Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1163
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Otte N - - 2005
Nicotinamide, the water-soluble amide of nicotinic acid, is a component of the two most important coenzymes - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Thus nicotinamide is involved in numerous oxidation-reduction reactions in mammalian biological systems. Nicotinamide essentially acts as an antioxidant. Most effects are exerted via poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose ...
Ozolincius Remigijus - - 2005
This study investigates changes in tree condition and environmental factors in Lithuania during the active growing season in 1991-2001. The average crown defoliation and the proportion of healthy trees of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula sp., Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus incana, Alnus glutinosa, Populus tremula, and Quercus robur, meteorological (average temperature, ...
Scheffer R C H - - 2005
This study investigated the relationship between the oesophageal acid exposure time and the underlying manometric motor events in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). In 31 patients, 3-hour oesophageal motility and pH were measured after a test meal. Ten patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory manometry and pH recording. In the 3-hour ...
Takikawa Osamu - - 2005
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.42) is a heme-containing dioxygenase which catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the major pathway of L-tryptophan catabolism in mammals. Much attention has recently been focused on the dioxygenase because this metabolic pathway is involved not only in a variety of physiological functions but also in ...
Arias Esperanza - - 2005
Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are three drugs with acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting activity that are currently being used to treat patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the neuroprotective effects of these drugs, in comparison with nicotine, on cell death caused by beta-amyloid (Abeta) and okadaic acid, two models that are ...
King Alistair L - - 2005
The acid perfusion test (APT) is a test of esophageal acid sensitivity. In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the APT has largely been superseded by indexes derived from 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring: symptom index (SI), symptom sensitivity index (SSI), and symptom association probability (SAP). To evaluate the role of APT in ...
Tokashiki Ryoji - - 2005
OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the relationship between esophagoscopic findings and total acid reflux time in the upper esophagus in the patients of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD), and to evaluate whether pH<5 holding time is appropriate for diagnosing LPRD. METHOD:: Esophagoscopy and 24-h pH monitoring in the upper esophagus were performed in ...
White Robert J - - 2005
This study examined the regional heterogeneity and site-specific changes in histology and glycoconjugate content following the induction of esophagitis and after recovery in an established animal model. Esophageal samples were excised from five sites in anesthetized opossums 24 hr after 3 consecutive days of 45-min perfusion with saline or 100 ...
Erbil Yesim - - 2005
The exact pathophysiologic mechanisms of esophageal cell damage and carcinogenesis by gastroesophageal reflux are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage to the esophageal epithelium that occurs after acid reflex and mixed acid and bile reflux by assessing histopathology, reactive oxygen species, and DNA ...
Kanne David B - - 2005
Four neonicotinoid nitroguanidine insecticides (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and dinotefuran) acting as nicotinic agonists account for 10-15% of worldwide insecticide sales. General methods are needed for synthesis of their guanidine and aminoguanidine metabolites so they may be used as analytical standards and for evaluation of nicotinic receptor potency. The guanidines are ...
Larssen Thorjørn - - 2006
As acid deposition has declined during the past 15-20 years in western Norway, afforestation and episodic seasalt deposition have become factors of increasing importance in explaining the mobilization of toxic aluminum (Aln+) to rivers and lakes. We conducted a paired catchment at four sites in western Norway across a gradient ...
Bredenoord A J - - 2006
It is not known why some reflux episodes evoke symptoms and others do not. We investigated the determinants of perception of gastro-oesophageal reflux. In 32 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux, 24 hour ambulatory pH and impedance monitoring was performed after cessation of acid suppressive therapy. In the 20 ...
Fujino K - - 2006
Activation of the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR-1) results in release of proinflammatory peptides which initiate an inflammatory cascade known as neurogenic inflammation. We investigated its role in an acute model of surgically induced oesophagitis. Oesophagitis was induced by pyloric ligation in wild-type and VR-1 deficient mice. A subset of ...
McDuffie Helen H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We sought to test a hypothetical explanation of contradictory results in studies of phenoxyherbicides and NHL, that the exposure of rubber gloves recommended for use by farmers when mixing or applying pesticides simultaneously to 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), and ultraviolet rays increased their permeability to 2,4-D. METHODS: We ...
Mousa Hayat - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is controversy regarding the association between gastroesophageal reflux and apnea. The controversy is further confused by the variety of ways reflux is detected, the varying methods of data analysis and the heterogeneity of subjects studied. OBJECTIVES: To determine if apnea is associated with reflux and to determine whether ...
Bove Mogens - - 2005
The histological changes that occur in the squamous epithelium in response to acute acid challenge was examined in healthy controls and proton pump inhibitor-treated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and related to the state of untreated erosive GERD in a saline-controlled, randomized perfusion study. In the basal state a stepwise ...
Carlson L A - - 2005
Nicotinic acid has, like the Roman God Janus, two faces. One is the vitamin. The other is the broad-spectrum lipid drug. The Canadian pathologist Rudolf Altschul discovered 50 years ago that nicotinic acid in gram doses lowered plasma levels of cholesterol. From the point of view of treatment of the ...
Gupta Ashish - - 2005
The utility of (1)H NMR spectroscopy is suggested and demonstrated for the diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in urinary tract infection (UTI). The specific property of P. aeruginosa of metabolizing nicotinic acid to 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6-OHNA) is exploited. The quantity of 6-OHNA produced correlates well with the viable bacterial count. Other ...
Tack J - - 2005
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is defined as the presence of symptoms or lesions that can be attributed to the reflux of gastric contents into the oesophagus. Aspiration and prolonged monitoring studies in humans have shown that reflux of gastric contents is comprised of both acid and non-acid components, in healthy as ...
Drewes Asbjørn-Mohr - - 2005
AIM: Sensitization most likely plays an important role in chronic pain disorders, and such sensitization can be mimicked by experimental acid perfusion of the esophagus. The current study systematically investigated the sensory and motor responses of the esophagus to controlled mechanical stimuli before and after sensitization. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects ...
Ulualp Seckin O - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To identify variables contributing to discrepant gastroesophagopharyngeal acid reflux (GEPR) findings and to critically assess the prevalence of GEPR in healthy individuals and patients with reflux laryngitis (RL). STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative systematic review. METHODS: Pharyngeal pH monitoring studies of healthy individuals and patients with RL were identified through a ...
Grose Julianne H - - 2005
Salmonella enterica can obtain pyridine from exogenous nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) by three routes. In route 1, nicotinamide is removed from NMN in the periplasm and enters the cell as the free base. In route 2, described here, phosphate is removed from NMN in the periplasm by acid phosphatase (AphA), and ...
Zentilin P - - 2005
Intraluminal electrical impedance is a novel technique, which is able for the first time to provide a qualitative assessment of refluxed material moving from the stomach to the oesophagus. In other words, the presence of air can be differentiated from that of liquid, because the former is characterised by high ...
Taggart Andrew K P - - 2005
As a treatment for dyslipidemia, oral doses of 1-3 grams of nicotinic acid per day lower serum triglycerides, raise high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reduce mortality from coronary heart disease (Tavintharan, S., and Kashyap, M. L. (2001) Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 3, 74-82). These benefits likely result from the ability of ...
Porter Richard J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the ratio of tryptophan (TRP) and tyrosine (TYR) to other large neutral amino acids may predict response to antidepressant drugs with predominantly serotonergic compared with predominantly noradrenergic activity and that this may be clinically useful. METHOD: 147 subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of major ...
Bredenoord A J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms underlying gastro-oesophageal reflux. AIM: To investigate whether ...
Mainie I - - 2005
The symptoms of extra-oesophageal gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) (such as chronic cough and hoarseness) are traditionally more difficult to treat than typical GORD symptoms (heartburn and regurgitation). Patients with extra-oesophageal manifestations may require longer and higher doses of acid suppressive therapy. In patients not responding to acid suppressive therapy the ...
Létourneau Isabelle J - - 2005
The human ATP-binding cassette proteins MRP1 (ABCC1), MRP2 (ABCC2) and MRP3 (ABCC3) are active transporters of antineoplastic drugs as well as conjugated metabolites and other organic anions. In addition to being substrates, many glucuronide, glutathione and sulfate conjugates can also inhibit the transport activities of these MRP-related proteins, sometimes in ...
Gopal Elangovan - - 2005
SMCT (sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter; slc5a8) is a Na+-coupled transporter for lactate, pyruvate and short-chain fatty acids. Similar to these already known substrates of SMCT, the water-soluble B-complex vitamin nicotinic acid also exists as a monocarboxylate anion (nicotinate) under physiological conditions. Therefore we evaluated the ability of SMCT to mediate the ...
Hampson F C - - 2005
Alginate/antacid anti-reflux preparations are designed to provide symptom relief by forming a physical barrier on top of the stomach contents in the form of a neutral floating gel or raft. This study tested the in vitro effectiveness of a range of liquid products in forming rafts that were cohesive, buoyant, ...
des Varannes S Bruley - - 2005
Oesophageal pH monitoring is a useful test for the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) but has some limitations related to the nasopharyngeal electrode. Recently, a telemetric catheter free system (CFS) (Bravo; Medtronic) was developed. The aim of this study was to determine the concordance of data between the conventional ...
Zheng Xin-Qiang - - 2005
Changes in trigonelline content and in biosynthetic activity were determined in the cotyledons and embryonic axes of etiolated mungbean (Phaseolus aureus) seedlings during germination. Accumulation of trigonelline (c. 240 nmol per pair of cotyledons) was observed in the cotyledons of dry seeds; trigonelline content decreased 2 d after imbibition. Trigonelline ...
Bono Roberto - - 2005
Benzene (B) is a typical micro-pollutant present in air, especially urban air. In this study a possible correlation between personal benzene exposure and S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) as a biomarker of internal dose was evaluated in a cohort of traffic policemen. The results confirm that S-PMA is significantly correlated to benzene ...
Young William George - - 2005
Diet analysis and advice for patients with tooth wear is potentially the most logical intervention to arrest attrition, erosion and abrasion. It is saliva that protects the teeth against corrosion by the acids which soften enamel and make it susceptible to wear. Thus the lifestyles and diet of patients at ...
DeVault Kenneth R - - 2005
Tube-based ambulatory pH testing has rapidly evolved in the past 3 decades to become the standard by which other diagnostic approaches to gastroesophageal reflux disease are judged. Acid exposure 5 cm above the manometrically determined lower esophageal sphincter is the standard for documentation of pathologic acid exposure of the distal ...
Bove Mogens - - 2005
To evaluate the effect of esophageal acid exposure on epithelial function, transmucosal potential, histopathological markers of acute tissue damage, and local nitric oxide production were examined in healthy volunteers treated with proton pump inhibitors (group I), patients with treated reflux disease (group II), and patients with untreated erosive reflux disease ...
Sifrim D - - 2005
Acid gastro-oesophageal reflux is one of the most important causes of chronic cough. The response to acid suppression in these patients is not as good as in patients with heartburn but improvement with antireflux surgery has been reported, suggesting the involvement of a non-acidic gastric component in the refluxate. Less ...
Wenzel G - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Although the new endoscopic techniques for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) lead to marked clinical benefit, the underlying mechanism of this is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, the effect of endoscopic gastroplication was investigated in six patients with GERD, who were ...
Guillem Philippe G - - 2005
Barrett esophagus is defined as a specialized intestinal replacing the squamous epithelium of the esophageal mucosa in response to gastroesophageal reflux. Barrett metaplasia is a healing process that develops to protect the esophagus from further damage. Although mechanisms by which Barrett metaplasia evolves toward dysplasia and adenocarcinoma have been extensively ...
Fitzgerald R C - - 2005
Acid, a principal component of gastro-oesophageal refluxate, may contribute to the development and malignant progression of Barrett's oesophagus. Oesophageal pH monitoring studies have demonstrated that patients with Barrett's oesophagus have severe and chronic acid reflux. However, there is overlap between the amount of acid exposure in patients with oesophagitis compared ...
Barlow William J - - 2005
Heartburn is a symptom complex that has traditionally been accepted as an acid-mediated event and a reliable indicator of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Recently, however, these concepts have been questioned because patients with endoscopy-negative "heartburn" have lower response rates to acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors than do patients with endoscopy-positive ...
Orlando Roy C - - 2005
An understanding of the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus requires knowledge of the noxious elements in gastric juice and the three major esophageal defenses designed to protect against them. When the esophageal epithelium cannot prevent gastric acid from acidifying the intercellular spaces, the foundation is set for the ...
Bove M - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate the source and role of acid-induced intraluminal nitric oxide (NO) production in the oesophagus by studying how the exposure of the oesophagus to acid affects NO release, via the NO-producing enzyme NO synthase and its relation to changes in epithelial barrier integrity. METHODS: Ferrets were anaesthetized and ...
Burton Larry K LK - - 2005
GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions in the general US population. ENT become more commonly recognized or suspected by physicians, although the direct association between symptoms and acid reflux has been difficult to establish. Most patients with suspected supraesophageal GERD do not have the typical symptoms of ...
Bartzatt Ronald - - 2005
Multivariate methods are utilized to compare nicotinic acid and dihydropyridine as a drug carrier. Nicotinic acid and dihydropyridine form ester groups on 10 beta-lactam antibiotics with an oxymethyl group forming a linkage between the antibiotic and the drug carrier (nicotinic acid or dihydropyridine). Calculated molecular properties are analyzed by self-organizing ...
McCormack Paul L - - 2005
Prolonged-release (PR) nicotinic acid (niacin) [Niaspan] is an oral, once-daily formulation of the lipid-modifying drug designed to produce less vasodilatory flushing than crystalline immediate-release (IR) nicotinic acid and less hepatotoxicity than previous sustained-release formulations of nicotinic acid.PR nicotinic acid appears to retain the same level of efficacy as crystalline IR ...
Zentilin P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Alginate-based preparations act as mechanical antireflux barrier, which can reduce both acid and non-acid reflux events and limit the proximal migration of oesophageal refluxate. AIM: To evaluate all the above features with a novel technique, multichannel electrical impedance and pH-metry. METHODS: Ten reflux patients underwent stationary impedancemetry and pH-metry ...
Celik Münevver - - 2005
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to determine whether laryngopharyngeal reflux was associated with an electrophysiological abnormality of the main part of the upper esophageal sphincter, namely, the cricopharyngeal muscle, which could be related to laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 20 patients with symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux. METHODS: ...
Allegri Graziella - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The activity of nicotinic acid in hypercholesterolemia has been poorly understood. In man, nicotinic acid derives for the most part from tryptophan along the tryptophan-nicotinic acid pathway, also called the kynurenine pathway, kynurenine being the key metabolite in this process. In the present paper, we investigated if, in animals ...
Kinoshita Y - - 2004
Management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is aimed at reducing oesophageal acid exposure to achieve symptom relief. Therapy has traditionally included advice to the patient on diet and lifestyle management. Recent evidence suggests, however, that some specific dietary modifications may be applicable to the Japanese patient. For example, ingestion of ...
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