
Human cysticercosis by Taenia crassiceps is rare although it is considered of zoonotic risk, especially to immunocompromised individuals. Albendazole and praziquantel are widely used and effective in its treatment. Their active forms inhibit the glucose uptake by the parasite and induce muscle contractions that alter its glycogen levels interfering in ...
Dincer Cuneyt - - 2011
The effects of baking and boiling on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of three sweet potato cultivars (Beniazuma, Koganesengan, Kotobuki) cultivated in Turkey were investigated. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition, total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, antiradical activity, and free sugars. The dry matter, protein, and starch contents ...
Stohs Sidney J - - 2011
Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used for many years in folk medicine to treat diabetes, with the first published research study being reported in 1940. This review summarizes the current literature regarding banaba and its constituents. The hypoglycemic effects of banaba have been attributed to both corosolic acid ...
Karnani Mahesh M - - 2011
Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (orx/hcrt) neurons regulate energy balance, wakefulness, and reward; their loss produces narcolepsy and weight gain. Glucose can lower the activity of orx/hcrt cells, but whether other dietary macronutrients have similar effects is unclear. We show that orx/hcrt cells are stimulated by nutritionally relevant mixtures of amino acids (AAs), ...
Broach Bryan B Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC), University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, - - 2012
The food borne pathogen Bacillus cereus produces uronic acid-containing glycans that are secreted in a shielding biofilm environment, and certain alkaliphilic Bacillus deposit uronate-glycan polymers in the cell wall when adapting to alkaline environments. The source of these acidic sugars is unknown and, in the present study, we describe the ...
Houze Jonathan B - - 2011
The discovery that certain long chain fatty acids potentiate glucose stimulated insulin secretion through the previously orphan receptor GPR40 sparked interest in GPR40 agonists as potential antidiabetic agents. Optimization of a series of β-substituted phenylpropanoic acids led to the identification of (S)-3-(4-((4'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-3-yl)methoxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoic acid (AMG 837) as a potent GPR40 agonist ...
Kogure Ryouta - - 2011
GPR119 is one of the G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in pancreatic β-cells and intestinal endocrine cells. Since agonists to GPR119 stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, GPR119 agonists are anticipated to promote anti-diabetic effects and control of glucose homeostasis. Here, we reported that an omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid metabolite, 5-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE), was ...
Kotagale N R - - 2011
A floating type of dosage form of ranitidine hydrochloride in the form of microspheres capable of floating on simulated gastric fluid was prepared by solvent evaporation technique. Microspheres prepared with ethyl cellulose, Eudragit(®) RS100 alone or in combination were evaluated for percent yield, drug entrapment, percent buoyancy and drug release ...
Malapaka Raghu R V - - 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty ...
Kazmi Imran - - 2012
A new stearoyl glucoside of ursolic acid, urs-12-en-3β-ol-28-oic acid 3β-D-glucopyranosyl-4'-octadecanoate and other compounds were isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara L. The structure of this new glycoside was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats it showed significant reduction in blood glucose level.
Chaleek N - - 2011
Background  Orexin-A is a novel peptide that appears to play a role in regulation of gastric acid secretion. However, little is known about sites of its action. In addition, evidences suggest that some of orexin-A neurons respond to glucose. In this study, we address the hypothesis which demonstrates that orexin-A ...
Xiao Jianbo - - 2011
An acidic polysaccharide conjugate from the tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) beyond the useful date was isolated and characterized. The crude polysaccharides (TPS) were extracted with hot water and separated on a DEAE sepharose FF gel filtration column to obtain ATPS2. The chemical structure of ATPS2 was investigated by GC, IC, ...
Li Tiangang T Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio, OH 44272, - - 2012
Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndromes are increasingly recognized as health concerns worldwide. Overnutrition and insulin resistance are the major causes of diabetic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in humans. Studies in the past decade provide evidence that bile acids are not just biological detergents facilitating gut nutrient absorption, but also important metabolic ...
Okutucu Burcu - - 2011
Molecularly imprinted polymers were the new, simple and unexpensive materials that can be used in several clinical applications. Phenylboronic acid has been frequently used as functional monomer for the covalent imprinting of diols. In this study, the phenylboronic acid esters of fructose, galactose, glucose and raffinose were synthesized and then ...
Goodger Jason Q D - - 2011
The glycosylation of lipophilic small molecules produces many important plant secondary metabolites. The majority of these are O-glycosides with relatively fewer occurring as glucose esters of aromatic or aliphatic acids. In particular, monoterpene acid glucose esters have much lower structural diversity and distribution compared to monoterpene glycosides. Nevertheless, there have ...
Li Linlin - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Dysregulation of Akt has been implicated in diseases such as cancer and diabetes, although little is known about the role of Akt deficiency on cardiomyocyte contractile function. This study was designed to examine the effect of Akt2 knockout-induced cardiomyocyte contractile response and the effect of dietary supplementation ...
Xiao Jianbo - - 2011
The chemical compositions and bioactivities of crude tea polysaccharides (TPS) from the out-of-date tea leaves (beyond their useful date), namely Xihu Longjing (XTPS), Anxi Tieguanyin (TTPS), Chawentianxia (CTPS) and Huizhoulvcha (HTPS), in market were investigated. These TPS showed similar neutral sugar content and different distribution of molecular weight (1-800 kD). ...
Kale Sangram S - - 2011
This communication describes a general synthetic route to bicyclic amino acid-carbohydrate-conjugates, which would be useful as conformationally restricted hydroxyethylamine (HEA) transition-state isosteres. The synthesis was achieved in 12 steps starting from d-glucose. The striking features of this system are the bicyclic rigid core displaying an α-amino acid side chain and ...
Jeong Tae Su - - 2011
Two-stage acid hydrolysis was conducted on easy reacting cellulose and resistant reacting cellulose of fractionated Gelidium amansii (f-GA). Acid hydrolysis of f-GA was performed at between 170 and 200°C for a period of 0-5min, and an acid concentration of 2-5% (w/v, H(2)SO(4)) to determine the optimal conditions for acid hydrolysis. ...
Maclean Leann L - - 2011
Cronobacter turicensis, previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is a Gram-negative opportunistic food-borne pathogen that has been reported as a cause of life-threatening neonatal infections. From chemical and physical analyses involving composition analysis, methylation, two-dimensional high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry methods, the antigenic O-polysaccharide in the smooth-type lipopolysaccharide of ...
Jung I S - - 2011
A fish farm sludge high in P (2-6% w/w as dry matter), Fe (5-7%), C (40-50%) and N (0.8-4%) was subjected to a series of acid leaching treatments using HCl, organic acids, and biologically mediated acid production. Additions of biodegradable organic acid solubilized heavy metals better than HCl, while additions ...
Lanaspa Miguel A - - 2011
Excessive fructose consumption is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Both conditions are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases. Uric acid synthesis is linked biochemically to fructose metabolism, thus the widespread consumption of this monosaccharide has been related to steady increasing levels of ...
Poudyal Hemant - - 2011
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyses the conversion of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids. Increased SCD-1 expression and activity has been implicated in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and obesity. Studies with humans, wild-type rodents, knock-out mice and cells in culture show that SCD-1 inhibition decreases ...
De Marchi Sergio - - 2012
To examine the effects of oral glucose load on forearm circulatory regulation before and after ascorbic acid administration in healthy subjects. Microcirculation study with laser Doppler was performed at the hand in basal conditions, after ischemia and after acetylcholine and nitroprusside; strain gauge plethysmography was performed at basal and after ...
Prabhakar Pranav Kumar - - 2011
Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are naturally occurring substances found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary phenolic compounds. The effect of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, eugenol, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, alone and in combination with two commercial oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHD), namely, thiazolidinedione (THZ) and ...
Las Guy - - 2011
Recent studies have shown that autophagy is essential for proper β-cell function and survival. However, it is yet unclear under what pathogenic conditions autophagy is inhibited in β-cells. Here, we report that long term exposure to fatty acids and glucose block autophagic flux in β-cells, contributing to their toxic effect. ...
Lerch Thomas Z - - 2011
Combining lipid biomarker profiling with stable isotope probing (SIP) is a powerful technique for studying specific microbial populations responsible for the degradation of organic pollutants in various natural environments. However, the presence of other easily degradable substrates may induce significant physiological changes by altering both the rate of incorporation of ...
Gomes Ligia C - - 2011
Regulated changes in mitochondrial morphology and ultrastructure regulate several cellular processes, including apoptosis and as we recently described autophagy. Elongated mitochondria are spared from autophagic degradation and possess more cristae where activity of the ATP synthase is increased, maintaining ATP levels in periods of nutrient depletion. Ultimately, mitochondrial elongation is ...
Ramos-Roman Maria A MA Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8857, - - 2012
This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to ...
Imamura Koji - - 2011
Sialic acid represents a critical sugar component located at the outermost position of glycoconjugates, playing important roles in extensive biological processes. To date, however, there have been only few probes which show affinity to α(2,3)-linked sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates. Agrocybe cylindracea galectin is known to have a relatively high affinity toward ...
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