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Burnham M R - - 2001
The effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) and incubator relative humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on yolk sac weight and composition in broiler hatching eggs between 16 and 19 d of incubation were evaluated. Percentage yolk sac weight was reduced in eggs from the youngest ...
Brown J M - - 2001
We have previously shown that both a commercially available mixture of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and the trans-10, cis-12 isomer of CLA reduced the triglyceride (TG) content and induced apoptosis in differentiating cultures of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, the influence of CLA isomers on differentiating human (pre)adipocytes is unknown. ...
Cunnane S C - - 2001
New methods and analytical approaches are important to challenge and/or validate established beliefs in any field including the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; polyunsaturates). Four methods that have recently been applied toward obtaining a better understanding of the homeostasis of PUFA include the following: whole-body fatty acid balance analysis, ...
Hunter K A - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of stearic acid-, oleic acid- and linoleic acid-rich meals on postprandial haemostasis in young healthy volunteers whose background diets had been controlled for 14 d in a residential study. Six healthy male volunteers were assigned randomly to consume diets ...
Zambell K L - - 2001
Recent studies with mouse adipocytes have shown that dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may reduce body fat by increasing lipolysis. The present study examined the effect of CLA supplementation on fatty acid and glycerol kinetics in six healthy, adult women who were participating in a controlled metabolic ward study. These ...
Ramsay T G - - 2001
The dietary dose responsiveness of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) addition relative to the fatty acid profile of edible lean tissue was examined in grower pigs treated with or without porcine somatotropin (pST). Gilts and barrows were fed CLA at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% of diet by weight from ...
Nuñez A - - 2001
Lipoxygenase (LOX) is an enzyme that oxygenates polyunsaturated fatty acids to their corresponding hydroperoxy derivatives. For example, LOX found in plants produce the corresponding 13- and 9-hydroperoxide derivatives of linoleic acid (13-HPOD and 9-HPOD). Identification of the HPOD products is usually accomplished by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric (MS) ...
Smedman A - - 2001
Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces a number of physiological effects in experimental animals, including reduced body fat content, decreased aortic lipid deposition, and improved serum lipid profile. Controlled trials on the effects of CLA in humans have hitherto been scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...
Rainio A - - 2001
A method for the production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from linoleic acid (LA) using growing cultures of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS was developed. The growth inhibitory effect of LA was eliminated by dispersing it in a sufficient concentration of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate detergent. For the whey permeate medium ...
Kelly G S - - 2001
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of the omega-6 essential fatty acid linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12, octadecadienoic acid). In humans evidence is currently ambiguous as to whether CLA supplementation has a significant effect on body composition. Despite favorable changes in lipid levels in ...
Févrie P - - 2001
Separation of triglyceride and diglyceride positional isomers by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector is described. The triglyceride isomers had a fatty acid composition of CLC and CCL, where C and L were caprylic acid and linoleic acid, respectively. Diglyceride isomers, 1,2(2,3)-diglyceride and 1,3-diglyceride, which ...
Pariza M W - - 2001
Numerous physiological effects are attributed to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The purpose of this presentation is to consider these effects with respect to the cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers. We review previously published data and present new findings that relate to underlying biochemical mechanisms of action. Both isomers are natural ...
Harris M A - - 2001
Long chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids play important roles in labor and delivery. These effects may be mediated by prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and by regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), both of which play roles in uterine contraction, cervical ripening and rupture of fetal membranes. The effects of altering dietary ...
Banni S - - 2001
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known to provide certain health benefits in experimental animal models. The major CLA isomer in food is c 9,t11-CLA. A primary objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of c 9,t11-CLA and its downstream metabolites into various lipid fractions in the liver of ...
Maccarrone M - - 2001
Lipoxygenases are key enzymes in the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids. Soybean lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1), a paradigm for lipoxygenases isolated from different sources, is composed of two domains: a approximately 30 kDa N-terminal domain and a approximately 60 kDa C-terminal domain. We used limited proteolysis and gel-filtration chromatography to generate and ...
Sébédio J L - - 2001
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term that describes different isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds. Although the main dietary isomer is 9cis,11trans-18:2, which is present in dairy products and ruminant fat, the biological effects of CLA generally have been studied using mixtures in which the 9cis,11trans- ...
Morris A - - 2001
We investigated in a clinical setting whether increased intake of linoleic acid alters respiratory function in 26 mild asthmatics. Subjects completed a 16-week-dietary intervention comprising 8 weeks eating an enriched n-6 polyunsaturated fat diet (9.2% energy from linoleic acid) and consuming either a high monounsaturated or saturated fat diet in ...
Bretillon L - - 2001
Human lipid intake contains various amounts of trans fatty acids. Refined vegetable and frying oils, rich in linoleic acid and/or alpha-linolenic acid, are the main dietary sources of trans-18:2 and trans-18:3 fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to compare the oxidation of linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and ...
Jung M O - - 2001
The effects of hydrogen temperature and agitation rate on the formation of total conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and CLA isomers were studied during hydrogenation with a selective Ni catalyst. The CLA isomers were identified by using a 100-m cyano-capillary column gas chromatograph and a silver ion-impregnated HPLC. Reaction temperature and ...
Lawson R E - - 2001
Health benefits for man have been associated with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and dairy products are highlighted as offering the best opportunity to increase CLA consumption. CLA is synthesised in the rumen as an intermediate in the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid to stearic acid. The supplies of both intermediates and ...
Behrouzian B - - 2001
The hypothesis that the Delta9 desaturase of Chlorella vulgaris might operate by a synchronous mechanism has been tested using a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) approach. Thus the intermolecular primary deuterium KIE on the individual C-H bond cleavage steps involved in Delta9 desaturation have been determined by incubating growing cultures of ...
Waddington E - - 2001
Oxidation of lipoproteins, particularly low-density lipoprotein, is thought to play a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. We set out to identify and quantitate the major fatty acid oxidation products in human atherosclerotic plaque obtained from individuals undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Oxidized lipids were extracted from plaque homogenate under conditions ...
Cox J E - - 2001
We investigated the role of the celiac branch of the vagus nerve in suppression of food intake produced by jejunal fatty acids infusions. Following selective celiac vagotomy or sham surgery, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received 7 h infusions of linoleic acid or saline through indwelling jejunal catheters on four consecutive ...
Gardner H W - - 2001
Seed from maize (corn) Zea mays provides a ready source of 9-lipoxygenase that oxidizes linoleic acid and linolenic acid into 9(S)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid and 9(S)-hydroperoxy-10(E),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic acid, respectively. Corn seed has a very active hydroperoxide-decomposing enzyme, allene oxide synthase (AOS), which must be removed prior to oxidizing the fatty acid. A simple ...
Moloney A P - - 2001
The perception of healthiness and/or safety, tenderness, juiciness and aroma or flavour are important quality criteria that influence the decision of a consumer to purchase beef. Beef production systems represent the combined and interacting effects of genotype, gender, age at slaughter and nutrition before slaughter. The present paper highlights recent ...
Clouet P - - 2001
Rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11-C(18:2)) represents approx. 80% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products. CLA has been shown to exert beneficial effects on health, but little work has been devoted to the ability to oxidize CLA isomers and the role of these isomers in the modulation of beta-oxidation flux. ...
Rahman S M - - 2001
We investigated the efficacy of a 4-wk supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as free fatty acid (FFA) or triacylglycerol (TG) on serum leptin concentration, body-fat accumulation, and mitochondrial beta-oxidation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. A significant reduction of serum leptin concentration (42%) and a decrease in the ...
Moran J H - - 2001
P450 epoxidation of linoleic acid has been associated with many pathological conditions that often lead to acute renal failure. However, there is only suggestive evidence that linoleic acid monoepoxides and/or linoleic diols directly induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Using isolated rabbit renal cortical mitochondria (RCM), we found that linoleic acid (50 microM) ...
Fuller M A - - 2001
In soybean (Glycine max L.) vegetative tissue at least five lipoxygenase isozymes are present. Four of these proteins have been localized to the paraveinal mesophyll, a layer of cells that is thought to function in assimilate partitioning. In order to determine the role of the lipoxygenase isozymes within the soybean ...
Moran J H - - 2001
Linoleic acid monoepoxides have been correlated with many pathological conditions. Studies using insect cells derived from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-21 cells) have suggested that conversion of the epoxides to the diols is required for toxicity. However, more recent studies using rabbit renal proximal tubules have suggested that linoleic acid monoepoxides are ...
Marmunti M - - 2001
The incorporation of 1-(14)C linoleic acid in several chromatin fractions of rat liver nuclei was investigated using two different procedures: (1) rat liver nuclei were incubated with ATP, CoASH, Mg(++) and 1-(14)C linoleic acid. After 40 min at 37 degrees C the chromatin obtained by sonication of nuclei suspended in ...
Kelder B - - 2001
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are important components of cellular structure and function. Most of LC-PUFA are derived from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. In plants and fungi, these two acids can be synthesized from oleic acid via the action of two enzymes, delta12 and delta15-desaturases. Due to lack of ...
Park Y - - 2001
Four different methods for methylating conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were compared. The HCl/MeOH and BF(3)/MeOH methods were tested under different time and temperature combinations. Increasing temperature and/or incubation time for either method decreased the cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers, but trans-9,trans-11/trans-10,trans-12 isomers and artifacts (allylic methoxide) were increased. In addition, the ...
Bhattacharya A - - 2001
Ketotifen fumarate is effective in low doses in the treatment of bronchial asthma particularly of allergic origin. However, it is substantially metabolized in the liver when administered orally. Hence transdermal patches of combination of ethylcellulose/polyvinylpyrrolidone and Eudragits RS 100/RL 100 were prepared and their drug release kinetics and skin permeation ...
Lin Y - - 2001
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are the positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. In the present study the effects of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA ) on intracellular and heparin-releasable (HR-) lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. Cells were exposed to ...
Duran M J - - 2001
Fatty acids are known as modulators of the vasoactive properties of the vessel wall and can influence the physical and functional properties of cell membrane. The membrane-bound enzyme Na,K-ATPase plays a central role in endothelial function such as vasoconstriction. In a previous study, we have shown that omega3 fatty acids ...
Ogawa J - - 2001
Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. ...
Tijet N - - 2001
A novel member of the plant cytochrome P450 CYP74 family of fatty acid hydroperoxide metabolizing enzymes has been cloned from melon fruit (Cucumis melo). The cDNA is comprised of 1,446 nucleotides encoding a protein of 481 amino acids. The homology at the amino acid level to other members of the ...
Chuang L T - - 2001
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2), a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), has been shown to modulate immune function through its effect on eicosanoid synthesis. This effect has been attributed to a reduced production of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the precursor of eicosanoids. Since ...
Khosla P - - 2001
Conjugated linoleic acid is a collective name for mixtures of several positional and geometric conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, which have been shown to impact favorably on several biological processes, particularly carcinogenesis. Recent studies have clearly established that the c9, t11 and t10, c12 isomers have distinct biological effects. ...
Ghafoorunissa S A.I. - - 2001
The effect of dietary hydrogenated fat (Indian vanaspati) high in trans fatty acids (6 en%) on lipid composition, fluidity and function of rat intestinal brush border membrane was studied at 2 and 8 en% of linoleic acid. Three groups of weanling rats were fed rice-pulse based diet containing 10% fat ...
Du M - - 2001
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid oxidation, volatile profiles, and sensory characteristics of irradiated cooked chicken meat. Forty-eight 27-wk-old White Leghorn hens were fed a diet containing 0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0% CLA. After 12 wk of feeding ...
Sztefko K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The involvement of lipolytic enzymes and liberated fatty acids in ethiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) has been implicated. AIM: To analyze the level of FFA in the patients with AP in relation to severity of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 36 patients with acute edematous AP ...
Phoon M C - - 2001
The effects of varying concentrations of linoleic acid and its transisomer linolelaidic acid on the proliferation the ultrastructural morphology of MOLT-4 T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cells were investigated. At 2 and 4 days after exposure to the fatty acids, the cells were counted by flow cytometry and observed by electron microscopy. After ...
Ip C - - 2001
Past research showed that mammary gland morphogenesis in the pubescent rat was retarded by the feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). A major objective of the present study was to examine the proliferative activity and the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in the developing mammary epithelium of rats fed ...
Banni S - - 2001
The objective of this report was to determine whether vaccenic acid (t11-18:1) is converted efficiently to conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-18:2, CLA) in rats via the delta 9-desaturase reaction and, if so, whether vaccenic acid could substitute for CLA as an anticancer agent. In Study 1, rats were fed 1%, 2%, ...
Soppela P - - 2001
We studied the effects of wintertime undernutrition on the fatty acid composition of bone marrow triacylglycerols (TAGs) of legs in freely-ranging reindeer calves (<1 year) and adult hinds by comparing reindeer in poor condition slaughtered in February with reindeer in good condition slaughtered in October. Significant reductions were found in ...
Fitch C D - - 2000
Unesterified fatty acids were measured in mouse erythrocytes infected either with chloroquine-susceptible (CS) or with chloroquine-resistant (CR) lines of Plasmodium berghei. This work was undertaken to identify candidates for the lipid involved in ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP) polymerization. Linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In ...
Minich D M - - 2000
We investigated in bile duct-ligated (BDL) and sham-operated control rats whether the frequent presence of essential fatty acid deficiency in cholestatic liver disease could be related to linoleic acid malabsorption, altered linoleic acid metabolism, or both. In plasma of BDL rats, the triene-to-tetraene ratio, a biochemical marker for essential fatty ...
Bee G - - 2000
We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance, tissue fatty acid composition and ex vivo lipogenic enzyme activity in piglets (n = 40) reared on sows fed diets supplemented with CLA or linoleic acid (LA). Weaned offspring of both sow groups were offered either a CLA- ...
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