Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1166
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Lin Jules - - 2004
The L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) has been associated with tumor growth. Using cDNA microarrays, overexpression of LAT-1 was found in 87.5% (7/8) of esophageal adenocarcinomas relative to 12 Barrett's samples (33% metaplasia and 66% dysplasia) and was confirmed in 100% (28/28) of Barrett's adenocarcinomas by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase ...
Koek G H GH Centre for Gastroenterological Research, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, KU Leuven, - - 2004
Studies combining pH and Bilitec monitoring found a high prevalence of both acid and duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux in severe reflux disease. Clearance of refluxed material is a major defence mechanism against reflux. Several studies have been devoted to oesophageal acid clearance but oesophageal clearance of refluxed duodenal contents (DC) has rarely ...
Meyers C Daniel - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acid is an effective treatment for dyslipidemia, but the content of over-the-counter niacin is not federally regulated. As a result, patients may use preparations of over-the-counter niacin that do not contain free nicotinic acid. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the types, costs, and free nicotinic acid content of over-the-counter niacin ...
Dekel R - - 2003
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have revolutionized the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, nearly 30% of all GERD patients are still symptomatic despite standard dose PPI treatment. Consequently, better treatment options are needed particularly in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), which provides the largest number of patients that fail PPI. ...
Kahrilas Peter J - - 2003
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a specific clinical entity defined by the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux through the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) into the esophagus or oropharynx to cause symptoms, injury to esophageal tissue, or both. The pathophysiology of GERD is complex and not completely understood. An abnormal LES pressure ...
Gardner J D - - 2003
The reason why heartburn in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease subjects without oesophagitis is less responsive to proton pump inhibitors than heartburn in those with erosive oesophagitis is not known. Gastric and oesophageal pH were determined in 26 subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease at baseline and on days 1, 2 and 8 ...
Khan Ghulam Jillani - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Most of the methods of tobacco use are linked to the mouth, where the taste receptors, a primary site for stimulation of salivary secretion, are constantly exposed to tobacco. The main purpose of this study was to observe the effects of long-term use of tobacco on taste receptors and ...
D'Eufemia P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids, as precursors of eicosanoids, are involved in the pathogenesis of oesophageal mucosal damage and healing. AIMS: To evaluate a possible role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux, we assayed fatty acids profile of oesophageal mucosal specimens obtained by endoscopy in children without ...
Murray Michael F MF Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115-6110, USA. - - 2003
HIV-1-infected patients have low circulating tryptophan concentrations despite evidence of adequate dietary intake of this essential amino acid. A chronic increase in inducible tryptophan oxidation is the basis of HIV-1-associated tryptophan depletion. This metabolic process results in the irretrievable loss of tryptophan molecules from the available pool. Such sustained disruption ...
Kern Mark - - 2004
Although symptoms arising from the esophagus such as heartburn and pain can at times become challenging clinical problems, esophageal viscerosensation, especially with regard to chemical stimulation in humans, is incompletely understood. Our aims were 1) to characterize and ascertain the reproducibility of cerebral cortical registration of heartburn and 2) to ...
Wakelin Donald E - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A significant correlation between the duration and height of esophageal acid exposure and the length of Barrett's mucosa has been demonstrated. The aims of this study were to determine if there is a correlation between hiatal hernia length and Barrett's esophagus length, and to develop a predictive model for ...
Wahlberg Jan E - - 2003
Irritant contact dermatitis is defined as a non-immunological skin reaction following exposure to various chemical, mechanical and physical factors. It is known that the skin response to irritants depends on the irritant applied and differs between chemically different irritants. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is an anionic detergent and the most ...
Lim Dong Koo - - 2003
Cultured cerebellar astrocytes were exposed to nicotine with or without dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP) for 2 to 10 days in situ in order to determine the effects of nicotine exposure on glutamate uptake in differently conditioned astrocytes. After acute nicotine exposure, glutamate uptake was lower and higher in the naive and ...
van Herk T - - 2003
Nicotinic acid as a hypolipidemic agent appears unique due to its potential to increase HDL cholesterol levels to a greater extent than other drugs. However, it has some side effects, among which severe skin flushing is the most frequent and often limits patients' compliance. In a search for novel agonists ...
Tutuian Radu - - 2003
Recent studies in adults and children suggest that combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH measurement (MII-pH) has the potential to become the new "gold standard" for gastroesophageal reflux testing. In combined MII-pH, reflux is detected by changes in resistance to alternating current induced by the presence of intraluminal materials with ...
Belafsky Peter C - - 2003
The symptom complex associated with acid-induced injury to the larynx is referred to as laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Basing the diagnosis of LPR on patient symptoms or 24-hour dual-probe pH data may be inaccurate, as these diagnostic tests are restricted by limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. The clinician must have ...
Bardan Eytan - - 2003
Pharyngeal acid reflux events may be significant in the pathogenesis of various supraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Intragroup variation and an extensive overlap among subject groups and normal controls make proximal esophageal 24-hour pH monitoring studies unreliable for the diagnosis of pharyngeal reflux. However, the clinical value of pharyngeal ...
Rogers Sherry A - - 2003
Mycotoxins--toxic substances produced by fungi or molds--are ubiquitous in the environment and are capable of damaging multiple biochemical mechanisms, resulting in a variety of human symptoms referred to collectively as "mycotoxicosis." In fact, mycotoxins mimic multiple xenobiotics, not only with respect to their ultimate damage, but also in their routes ...
Graham David Y - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Issues have arisen regarding H. pylori infection and GERD that have caused unnecessary confusion among practicing physicians. In the last century GERD became increasingly recognized in the West and it has become evident that the prevalence of GERD is now occurring in many previously underdeveloped countries. METHODS: This review ...
Sun Ying - - 2003
AIM: To test the hypothesis that nicotinic receptor mechanisms mediate the effects of bile acids on the colonic mucosa. METHODS: The epithelial transport response to 4 mm deoxycholic acid (DCA) was studied in vitro and in vivo, in rat colon. In vitro, epithelial resistance was measured by square pulse analysis, ...
Fletcher Jonathan - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The stomach contents become hypertonic after a meal and provide esophageal refluxate that is both acidic and hypertonic. This study examined the symptomatic response to esophageal exposure to hypertonic and acidic solutions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: Symptom intensity and character were measured ...
Kim Mun-Kyoung - - 2003
Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NadC; EC 2.4.2.19) is the key enzyme of NAD(+) biosynthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. NadC catalyzes the decarboxylation of quinolinic acid (QA) to produce nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NAMN), an intermediate in NAD synthesis. NadCs of Helicobacter pylori appeared to be a hexamer during the purification procedure. ...
Orr W C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It has been presumed that nocturnal acid breakthrough may pose a risk for the development of nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux. AIM: To investigate the occurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux and acid breakthrough during polygraphically monitored sleep under conditions of powerful acid suppression with omeprazole 20 mg b.d. and an additional dose ...
Hsu Cheng-Hsuan - - 2003
PURPOSE: It has been suggested that fluorocarbon liquid may be a unique vehicle for the delivery of drugs directly to the acutely injured lung. A prodrug approach was used as a means of enhancing the solubility of a model drug (nicotinic acid) in the fluorocarbon. The solubility, the chemical stability ...
Spirn Marc J - - 2003
PURPOSE: To report optical coherence tomography findings in nicotinic acid maculopathy. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHOD: The patient was examined with ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: A 71-year-old man presented with bilateral decreased visual acuity with metamorphopsia. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated cystoid spaces in the outer plexiform ...
Kurup Ravi Kumar - - 2003
The isoprenoid pathway produces endogenous digoxin which can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in individuals with differing family bonding patterns. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism (increased ...
Simrén M - - 2003
Oesophageal clearance of acid reflux consists of an initial volume clearance followed by neutralisation of the acidified mucosa by swallowed saliva (chemical clearance). Ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM), a frequent finding in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), has been claimed to underlie prolonged acid clearance by affecting oesophageal emptying and ...
Bieganowski Pawel P Structural Biology and Bioinformatics Program, Kimmel Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, - - 2003
Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthetases catalyze the last step in NAD+ metabolism in the de novo, import, and salvage pathways that originate from tryptophan (or aspartic acid), nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide, respectively, and converge on nicotinic acid mononucleotide. NAD+ synthetase converts nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide to NAD+ via an adenylylated intermediate. ...
Onuki Mayumi - - 2003
To assess dermal absorption of nicotine from tobacco leaves in relation to Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS), urinary cotinine concentrations were measured in 80 male tobacco-growing farmers and in 40 healthy males (controls) who did not handle wet tobacco leaves in Kelantan, Malaysia. Among non-smokers, urinary cotinine levels in farmers were ...
Gardner J D - - 2003
In subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease treated with a gastric antisecretory agent, the extent to which gastric acidity needs to be reduced to prevent pathological oesophageal acid exposure is not known. Gastric and oesophageal pH were measured in 26 healthy subjects and in 59 subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. In ...
Soga Takatoshi - - 2003
Nicotinic acid and its derivative, Acipimox, have been widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that they exert the beneficial effect through the activation of a Gi-protein-coupled receptor on adipocyte, which has remained elusive to date. Here we show that a novel GPCR, designated HM74b because ...
Tunaru Sorin - - 2003
Nicotinic acid (niacin), a vitamin of the B complex, has been used for almost 50 years as a lipid-lowering drug. The pharmacological effect of nicotinic acid requires doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Its primary action is to decrease lipolysis in adipose tissue by ...
Endo Shunsuke - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To clarify the effects of partial liquid ventilation, we visualized and morphologically analyzed real-time alveolar recruitment in a model of acute lung injury. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: a group that underwent hydrochloric acid aspiration and mechanical gas ventilation (ALI group, n = 15), a ...
Xin Ying - - 2003
AIM: To investigate the effect of famotidine on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux (DGER) and to explore it's possible mechanisms. To identify the relevant factors of the reflux. METHODS: Nineteen critically ill patients were consecutively enrolled in the study. Dynamic 24 hours monitoring of GER and DGER before and ...
Winters George R GR - - 2003
Schatzki's rings (SR) are a common cause of intermittent solid food dysphagia, but their etiology is unclear. Many believe they are related to acid reflux, hypothesizing that the rings act as a protective barrier against further reflux. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dilation of SR affected ...
Tabar-Purroy Ana I - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma (OA) caused by carmine (E-120) has been reported. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the prevalence of sensitization and OA at a natural dye processing factory in which 2 workers had been given a diagnosis of carmine-induced OA 6 years previously. METHODS: The 24 current employees and one ...
Yeh R W - - 2003
Barrett's esophagus is a metaplastic condition associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease and an increased risk for adenocarcinoma. Acid plays a significant role in the development and progression of Barrett's esophagus and high dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is often needed. The aim of this study is to assess the ...
Suzuki Masayuki - - 2003
Alpha-ketol linolenic acid [KODA, 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid, that is 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12(Z),15(Z)-octadecadienoic acid] is a signal compound found in Lemna paucicostata after exposure to stress, such as drought, heat or osmotic stress. KODA reacts with catecholamines to generate products that strongly induce flowering, although KODA itself is inactive [Yokoyama et al. (2000) Plant ...
Presits Peter - - 2003
A HPLC method was developed for the quantitation of tryptophan and its metabolites, in total sixteen compounds, belonging both to the indolyl and kynurenine pathways. Primary amino group containing metabolites have been quantitated as their o-phthaldialdehyde/3-mercaptopropionic acid derivatives (5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tryptamine), others without derivatization (quinolinic-, nicotinic-, antranilic-, xanthurenic-, kynurenic, ...
Tack J - - 2003
Recently, we developed a disposable acid exposure sensor whose in vitro response to acid below pH 4 is linearly determined by the duration of exposure and the degree of acidity. The aim of the present study was to compare the SR to simultaneous esophageal pH and duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) monitoring ...
Filip Cristiana - - 2003
We have studied a macromolecular prodrug that contains nicotinic acid bound on a polymeric support of dextran. We have determined plasmatic levels of nicotinic acid, by a HPLC method, after macromolecular conjugate administration for a 24 hours period. In order to study the hypolipidemic effect, triglyceride levels were determined and ...
Vela M F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Omeprazole controls acid but not non-acid reflux. The GABA B agonist baclofen decreases acid reflux through the inhibition of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) and should similarly decrease non-acid reflux. Using combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII/pH), we compared acid and non-acid reflux after placebo and baclofen. ...
Zentilin P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Depending on the length of the segment of columnar epithelium in the distal oesophagus, Barrett's oesophagus can be divided into long-segment and short-segment Barrett's oesophagus. This article describes the pathophysiological characteristics of both forms of Barrett's oesophagus. METHODS: Review of the literature. RESULTS: Although there is some disagreement, ours ...
PtasiƄska Sylwia - - 2003
The effect of laser exposure (the number of laser shots) on the stability of production of matrix (gentisic acid, sinapinic acid, nicotinic acid and benzoic acid) and biomolecule (insulin and cytochrome-c) ions is presented. Two methods of sample preparation, dried-droplet and pressure, were examined. In the case of pressure preparation, ...
Shibata Katsumi - - 2003
There is the report that the deaths by pellagra in women is approximately twofold excess that in men. In the present experiment, in order to clarify a factor in the etiology of pellagra in female and to get basic information how much niacin should be supplemented in pregnant state, we ...
Frazzoni M - - 2003
: Effective intra-oesophageal acid suppression is an important therapeutic goal in complicated and atypical gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. : To compare the efficacy of lansoprazole and pantoprazole in normalizing oesophageal acid exposure. : Fifty patients with complicated or atypical gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg lansoprazole (n ...
Ghorayeb I - - 2002
We conducted a new chronic sequential 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) intoxication paradigm in two female monkeys in order to reproduce the striatonigral degeneration type of levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism. A comparison was made with MPTP-, 3NP-intoxicated and control monkeys. A levodopa-responsive parkinsonism emerged in all MPTP-treated monkeys. During subsequent 3NP ...
Orlando Roy C - - 2002
The pathophysiology of GERD involves contact of the esophageal epithelium with acid/pepsin in the refluxate. For this contact to occur with sufficient duration, there must be a combination of defects in antireflux and luminal clearance mechanisms for acid/pepsin to overwhelm an intact epithelium, or defects within the epithelium develop that ...
Jones M P - - 2002
Oesophagitis severity is related to total oesophageal acid exposure, which is in turn dependent upon both the number reflux events and the rate of refluxate clearance. This study examined differences in the frequency of reflux events and the characteristics of oesophageal acid exposure in asymptomatic controls and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease ...
Steinbach Joseph - - 2002
Arguments proposed in this article may explain why a subgroup of patients, having so-called "functional heartburn," does not respond to acid inhibition therapy [19,20]. It is highly likely that acid is not the cause of heartburn in this group of subjects. These conclusions are supported further by observations of Wiener ...
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