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Results 351 - 400 of 1166
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Allegri Graziella - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The activity of nicotinic acid in hypercholesterolemia has been poorly understood. In man, nicotinic acid derives for the most part from tryptophan along the tryptophan-nicotinic acid pathway, also called the kynurenine pathway, kynurenine being the key metabolite in this process. In the present paper, we investigated if, in animals ...
Kinoshita Y - - 2004
Management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is aimed at reducing oesophageal acid exposure to achieve symptom relief. Therapy has traditionally included advice to the patient on diet and lifestyle management. Recent evidence suggests, however, that some specific dietary modifications may be applicable to the Japanese patient. For example, ingestion of ...
Castell D O - - 2004
The pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is multifactorial, involving transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) as well as other lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure abnormalities. GERD is associated with a decrease in LES pressure, which can be provoked by factors such as foods (fat, chocolate, etc.), alcohol, smoking and ...
Fass R - - 2004
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been associated with a variety of supra-oesophageal symptoms, including asthma, laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic cough, frequent throat clearing and globus pharyngeus. GERD may be overlooked as the underlying mechanism for these symptoms because typical GERD symptoms may be absent, despite abnormal oesophageal acid exposure. Two basic ...
Kumar D Krishna - - 2004
A series of pyridyl amides derived from isonicotinic acid, nicotinic acid, and benzoic acid have been synthesized. Only N-(4-pyridyl)isonicotinamide 1 is found to be an efficient hydrogelator with a minimum gelator concentration of 0.37 wt %. A wide range of concentrations (0.37-20 wt %) could be used to form hydrogels. ...
Laudon H - - 2004
In this study we have analyzed the hydrochemical effect of drought conditions during 311 hydrological episodes in nine headwater streams in central Ontario over the past 20 years. Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) was logarithmically correlated (p<0.05) to antecedent discharge in eight of the nine streams, with the largest decline in ...
Tamhankar Anand P - - 2004
Proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay of medical management in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Although they provide relief from most symptoms, reflux may persist. We hypothesize that omeprazole does not reduce the total amount of gastroesophageal reflux but simply alters its pH characteristics. Six asymptomatic volunteers had combined 24-hour impedance pH ...
Rodriguez-Stanley Sheila - - 2004
Chewed calcium carbonate (CaCO3) rapidly neutralizes esophageal acid and may prevent reflux, suggesting another mechanism of action independent of acid neutralization. Calcium is essential for muscle tone. Our aim was to determine if luminal calcium released from chewed antacids improved esophageal motor function in heartburn sufferers. Esophageal manometry and acid ...
Teles M - - 2004
Juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., were exposed during 2, 4, 8, and 24 h to 0.9 microM beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 131 nM 17 beta-estradiol (E(2)), 4.05 microM 4-nonylphenol (NP), as well as to BNF combined either to E(2) or NP (maintaining the previous concentrations). Liver cytochrome P450 content (P450), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase ...
Micheli V - - 2004
Aim of this study was to ascertain whether allopurinol, usually administered to hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficient patients, or metabolites abnormally increased in HPRT deficient erythrocytes (NAD, PPribP) could be directly responsible for the reported increased activities of nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) and NADsynthetase (NADs) in these patients. No direct effect ...
Schell Thomas G - - 2004
In this issue El-Serag et al. present a retrospective study which shows that patients with Barrett's esophagus and no dysplasia who were prescribed PPIs had a lesser rate of developing dysplasia than patients who were not prescribed PPIs. Acid suppression has been proposed both as a cause and a cure ...
Prabha Vijay - - 2004
In female genital tract spermatozoa remain active for several days, however, their activity is of much shorter duration if they remain in the seminal fluid outside the body. Majority of spermatozoa cease to move within first 24 hrs. This may be due to presence of bacteria or excretion of bacterial ...
Di Francesco Vincenzo - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Controversial findings about the relationships between obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux have been reported, as well as about the effects of weight loss and bariatric surgery on reflux. The aims of this study were to evaluate esophageal motility and gastro-esophageal acid circadian patterns in obese patients and to test the ...
Zentilin P - - 2004
Ambulatory pH monitoring is currently the best method for detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux. However, pH electrodes are able to measure only acid reflux, and therefore, non-acid reflux episodes, a potentially important cause of symptoms, are ignored by this technique. Multichannel intraluminal electrical impedance has recently been proposed as a novel ...
Sifrim Daniel - - 2004
In patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), oesophageal symptoms and mucosal damage traditionally are related to acid-reflux episodes with pH lower than 4. Oesophageal or extra-oesophageal symptoms of GORD may also be associated with less acidic reflux (pH 4-7). New methodologies have evolved to complement pH monitoring for characterisation of ...
Meyers C Daniel - - 2004
Nicotinic acid effectively treats each of the common lipid abnormalities found in the metabolic syndrome, and much progress has recently been made in understanding its mechanisms of action. Early concern that nicotinic acid can precipitate or worsen diabetes has been eased with recent trials, which demonstrated its safety and effectiveness ...
Chen Shu-Mei - - 2004
A novel chain molybdenum compound, [[Mo2O6(C6H5NO2)].H2O]n, which was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, consists of an infinite rail-like chain formed by molybdenum oxide units linked by zwitterionic nicotinic acid ligands. Each Mo atom is coordinated octahedrally by six O atoms and the MoO6 octahedra are linked to one another via edge-sharing ...
Green Bryan T - - 2004
Ambulatory esophageal 24-hr pH monitoring is used to diagnose GERD by determining the total acid contact time and/or symptom index (SI). The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between total acid contact times and SI in two groups: patients with very low vs. very high total acid ...
Sifrim D - - 2004
To date, most concepts on the frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes and the efficiency of the antireflux barrier have been based on inferences derived from measurement of oesophageal pH. The development of intraluminal impedance monitoring has highlighted the fact that pH monitoring does not detect all gastro-oesophageal reflux events when ...
Ikinci G - - 2004
Bioadhesive buccal tablet formulations for delivery of nicotine into the oral cavity were developed. Carbomer (Carbopol)974P NF) (CP) and alginic acid sodium salt (NaAlg) were used as bioadhesive polymers in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) at different ratios. Magnesium carbonate was incorporated into the formulations as a pH increasing agent. ...
Karpe Fredrik - - 2004
Non-esterified fatty acids in plasma originate from adipose tissue. Delivery of fatty acids to the liver provides the substrate for VLDL triglycerides. Insulin-sensitive organs, overburdened by high concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids, may develop resistance to insulin action. In addition, insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells may be impaired by long-standing ...
Simons Grant R - - 2004
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a radiation-absorbing shield in reducing physicians' occupational radiation exposure during pectoral device implantation. A sterile, disposable, lead-free radiation-absorbing surgical drape containing x-ray attenuation material was evaluated. Twenty procedures used the radiation absorbing drape, and 20 were performed without the ...
Lu Y - - 2004
Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) has been used to determine hesperetin, cinnamic acid and nicotinic acid in propolis. After systematically study the effect of buffer concentration and pH, micellar concentration, organic modifier, applied voltage and injection time, the analytical conditions were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the three analytes could ...
Srivastava R K - - 2004
Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as ...
Bernstein Elizabeth L - - 2004
Little is known about the acute regulation of adiponectin in humans. In animal studies, adiponectin increases the clearance of free fatty acids (FFA) from the circulation by increasing skeletal uptake and oxidation of lipid, thereby regulating the FFA concentration. However, it is unknown if FFA regulate adiponectin. The aim of ...
Hsu Oscar K OK Aesthetic and Plastic Surgery Institute, University of California, Irvine, - - 2004
This study was instituted to investigate in a rat model the effect of topical coadministration of the penetration enhancer oleic acid (10% by volume) and RIMSO-50 (medical grade dimethyl sulfoxide, 50% by volume) on rat skin flap survival. A rectangular abdominal skin flap (2.5 x 3 cm) was surgically elevated ...
Triadafilopoulos G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic radiofrequency energy delivery (Stretta) is effective for managing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in selected patients. One criticism, however, is a theory that a mechanism of action is partial desensitization of the esophageal body rather than a reduction in esophageal acid exposure. To resolve this question, this study sought ...
Bieganowski Pawel P Departments of Genetics and Biochemistry and the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Rubin 733-HB7937, Lebanon, NH 03756, - - 2004
NAD+ is essential for life in all organisms, both as a coenzyme for oxidoreductases and as a source of ADPribosyl groups used in various reactions, including those that retard aging in experimental systems. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were defined as the vitamin precursors of NAD+ in Elvehjem's classic discoveries of ...
Hobson Anthony R - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: As visceral afferents from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract converge at the level of the spinal cord, we hypothesized that sensitization of one gut organ would induce visceral hypersensitivity in another gut organ, remote to the sensitizing stimulus. METHODS: Protocol 1: Eight healthy male volunteers, age 30 +/- ...
van Strien Robert Theodoor - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin exposure has been shown to be associated with a decreased prevalence of atopic sensitization and symptoms. Yet endotoxin represents only a part of the indoor microbial exposure. Muramic acid, a constituent of peptidoglycan, is present in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in the environment and may therefore serve as ...
Horton D Kevin - - 2004
Hydrofluoric (HF) acid is 1 of the strongest and most corrosive acids known. Human exposure commonly occurs from occupational releases and can result in severe injuries and death. Data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were used to conduct a ...
Katoh Akira - - 2004
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a ubiquitous coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions. Recent animal and fungal studies show that it also plays important roles in transcriptional regulation, longevity, and age-associated diseases. NAD is synthesized de novo from aspartic acid in E. coli or from tryptophan in animals, by way of quinolinic ...
Kim Hye Lee - - 2004
The enzyme nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NaMN AT; EC 2.7.7.18) is essential for the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and is a potential target for antibiotics. It catalyzes the transfer of an adenyl group from ATP to nicotinic acid mononucleotide to form nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide. NaMN AT from Pseudomonas ...
Goedhart Joachim - - 2004
Phosphatidic (PtdOH) acid formation is recognized as an important step in numerous signaling pathways in both plants and mammals. To study the role of this lipid in signaling pathways, it is of major interest to be able to increase the amount of this lipid directly. Therefore, "caged" PtdOH was synthesized, ...
Eriksson Kåre - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dermal exposure to the resin acids abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid during collecting in sawmills and during sawing in carpentry workshops, respectively. METHODS: Sampling was performed by fastening patches at 12 different areas on a sampling overall, one patch ...
Willert Robert Paul - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders. One speculated mechanism is an activity-dependent increase in spinal cord neuronal excitability (central sensitization), which is dependent on activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Our aims were to determine whether the development and maintenance of human visceral ...
Pike Nicholas B - - 2004
Nicotinic acid has been used clinically for over 40 years in the treatment of dyslipidemia, producing a desirable normalization of a range of cardiovascular risk factors. The precise mechanism of action of nicotinic acid is unknown, although it is believed that activation of a Gi-type G protein-coupled receptor, resulting in ...
Vicente Yvone - - 2004
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study investigates esophageal motor function and esophageal clearance immediately after surgical induction of reflux in piglets and 8 weeks later after peptic esophagitis has developed. METHODS: Twenty-four sedated, nonintubated piglets were divided into three groups: sham (laparotomy only), reflux (distal esophageal myotomy), and reflux + esophagitis (8 weeks ...
Bråtveit Magne - - 2004
This study characterized workers' exposure to sulfuric acid in two cell houses of a zinc production plant. We also aimed at estimating previous exposure to sulfuric acid by simulating the process conditions from before 1975 to produce exposure data for an epidemiological study on cancer in this industry. Further, we ...
Bhalla Vikas - - 2004
Several investigators have observed that repeated acid infusions induce stronger symptoms (symptom hypersensitivity). The goal of our study was to determine whether symptom hypersensitivity is associated with esophageal contractile hypersensitivity. Subjects with chronic heartburn symptoms underwent simultaneous pressure and ultrasound imaging of esophagus. Normal saline and 0.1 N HCl were ...
Minamisawa Mayumi - - 2004
We studied the simultaneous quantitative analysis of biologically active substances, such as nicotinic acid, trigonelline, caffeine, qunolinic acid and tannic acid and pyrogallic acid, in several roasted coffees by an HPLC/diode-array system with a home-made sol-gel and ODS-2 columns. A simple method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of biologically active substances ...
Nagi B - - 2004
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radiological spectrum of sequelae of corrosive acid and alkali injury to the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract using barium contrast examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Barium contrast radiographic films of 155 patients with a history of corrosive ingestion, acid in 120 and alkali in 35 patients with grade ...
Fletcher J - - 2004
Oesophageal pH is conventionally recorded from a point 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. However, the mucosal changes of reflux oesophagitis and intestinal metaplasia tend to affect the segment of oesophagus distal to this and close to the squamocolumnar junction. This study set out to investigate oesophageal acid exposure ...
Svenson Johan - - 2004
In the present study, the interactions of components in a (-)-nicotine molecular imprinting polymerization mixture have been studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The dissociation constants for complexation of template by a functional monomer analogue, acetic acid, have been determined. Nicotine was shown to self-associate at concentrations comparable to those used ...
Playford Ray J - - 2004
Barrett's esophagus is a metaplastic change related to esophageal reflux of acidic gastric contents. Its presence is associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinoma. The data behind our current clinical strategies are, however, based on limited evidence. This document considers the sort of information that should be discussed with patients ...
Fukuwatari Tsutomu - - 2004
We investigated a useful chemical index for an excessive nicotinamide intake and how this excessive nicotinamide intake affects the tryptophan-nicotinamide metabolism in rats. Weaning rats were fed on a tryptophan-limited and nicotinic acid-free diet containing no, 0.003%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.3% nicotinamide for 21 days. Urine samples were collected on ...
Dekel Roy - - 2004
Neurotensin (NT) decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and impedes gastric emptying, thus exacerbating gastroesophageal reflux. The aim was to determine the content of esophageal tissue NT in patients with erosive esophagitis compared to those with normal endoscopy with or without abnormal acid exposure. Consecutive patients (N = 21) with gastroesophageal ...
Bartzatt Ronald L - - 2004
Multivariate methods and molecular properties are utilized to show similarity of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) to seven drugs that penetrate the central nervous system. Multivariate methods applied include cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, correspondence analysis, self organizing tree algorithm (SOTA) analysis, factor analysis, and principal component analysis. Numerical values of properties ...
Tobey N A - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: It has recently been established that patients with nonerosive reflux disease have on biopsy within esophageal epithelium a lesion known as dilated intercellular spaces (DIS). METHODS: To further explore the nature and implications of this lesion, in vitro models of nonerosive acid and acid-pepsin damage were created in Ussing ...
Tutuian Radu - - 2004
Nocturnal acid breakthrough is defined as the presence of intragastric pH < 4 during the overnight period for at least 60 continuous minutes in patients taking a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI). Nocturnal acid breakthrough occurs in more than 70% of Helicobacter pylori-negative patients on PPI therapy and has clinical consequences in ...
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